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1.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952660

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections claim more than a million lives each year, and better treatments or vaccines are required. A crucial pathogenicity factor is translocation from phagolysosomes to the cytosol upon phagocytosis by macrophages. Translocation from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is an ESX-1-dependent process, as previously shown in vitro Here, we show that in vivo, mycobacteria also translocate to the cytosol but mainly when host immunity is compromised. We observed only low numbers of cytosolic bacilli in mice, armadillos, zebrafish, and patient material infected with M. tuberculosis, M. marinum, or M. leprae In contrast, when innate or adaptive immunity was compromised, as in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1)-deficient mice, significant numbers of cytosolic M. tuberculosis bacilli were detected in the lungs of infected mice. Taken together, in vivo, translocation to the cytosol of M. tuberculosis is controlled by adaptive immune responses as well as IL-1R1-mediated signals.IMPORTANCE For decades, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been one of the deadliest pathogens known. Despite infecting approximately one-third of the human population, no effective treatment or vaccine is available. A crucial pathogenicity factor is subcellular localization, as M. tuberculosis can translocate from phagolysosome to the cytosol in macrophages. The situation in vivo is more complicated. In this study, we establish that high-level cytosolic escape of mycobacteria can indeed occur in vivo but mainly when host resistance is compromised. The IL-1 pathway is crucial for the control of the number of cytosolic mycobacteria. The establishment that immune signals result in the clearance of cells containing cytosolic mycobacteria connects two important fields, cell biology and immunology, which is vital for the understanding of the pathology of M. tuberculosis.

2.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954796

ABSTRACT

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Massive internal migration from rural to urban areas poses new challenges for leprosy control in Shanghai, China. This retrospective epidemiological study examined new cases of leprosy diagnosed in Shanghai from 2000 to 2019, with emphasis on internal migration cases. There were 145 cases of leprosy in the study period; the majority of cases (89.0%) were internal migrants. Migrant cases had a mean of 25.4 months lag time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, which was significantly longer than that of resident cases (mean 10.8 months, p < 0.001). Greater lag time from the first visit to diagnosis was observed in migrant cases (mean 23.2 months) compared with resident cases (mean 9.4 months, p < 0.001). A large majority of cases (91.0%) had been misdiagnosed. Internal migrant cases were responsible for most incidences of leprosy in Shanghai. They often did not receive timely diagnosis and treatment, which may have an adverse impact on the prevention of epidemic leprosy.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009382, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939710

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has raised concerns about the increasing number of Hansen disease (HD) relapses worldwide, especially in Brazil, India, and Indonesia that report the highest number of recurrent cases. Relapses are an indicator of MDT effectiveness and can reflect Mycobacterium leprae persistence or re-infection. Relapse is also a potential marker for the development or progression of disability. In this research, we studied a large cohort of persons affected by HD treated with full fixed-dose multibacillary (MB) multidrug therapy (MDT) followed for up to 20 years and observed that relapses are a rare event. We estimated the incidence density of relapse in a cohort of patients classified to receive MB regime (bacillary index (BI) > 0), diagnosed between September 1997 and June 2017, and treated with twelve-dose MB-MDT at a HD reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained the data from the data management system of the clinic routine service. We linked the selected cases to the dataset of relapses of the national HD data to confirm possible relapse cases diagnosed elsewhere. We diagnosed ten cases of relapse in a cohort of 713 patients followed-up for a mean of 12.1 years. This resulted in an incidence rate of 1.16 relapse cases per 1000 person-year (95% CI = 0.5915-2.076). The accumulated risk was 0.025 in 20 years. The very low risk observed in this cohort of twelve-dose-treated MB patients reinforces the success of the current MDT scheme.

6.
J Dent Educ ; 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876429

ABSTRACT

Major pandemics have tremendous effects on society. They precipitated the early decline of the Western Roman Empire and helped spread Christianity. There are countless such examples of infectious diseases altering the course of history. The impact of epidemics on education however is less well documented. This present historical account of the past 800 years looks specifically at how some aspects of education were shaped from the early medieval epidemics such as leprosy and the Black Plague to the Spanish Flu and COVID-19. Leprosy changed religious education, and the Black Plague may have contributed to the rise of medical schools, hospitals, public health education, and led to the implementation of lazarettos and the quarantine. The smallpox epidemic helped usher in public health education for immunization, while the 1918 Spanish Flu precipitated the rise of education by correspondence, and recently COVID-19 has catapulted remote digital learning to the forefront of higher education.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 145-152, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and it remains a significant health problem in several parts of the world. Early and accurate diagnosis of this disease is therefore essential. Previously published loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocols for detecting mycobacterial species used conventional primers targeting the 16S rRNA, gyrB and insertion sequence genes. METHODS: In this study, we conducted a LAMP assay for leprosy and compared it with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and conventional PCR assays to determine the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of each technique. We chose conserved sequence RLEP as a suitable molecular target for assays. RESULTS: The LAMP assay provided rapid and accurate results, confirming leprosy in 91/110 clinical skin tissue samples from leprosy patients and amplifying the target pathogen in <60 min at 65 °C. The assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR and more straightforward and faster than the q-PCR assay. CONCLUSIONS: The LAMP assay has the potential for developing quicker, more accessible visual methods for the detection of M. leprae, which will enable early diagnosis and treatment and prevent further infection in endemic areas.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114054, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831465

