Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.040
Filtrar
Mais filtros


Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009209, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which may lead to physical disability, stigma, and discrimination. The chronicity of the disease and disabilities are the prime contributors to the disease burden of leprosy. The current figures of the disease burden in the 2017 global burden of disease study, however, are considered to be under-estimated. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literature and perform individual patient data meta-analysis to estimate new disability weights for leprosy, using Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The search strategy included all major databases with no restriction on language, setting, study design, or year of publication. Studies on human populations that have been affected by leprosy and recorded the HRQOL with the Short form tool, were included. A consortium was formed with authors who could share the anonymous individual-level data of their study. Mean disability weight estimates, sorted by the grade of leprosy disability as defined by WHO, were estimated for individual participant data and pooled using multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. Eight out of 14 studies from the review were included in the meta-analysis due to the availability of individual-level data (667 individuals). The overall estimated disability weight for grade 2 disability was 0.26 (95%CI: 0.18-0.34). For grade 1 disability the estimated weight was 0.19 (95%CI: 0.13-0.26) and for grade 0 disability it was 0.13 (95%CI: 0.06-0.19). The revised disability weight for grade 2 leprosy disability is four times higher than the published GBD 2017 weights for leprosy and the grade 1 disability weight is nearly twenty times higher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The global burden of leprosy is grossly underestimated. Revision of the current disability weights and inclusion of disability caused in individuals with grade 0 leprosy disability will contribute towards a more precise estimation of the global burden of leprosy.

2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-03-01.
em Inglês | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-53312

RESUMO

In 2016, PAHO's Directing Council, through Resolution CD55.R9, approved the “Plan of Action for Elimination of Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) and Post-Elimination Actions, 2016-2022.” This Resolution urges Member States to implement a set of interventions to reduce the burden of disease by NID in the Americas by 2022, including “…support promotion of treatment, rehabilitation, and related support services through an approach focused on integrated morbidity management and disability prevention for individuals and families afflicted by those neglected infectious diseases that cause disability and generate stigma.” NIDs can have devastating chronic sequelae for patients, such as disability, visible change or loss in body structure, loss of tissue, and impairment of proper tissue and organ function, among others. All of these can in turn lead to unjustified discrimination, stigmatization, mental health problems, and partial or total incapacity to work, perpetuating the vicious cycle of neglected diseases as both a consequence and a cause of poverty. Patients with chronic conditions caused by NIDs require proper health care in order to prevent further damage and improve their living and social conditions. This should be provided at the primary health care level, as patients suffering from NIDs are often unable to travel to or afford to pay for specialized care services. Care for patients suffering from chronic morbidity caused by NID should be integrated into care for other chronic conditions caused by non-communicable diseases. This manual provides a framework for morbidity management and disability prevention of patients affected by NIDs and gives specific guidance for the proper care of patients suffering from chronic conditions caused by lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and Chagas disease. It is intended to be used mainly by health care workers at the primary health care level, but health workers at more complex and specialized levels may also find it useful.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Hanseníase , Doenças Linfáticas , Filariose Linfática , Tracoma , Doenças Negligenciadas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
3.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 54: e03649, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze assistance provided to people affected by leprosy through multiple dimensions of Care Management. METHOD: Exploratory single case study with a mixed methods approach conducted at a referral service in a Southern Brazil municipality. Content analysis and webQDA software were used for data treatment. RESULTS: Participants included health professionals, people with leprosy and their family members. leprosy incidence was found to indicate its dissemination in the study setting, despite its low endemicity. Predominance of multibacillary cases and diagnoses with grade 2 disability indicate shortcomings in early detection efficacy. Contradictions were found in multiple dimensions of Care Management, leading to the understanding that the challenges in fighting leprosy are not only biological, but also socially determined. CONCLUSION: The presented challenges demonstrate the health care network's frailty regarding lowering this disease's rate and the need for effective public policies to confront diseases that, similarly to leprosy, are determined by social inequality.

4.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 224: 30-35, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To critically evaluate the potential impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on global ophthalmology and VISION 2020. DESIGN: Perspective supplemented with epidemiologic insights from available online databases. METHODS: We extracted data from the Global Vision Database (2017) and Global Burden of Disease Study (2017) to highlight temporal trends in global blindness since 1990, and provide a narrative overview of how COVID-19 may derail progress toward the goals of VISION 2020. RESULTS: Over 2 decades of VISION 2020 advocacy and program implementation have culminated in a universal reduction of combined age-standardized prevalence of moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI) across all world regions since 1990. Between 1990 and 2017, low-income countries observed large reductions in the age-standardized prevalence per 100,000 persons of vitamin A deficiency (25,155 to 19,187), undercorrected refractive disorders (2,286 to 2,040), cataract (1,846 to 1,690), onchocerciasis (5,577 to 2,871), trachoma (506 to 159), and leprosy (36 to 26). Despite these reductions, crude projections suggest that more than 700 million persons will experience MSVI or blindness by 2050, principally owing to our growing and ageing global population. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the many resounding successes of VISION 2020, the burden of global blindness and vision impairment is set to reach historic levels in the coming years. The impact of COVID-19, while yet to be fully determined, now threatens the hard-fought gains of global ophthalmology. The postpandemic years will require renewed effort and focus on vision advocacy and expanding eye care services worldwide.

5.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253049

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study explored the possibility of a common health-related stigma reduction intervention among people living with HIV, leprosy, schizophrenia and diabetes in Indonesia by assessing their perspectives towards others with the same (within group) and different health conditions (across groups), and willingness to participate in such a program. This mixed-methods study was conducted in West Java, Indonesia between March and June 2018. Eighty participants completed a survey with social distance scale (SDS), while 12 focus group discussion were conducted. Participants with HIV, leprosy and diabetes reported lower within-group SDS scores (4.14 ± 3.65; 4.25 ± 3.95; 7.23 ± 5.31, respectively) while those with schizophrenia reported the highest within-group SDS score (7.76 ± 4.63). Participants with diabetes reported a twofold higher across-group SDS score towards people with the other three health conditions (p < 0.05). The qualitative findings showed that the perception of participants towards one another was shaped by knowledge, understanding and relatedness to the experience of living with health-related stigma. Overall, participants supported the idea of a common stigma reduction intervention for different health conditions, but recommended step-wise implementation of such interventions. Accordingly, this study recommends piloting a common stigma reduction intervention with special focus on fostering understanding, awareness and empathy between people living with different health conditions.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 206, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related stigma is a complex phenomenon, the experience of which intersects with those of other adversities arising from a diversity of social inequalities and oppressive identities like gender, sexuality, and poverty - a concept called "intersectionality". Understanding this intersectionality between health-related stigma and other forms of social marginalization can provide a fuller and more comprehensive picture of stigma associated with health conditions. The main objective of this paper is to build upon the concept of intersectionality in health-related stigma by exploring the convergence of experiences of stigma and other adversities across the intersections of health and other forms of social oppressions among people living with stigmatized health conditions in Indonesia. METHODS: This qualitative study interviewed 40 people affected by either of four stigmatizing health conditions (HIV, leprosy, schizophrenia, and diabetes) in Jakarta and West Java, Indonesia between March and June 2018. Data was analyzed thematically using an integrative inductive-deductive framework approach. RESULTS: The main intersectional inequalities identified by the participants were gender and socioeconomic status (n = 21), followed by religion (n = 13), age (n = 11), co-morbidity (n = 9), disability (n = 6), and sexuality (n = 4). Based on these inequalities/identities, the participants reported of experiencing oppression because of prevailing social norms, systems, and policies (macro-level), exclusion and discrimination from societal actors (meso-level), and self-shame and stigma (micro-level). While religion and age posed adversities that negatively affected participants in macro and meso levels, they helped mitigate the negative experiences of stigma in micro level by improving self-acceptance and self-confidence. CONCLUSION: This study uncovered how the experience of health-related stigma intersects with other oppressions originating from the various social inequalities in an individual's life. The findings highlight the importance of acknowledging and understanding the multi-dimensional aspect of lives of people living with stigmatized health conditions, and warrant integrated multi-level and cross-cutting stigma reduction interventions to address the intersectional oppressions they experience.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956360