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a medicinal herb of the Asian countries used in many traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of diarrhea, flu, leprosy, leptospirosis, malaria, rabies, upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, syphilis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to provide the comprehensive, accurate and authentic information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of various extracts/fractions as well as phytocostituents of A. paniculata. In addition, this review also aims to provide advance and sensitive analytical methods along with chemical markers used in the standardization of herbal products for quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All relevant publications were considered within the years 1983-2020. The publications were searched from Google Scholar, PubChem, Chemspider, PubMed, Elsevier, Wiley, Web of Science, China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases and ResearchGate using a combination of various relevant keywords. Besides, relevant published books and chapters were also considered those providing an overview of extant secondary literature related to traditional knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this review, 344 compounds, including, terpenoid lactones, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes and volatile compounds were summarized out of which more than half of the compounds have no reported pharmacological activities yet. Terpenoid lactones and flavonoids are the major bioactive classes of compounds of A. paniculata which are responsible for pharmacological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant activities, respectively. Biosynthetic pathways and active sites for target proteins of both terpenoid lactones and flavonoids were considered. Analgesic, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifertility, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiviral, antiretroviral, antivenom, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activities have been also reported. Andrographolide is a major characteristic active principle and responsible for most of the pharmacological activities. Therefore, andrographolide has been selected as a marker for the standardization of raw and marketed herbal products by TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, GC-MS, HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS methods for QC/QA. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusive evidence showed that the pharmacological activities reported in crude extracts and chemical markers are supporting and provides confidence in the traditional use of A. paniculata as a herbal medicine. The andrographolide could be used as a chemical marker for the QC/QA of raw and A. paniculata derived herbal products. Lactone ring in terpenoid lactone is an active site for targeted proteins. More efforts should be focused on the identification of the chemical markers from A. paniculata to provide a practical basis for QC/QA. Several aspects such as the mechanism of therapeutic potential, molecular docking technology and multi-target network pharmacology are very important for drug discovery and needed more investigation and should be considered. This compilation may be helpful in further study and QC/QA.

10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(3): 287-292, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891689

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict all-cause mortality using established per cent-predicted (%PRED) equations for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) estimated by a submaximal walk test in outpatients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Male patients (N = 1491) aged 62 ± 10 years at baseline underwent a moderate and perceptually regulated (11-13 on the 6-20 Borg scale) 1-km treadmill-walking test to estimate VO2peak. %PRED was derived from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) and the Wasserman/Hansen equations. RESULTS: There were 215 deaths during a median 9.4-year follow-up. The FRIEND prediction equation provided better prognostic information with receiver operating curve analysis showing significantly different areas under the curve (0.72 and 0.69 for the FRIEND and the Wasserman/Hansen equations respectively, p = 0.001). Overall mortality rate was higher across decreasing tertiles of %PRED using FRIEND, with 26%, 11% and 5% for the least fit, intermediate and high fit tertiles, respectively (p for trend < 0.0001). Compared with the least fit tertile, the adjusted hazard ratios for the second and third tertiles were 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.87, p = 0.01) and 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.25-0.81, p = 0.008), respectively. Each 1% increase in %PRED conferred a 3% improvement in survival (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: Low %PRED VO2peak in cardiac outpatients determined by the FRIEND equation was associated with a high mortality rate independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical history. The FRIEND equation may provide a suitable normal standard when applied to clinically stable outpatients with cardiovascular disease.

11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Narrowband ultraviolet B and psoralen and ultraviolet A are effective treatment options, but studies of their treatment efficacy and disease relapse remain limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed (1) to determine the efficacy of narrowband ultraviolet B and psoralen and ultraviolet A as a treatment for early-stage mycosis fungoides and explore the predictive factors for complete remission and (2) to determine the relapse rate and analyze their predictive factors, including the utility of maintenance therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study consisting of 61 patients with early-stage mycosis fungoides (IA - IB) treated with narrowband ultraviolet B or psoralen and ultraviolet A as the first-line therapy from January 2002 to December 2018 at the Division of Dermatology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed for the main outcomes. RESULTS: A complete remission was achieved by 57 (93.5%) patients. The median time to remission was 7.80 ± 0.27 months. Types of phototherapy (narrowband ultraviolet B or psoralen and ultraviolet A), age and gender did not associate with time to remission, while the presence of poikiloderma and higher disease stage led to a longer time to remission. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 50.8%. The median time to relapse was 24.78 ± 5.48 months. In patients receiving phototherapy during the maintenance period, a treatment duration longer than six months was associated with a significantly longer relapse-free interval. CONCLUSION: Narrow-band-ultraviolet B and psoralen and ultraviolet A are effective treatment options for early-stage mycosis fungoides. Maintenance treatment by phototherapy for at least six months seems to prolong remission.