RESUMO

Hansen's disease (HD) belongs to the group of neglected diseases and can cause physical deformities and disabilities, in addition to leading to social discrimination. Ocular involvement in HD is estimated at 70-75% worldwide. About 10-50% suffer from severe ocular symptoms and loss of vision occurs in approximately 5% of cases. Ocular changes may persist or worsen even after patients are considered cured and it is necessary to better understand these conditions in order to determine the need for additional public policies. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of ocular involvement in patients with HD at two specialist referral centers for treatment of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ophthalmological evaluations of patients with HD from June 2017 to June 2018. Diagnostic ocular findings, corrected visual acuity, and refractive error were described. Findings were correlated with patients' clinical and epidemiological variables. A total of 86 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 50.1 years, predominantly males (59.3%), and with multibacillary HD (92%). The prevalence of ophthalmologic changes was 100% and the most common were dysfunction of the Meibomian glands (89.5%) and dry eye syndrome (81.4%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (25.6%), but best corrected visual acuity was normal or near normal in 84 patients (97.7%) and there were no cases of bilateral blindness. Patients with some degree of physical disability had more ophthalmological alterations, involving both the ocular adnexa (p = 0.03) and the ocular globe (p = 0.04). Ocular involvement is common in patients with Hansen's disease, reinforcing the importance of ophthalmologic examination in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/patologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Glândulas Tarsais/patologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Catarata/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glândulas Tarsais/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Stigma Scale of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC-SS) is a useful option to investigate leprosy-related stigma, but its psychometric qualities are unknown in Brazil. This study investigated the factor structure, the convergent and known-groups validity, and the reliability of the EMIC-SS for Brazilians affected by leprosy. METHODOLOGY: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the EMIC-SS was validated in 180 persons affected by leprosy at a Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro. Confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) and Cronbach alpha were used to assess the EMIC-SS internal consistency. The Construct validity was tested using Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests comparing with the Participation Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and a Sociodemographic Questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intra-class correlation (ICC). MAIN FINDINGS: CFA confirmed the one- and two-dimensional models of the scale after retaining 12 of the 15 EMIC-SS items. The 12-item EMIC-SS was consistent (α = 0.78) and reproducible (ICC = 0.751, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.657-0.822, p < 0.0001). A significant correlation was observed between the EMIC-SS and the other scales confirming convergent validity. The EMIC-SS and its factors were able to differentiate several hypothesized groups (age, change of occupation, monthly family income, communicating others about the disease, and perception of difficulty to follow treatment) confirming the scale known-groups validity, both in its one and two-dimensional models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found support for the construct validity and reliability of the EMIC-SS as a measure of stigma experienced by people affected by leprosy in Brazil. However, future studies are necessary in other samples and populations with stigmatizing conditions to determine the optimal factor structure and to strengthen the indications of the validated scale.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742673

RESUMO

Leprosy has long-term consequences related to impairment and stigma. This includes a major impact on mental health. This study aims to consolidate current evidence regarding the mental health impact of leprosy on affected persons and their family members. In addition, determinants influencing mental health outcomes among leprosy-affected persons and effective interventions are examined. A keyword-based search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, Infolep and InfoNTD; additional literature was also considered. Articles presenting primary data involving leprosy-affected persons or their family members experiencing mental conditions were included. Independent extraction of articles was executed using predefined data fields. Articles were sorted according to relevance. In total, 65 studies were included in this systematic review. Multiple psychiatric morbidities have been identified among leprosy-affected persons, including depression, anxiety disorders and suicide (attempts). Additional factors were found that may impact mental health. Moreover, studies found that demographic factors, lifestyle and disease-specific factors and stigma and discrimination impact mental health. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem were identified among children of leprosy-affected persons. In addition, interventions were identified that could improve the mental wellbeing of leprosy patients. Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were found to be very common among persons affected by leprosy. Feelings such as fear, shame and low self-esteem are also experienced by those affected, and their children. Further research is necessary to ensure that mental health impact is included when determining the burden of disease for leprosy, and to relieve this burden.