12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of psoriasis with good efficacy and safety. Recently, weekly azathioprine pulse has been shown to be effective in this disease. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of weekly pulse doses of azathioprine and methotrexate for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited. After detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation, patients were randomized to 2 groups to receive either weekly 300 mg azathioprine (n = 40) or 15 mg methotrexate every week (n = 40) for 20 weeks, following which the response to treatment and adverse effects were assessed. The patients were then followed up every 4 weeks for 3 months to determine any relapse. RESULTS: Overall, 48 (60%) patients achieved PASI 75, while 36 (45%) and 59 (73.8%) patients achieved PASI 100 and 50, respectively. On intention to treat analysis, PASI ≥ 75 was achieved in 47.5% (19/40) patients in group 1 compared to 85% (34/40) patients in group 2 (p < 0.001). However, on per protocol analysis, PASI ≥ 75 was achieved in 86% (19/22) patients in group 1 and 92% (34/37) patients in group 2 (p = 0.497). Minor clinical and biochemical adverse effects were noted in both the groups, which were comparable. One (7.7%) patient in group 1 and 4 (17.4%) in group 2 relapsed during follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Limitation of study include small sample size and short follow-up. CONCLUSION: Weekly azathioprine pulse appears to be beneficial in the management of chronic plaque psoriasis. However, it is less effective than weekly methotrexate. It can thus be of use as a therapeutic option in patients with contraindication to methotrexate or other similar agents in this disease.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009332, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of several communicable and non-communicable diseases prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. The co-endemicity of these diseases, the similarity of their clinical signs, and the need to maximize limited financial and human resources suggest the importance of adoptingan integratedapproach to their prevention and treatment. AIMS: This study describes the development of a comprehensive package of physical, mental health and psychosocial care for people with lower-limb lymphoedema caused bypodoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF)or leprosy as part of the EnDPoINT program in Ethiopia. METHOD: The care package was developed using a mixed-methods approach, consisting of a literature review, situational analysis, Theory of Change (ToC) workshops, qualitative research, and additional workshops to fine-tune the draft care package. The care package was developed between March 2018 and January 2020 in Addis Ababa and the implementation research site, Awi zone in the North-West of Ethiopia. RESULTS: The holistic care package includes components implemented at three levels of the health care system:health organization, facility, and community. Sections of the care package are directed at strengthening capacity building, program management, community engagement, awareness-raising, stigma-reduction, morbidity management, disability prevention, follow-up visits, referral linkage, community-based rehabilitation, and monitoring and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The study developed a holistic integrated care package for lower limb disorder and co-morbid mental health problems caused by podoconiosis, LF or leprosy. The approach has the potential to significantly reduce lower limb disorder-associated morbidity, disability, and psychosocial problems. It also standardizes a scalable approach appropriate for the Ethiopian setting and, most likely, other countries where these NTDs are present.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 60(7): 4883-4890, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711893

ABSTRACT

One-dimensional materials have been intensively studied because of their diverse properties, which are revealed when exfoliated from their bulk precursor. Liquid exfoliation is not only possibly the most suitable method for large-scale applications but also affords an opportunity to develop new deposition techniques. Fibrous phosphorus is a relatively new, one-dimensional material with high carrier mobility and a fast response velocity for future application in nanodevices. Because controllable liquid exfoliation processing of fibrous phosphorus (FP) remains challenging, we considered two factors: the exfoliated result and the removable solvents. We proposed a method for determining suitable solvents for efficient exfoliation and controllable size of fibrous phosphorus using Hansen solubility parameters. By controlling the water/acetone mixture ratios, the exfoliation effect could be controlled. Our work showed that 40% of the FP nanofibers were less than 10 nm in thickness and 70% of them were less than 20 nm. Furthermore, fibrous phosphorus produced a red fluorescence in bioimaging.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 290, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be an important cause of physical disability in endemic countries such as Brazil. Knowledge of determinants of these events may lead to better control measures and targeted interventions to mitigate its impact on affected individuals. This study investigated such factors among the most vulnerable portion of the Brazilian population. METHODS: A large cohort was built from secondary data originated from a national registry of applicants to social benefit programs, covering the period 2001-2015, including over 114 million individuals. Data were linked to the leprosy notification system utilizing data from 2007 until 2014. Descriptive and bivariate analyses lead to a multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic regression model with cluster-robust standard errors. Associations were reported as Odds Ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among the original cohort members 21,565 new leprosy cases were identified between 2007 and 2014. Most of the cases (63.1%) had grade zero disability. Grades 1 and 2 represented 21 and 6%, respectively. Factors associated with increasing odds of grades 1 and 2 disability were age over 15 years old (ORs 2.39 and 1.95, respectively), less schooling (with a clear dose response effect) and being a multibacillary patient (ORs 3.5 and 8.22). Protective factors for both grades were being female (ORs 0.81 and 0.61) and living in a high incidence municipality (ORs 0.85 and 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the developing of physical disabilities remains a public health problem which increases the burden of leprosy, mainly for those with severe clinical features and worse socioeconomic conditions. Early diagnosis is paramount to decrease the incidence of leprosy-related disability and our study points to the need for strengthening control actions in non-endemic areas in Brazil, where cases may be missed when presented at early stages in disease. Both actions are needed, to benefit patients and to achieve the WHO goal in reducing physical disabilities among new cases of leprosy.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Leprosy/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Incidence , Leprosy/epidemiology , Leprosy/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Young Adult
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-03-01.
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53312