11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(11): 1373-1384, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlation between the burden of seven priority neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) included in the Brazilian National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research - tuberculosis, Chagas disease, leprosy, malaria, leishmaniasis, dengue and schistosomiasis - and their respective research funding and output. METHODS: This retrospective review obtained data on disease burden from the Global Burden of Disease Study and funding data from open access sources. Publications were retrieved from Scopus and SciELO, and characterised according to the type of research conducted. Correlation between funding, research output and burden was assessed by comparing the 'expected' and 'observed' values for funding and publications relative to the proportional burden for each disease. RESULTS: There was an emphasis in basic biomedical research (average 30% of publications) and a shortage of health policy and systems (average 7%) and social sciences research (average 3%). Research output and funding were poorly correlated with disease burden. Tuberculosis, Chagas disease and schistosomiasis accounted for more than 75% of total NTD-related DALYs, but accounted for only 34% of publications. Leprosy, leishmaniasis and malaria, together, received 49% of NTD-related funding despite being responsible for only 9% of DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis evidenced a lack of correlation between disease burden, research output and government funding for priority NTDs in Brazil. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring health needs, research investments and outputs to inform policy and optimise the uptake of evidence for action, particularly in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the research capacity is limited. The results contribute to health policy by highlighting the need for improving coordination of scientific activities and public health needs for effective impact.

12.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(3): e2019543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555933

RESUMO

Objective to analyse the magnitude and factors associated with activity limitation and social participation restriction of people with leprosy from 2001 to 2014 in Picos, Piauí, Brazil. Methods this was a cross-sectional study with data collected through interviews and physical examinations; the SALSA Scale (Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness) and Social Participation Scale were used; crude prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. Results 263 people with leprosy participated in the study; activity limitation was associated with grade I/II disability (PR=1.66; 95%CI 1.14;2.41), age ≥60 years (PR=1.68; 95%CI 1.09;3.02) and low schooling (PR=1.76; 95%CI 1.26;2.45); correlation was found between eye-hand-foot score and activity limitation (r=0.29; p<0.001) and participation restriction (r=0.27; p<0.001). Conclusion activity limitation and participation restriction had high prevalence in the context studied and were associated with disease severity, advanced age and social vulnerability.

13.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(6): 663-668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594026

RESUMO

Background: The high incidence, chronicity, frequent recurrences and severity of hand eczema leads to a massive impact on the quality of life. Despite great medical and socioeconomic importance, there is a paucity of data that addresses the cost of illness and economic factors associated with hand eczema. Most of the studies have originated from Europe and none have been reported from India. Aim: To analyze the clinical subtype, the pattern of contact sensitization and the impact of severity of disease on the quality of life and cost of illness in patients of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred patients of hand eczema were recruited and evaluated for morphological patterns of the condition, hand eczema severity index and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire). All patients were subjected to patch tests with Indian standard series, cosmetic series and personal or work-related products. The economic burden of hand eczema was measured by both its direct and indirect costs. Results: Morphologically, chronic dry fissured eczema 36 (36%) was the most common pattern followed by mixed type 19 (19%), hyperkeratotic palmar eczema 15 (15%), vesicular eczema with recurrent eruption 9 (9%), nummular eczema 7 (7%) and wear and tear dermatitis 7 (7%). Seventy nine patients gave positive patch test results. Etiological profile of the most common allergens, as established with a patch test, include potassium dichromate 18 (18%) followed by cetrimonium bromide 17 (17%), nickel 16 (16%), gallate 14 (14%), garlic 9 (9%) and patient's own product 8 (8%). Allergic contact dermatitis was the most common clinical pattern of hand eczema seen in 45 (45%) patients, followed by an irritant 14 (14%) and a combination of both 13 (13%). The average total cost of illness was INR 13,783.41 (0-93,000) per individual per year with an average direct cost of INR 2,746.25 ± 1,900 and indirect cost of INR 4911.73 ± 13237.72, along with a positive correlation with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (P = 0.00). The hand eczema severity index was marginally correlated with direct costs (P = 0.07) and highly correlated with indirect costs (P = 0.024). Conclusion: Hand eczema has a huge impact on the quality of life and economic consequences. Limitations: In our study, parameters like Dermatology Life Quality Index and hand eczema severity index could have been affected by the chronicity of disease as being a tertiary referral centre, most of the recruited patients had severe and persistent hand eczema at the time of visit. Also, cost of illness was based on retrospective calculations on recall basis.