ABSTRACT

In 2016, PAHO's Directing Council, through Resolution CD55.R9, approved the “Plan of Action for Elimination of Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) and Post-Elimination Actions, 2016-2022.” This Resolution urges Member States to implement a set of interventions to reduce the burden of disease by NID in the Americas by 2022, including “…support promotion of treatment, rehabilitation, and related support services through an approach focused on integrated morbidity management and disability prevention for individuals and families afflicted by those neglected infectious diseases that cause disability and generate stigma.” NIDs can have devastating chronic sequelae for patients, such as disability, visible change or loss in body structure, loss of tissue, and impairment of proper tissue and organ function, among others. All of these can in turn lead to unjustified discrimination, stigmatization, mental health problems, and partial or total incapacity to work, perpetuating the vicious cycle of neglected diseases as both a consequence and a cause of poverty. Patients with chronic conditions caused by NIDs require proper health care in order to prevent further damage and improve their living and social conditions. This should be provided at the primary health care level, as patients suffering from NIDs are often unable to travel to or afford to pay for specialized care services. Care for patients suffering from chronic morbidity caused by NID should be integrated into care for other chronic conditions caused by non-communicable diseases. This manual provides a framework for morbidity management and disability prevention of patients affected by NIDs and gives specific guidance for the proper care of patients suffering from chronic conditions caused by lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and Chagas disease. It is intended to be used mainly by health care workers at the primary health care level, but health workers at more complex and specialized levels may also find it useful.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Leprosy , Lymphatic Diseases , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Trachoma , Neglected Diseases , Disease Transmission, Infectious
17.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200532, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to understand how the therapeutic itineraries of people affected by leprosy are processed. METHODS: this is a descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in April 2018 in Barão de Grajaú in Maranhão, with interviews in the form of narratives of seven patients who had a late leprosy diagnosis. RESULTS: the search for diagnosis is a major difficulty in accessing health services, resulting in a late diagnosis and, consequently, with the presence of visible deformities. It was noticed that the health units do not have a flow, nor protocols for comprehensive treatment, and these people are referred to a referral unit in another state to perform sputum smear microscopy. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: leprosy control actions need reformulations that seek the relationship between operational activities, epidemiological indicators and risk factors, in accordance with the real needs of each region, thus highlighting the gaps evidenced in the therapeutic itineraries.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009279, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program explored the feasibility and impact of contact tracing and the provision of single dose rifampicin (SDR) to eligible contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. As the impact of the programme is difficult to establish in the short term, we apply mathematical modelling to predict its long-term impact on the leprosy incidence. METHODOLOGY: The individual-based model SIMCOLEP was calibrated and validated to the historic leprosy incidence data in the study areas. For each area, we assessed two scenarios: 1) continuation of existing routine activities as in 2014; and 2) routine activities combined with LPEP starting in 2015. The number of contacts per index patient screened varied from 1 to 36 between areas. Projections were made until 2040. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all areas, the LPEP program increased the number of detected cases in the first year(s) of the programme as compared to the routine programme, followed by a faster reduction afterwards with increasing benefit over time. LPEP could accelerate the reduction of the leprosy incidence by up to six years as compared to the routine programme. The impact of LPEP varied by area due to differences in the number of contacts per index patient included and differences in leprosy epidemiology and routine control programme. CONCLUSIONS: The LPEP program contributes significantly to the reduction of the leprosy incidence and could potentially accelerate the interruption of transmission. It would be advisable to include contact tracing/screening and SDR in routine leprosy programmes.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.

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