14.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 46(5): 552-553, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367143

RESUMO

The recent editorial by Dr Susan Peters "Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix" ably describes the strengths and limitations of job-exposure matrix (JEM) approaches in occupational epidemiology research (1). In addition to their use in research, we would like to add that JEM may also be of use in compensation and surveillance efforts in occupational health. JEM could assist the compensation process by supporting the assessment of relevant exposures related to specific health conditions (2). The potential usefulness of a JEM as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has been examined (3). Because occupational diseases are often under-recognized, another practical application is using a JEM to screen for occupational exposures as part of health surveillance. Use of JEM to screen for asbestos and wood dust exposure in the clinical setting has shown promising results (4-6). By summarizing multiple exposures at a job level (7), JEM may also assist policy-makers in setting priorities for hazards and controls at work, as well as occupational practitioners to target prevention efforts and direct the conduct of more precise exposure measures to particular jobs. Sharing JEM across different countries may be useful in providing estimates of exposures across larger populations to calculate global burden of disease related to occupational exposure. The JEMINI (JEM InterNatIonal) initiative was launched to explore the possibility of developing international JEM that could be used across countries (8). Beginning with physical (biomechanical) exposures, this open group has started homogenizing job coding systems and comparing some available JEM. Estimating differences in the level of exposure between countries will require much more work, without guaranteed success. As Peters mentioned, many limitations exist in the use of JEM. Users of JEM must consider the source of exposure data - expert assessments, data collected from individual workers, or environmental sampling. The coding of occupations is time consuming and can introduce error (9), and more testing of and comparison with automated job coding systems is needed (10). JEM reflect an "average" level of exposure within a job at the expense of individual variation. At population level, JEM can offer a useful estimate of exposures. If used at an individual level in a clinical or compensation setting, JEM cannot replace the professionals involved in exposure assessment but may help them focus their action more effectively on complex situations that require their expertise. In conclusion, these JEM developed for research might also be used as a public health tool, provided that their limitations are properly taken into account. References 1. Peters S. Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:2314. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3894 2. Kerbrat J, Descatha A. (The recognition of health consequences of difficult working conditions in France and its evaluation with the use of a job-exposure matrix). Arch Mal Prof Environ. 2018;79:493500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2017.12.001 3. Fadel M, Valter R, Quignette A, Descatha A. Usefulness of a job-exposure matrix « MADE ¼ as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Eur J Public Health 2019;29:86870. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky274 4. Lorentz E, Despreaux T, Quignette A, Chinet T, Descatha A. (Screening of occupational exposure to asbestos and silica by job-exposure matrix among patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma). Rev Mal Respir. 2019;36:108895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2019.08.006 5. Imbernon E, Goldberg M, Spyckerell Y, Steinmetz J, Bonenfant S, Fournier B. (Use of a job-exposure matrix for the screening of occupational exposure to asbestos). Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2004;52:717. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0398-7620(04)99018-9 6. Carton M, Bonnaud S, Nachtigal M, Serrano A, Carole C, Bonenfant S, et al. Post-retirement surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos or wood dust: first results of the French national SPIRALE Program. Epidemiol Prev. 2011;35:31523.   7. Guéguen A, Goldberg M, Bonenfant S, Martin JC. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:58693. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2003.010660 8. Descatha A, Evanoff BA, Andersen JH, Fadel M, Ngabirano L, Leclerc A, et al. JEMINI (Job Exposure Matrix InterNatIonal) Initiative: a Utopian Possibility for Helping Occupational Exposure Assessment All Around the World? J Occup Environ Med. 2019;61:e3201. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001631 9. Petersen SB, Flachs EM, Svendsen SW, Marott JL, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Hansen J, et al. Influence of errors in job codes on job exposure matrix-based exposure assessment in the register-based occupational cohort DOC*X. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:25967. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3857 10. Buckner-Petty S, Dale AM, Evanoff BA. Efficiency of autocoding programs for converting job descriptors into standard occupational classification (SOC) codes. Am J Ind Med. 2019;62:5968. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22928.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medicina do Trabalho , França , Humanos , Ocupações , Saúde Pública
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 833-840, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308192

RESUMO

In Kiribati, unlike most countries, high and increasing numbers of cases of leprosy have been reported despite the availability of multidrug therapy and efforts to improve case finding and management. Historic records show that 28 cases had been identified by 1925. A systematic population survey in 1997 identified 135 new cases; the mean incidence rate for 1993-1997 was 7.4/10,000 population. After administering mass chemoprophylaxis, the country reached the elimination threshold (prevalence <1/10,000), but case numbers have rebounded. The mean annualized rate of new cases in 2013-2017 was 15/10,000 population, with the highest new case rates (>20/10,000 population) in the main population centers of South Tarawa and Betio. Spread is expected to continue in areas where crowding and poor socioeconomic conditions persist and may accelerate as sea levels rise from climate change. New initiatives to improve social conditions are needed, and efforts such as postexposure chemoprophylaxis should be implemented to prevent spread.

17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200007, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a disease that reserves close relation with social and economic conditions. Brazil is the only country that has not yet reached the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze social deprivation in the municipalities of Bahia and its relation with the detection of new cases of leprosy in the population. METHODS: It is an ecological study conducted in the state of Bahia, from 2001 to 2015. Variables analyzed: detection rate of new cases, social deprivation index (SDI) and Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age. The SDI was built on four variables: socioeconomic performance index, per capita income, proportion of extremely poor, and household density. For spatial analysis, local empirical bayesian modeling and global and local Moran statistics were used. Statistical analysis used multivariate, spatial and logistic regression, odds ratio calculation and analysis of variance. RESULTS: Leprosy showed heterogeneous distribution in the state, with concentration in the north-west and south axis. 60.4% (n = 252) of the municipalities presented very low life conditions. An association was observed between living conditions and the detection of leprosy, with higher coefficients in the municipality group with better living conditions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the worst conditions acted as an impediment to the diagnosis, while increasing the risk of illness. Good conditions have the opposite effect.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200011, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trachoma maintains itself as a public health problem and an important cause of morbidity, visual impairment and preventable blindness in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with treatment and control of trachoma treatment in schoolchildren diagnosed during the national campaign in 2014, in the town of Russas, Ceará. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was brought out from January to April 2016. Social, demographic, economic and follow-up data were collected for 390 schoolchildren aged five to 14 years old, diagnosed with trachoma in the campaign in 2014. They were defined dependent variables: trachoma treatment and control of trachoma disease, categorized as adequate and inadequate, and multivariate analyzes were performed. RESULTS: Treatment was considered adequate in 56.7% of schoolchildren and in only 5.9% treatment control was classified as adequate. In the multivariate analysis, they have got an association with the trachoma treatment result: rural residence zone and waste destination in a non-public space. The last control of the treatment of trachoma remained associated to the variables: rural residence zone; family income less than a minimum wage and school not examined by the physician. CONCLUSION: Inadequate treatment and control of trachoma treatment showed an association with socioeconomic variables and follow-up of primary care. Health education activities were not accessible to the entire community, indicating the need for more involvement by primary care professionals.


Assuntos
Tracoma/terapia , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008173, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that leprosy, podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis impact individual quality of life. In contrast, family quality of life has not received as much attention despite evidence that families are also affected. This is especially relevant given the crucial role of the family in most societies around the world. This study looks at the impact of leprosy, podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis on family quality of life. METHODOLOGY: The study used a cross-sectional design with a qualitative approach. Both semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Participants, persons affected and their family members, were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected between August and November 2017 in Awi zone, Northwest Ethiopia and analysed by three independent researchers using open, inductive coding and content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 86 participants were included in this study: 56 participants in the in-depth interviews and 30 participants in the focus group discussions. We found that participation restrictions, reduced productivity and marginalisation were common. In addition, discrimination in the communities occurred often, often extending to family members of persons affected. Divorce and difficulties in finding a spouse were common for persons affected and their family members. Many persons affected reported mental health problems. While most people got social and physical support from their families, there were a few exceptions. In particular, persons with younger children seemed to lack social support. Having to provide for their affected family member sometimes caused stress, school dropouts and an additional workload. Financial problems and loss of livelihood were reported by almost all participants. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that leprosy, lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis have an effect on several dimensions of family quality of life. Many problems reported related to stigma and poverty.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/psicologia , Elefantíase/psicologia , Saúde da Família , Família/psicologia , Hanseníase/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intra-domiciliary contacts are a group with the highest risk of developing leprosy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of intra-domiciliary contacts of new leprosy cases was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. RESULTS: Among 190 contacts, 63% were invited to visit the health unit, and 54.2% received the BCG vaccine. The prevalence of leprosy among the contacts was 4.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of leprosy among the contacts was high and similar to that found previously. There were failures in surveillance actions carried out by health units. Never-before treated cases were found.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA