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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298430

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture but can present chronic toxicity in low concentrations. Artemia salina is a common bio-indicator of ecotoxicity; it was used herein as a model to evaluate the effect of highly diluted-succussed glyphosate (potentized glyphosate) in glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) exposed living systems. Artemia salina cysts were kept in artificial seawater with 0.02% glyphosate (corresponding to 10% lethal concentration or LC10) under constant oxygenation, luminosity, and controlled temperature, to promote hatching in 48 h. Cysts were treated with 1% (v/v) potentized glyphosate in different dilution levels (Gly 6 cH, 30 cH, 200 cH) prepared the day before according to homeopathic techniques, using GBH from the same batch. Controls were unchallenged cysts, and cysts treated with succussed water or potentized vehicle. After 48 h, the number of born nauplii per 100 µL, nauplii vitality, and morphology were evaluated. The remaining seawater was used for physicochemical analyses using solvatochromic dyes. In a second set of experiments, Gly 6 cH treated cysts were observed under different degrees of salinity (50 to 100% seawater) and GBH concentrations (zero to LC 50); hatching and nauplii activity were recorded and analyzed using the ImageJ 1.52, plug-in Trackmate. The treatments were performed blind, and the codes were revealed after statistical analysis. Gly 6 cH increased nauplii vitality (p = 0.01) and improved the healthy/defective nauplii ratio (p = 0.005) but delayed hatching (p = 0.02). Overall, these results suggest Gly 6cH treatment promotes the emergence of the more GBH-resistant phenotype in the nauplii population. Also, Gly 6cH delays hatching, another useful survival mechanism in the presence of stress. Hatching arrest was most marked in 80% seawater when exposed to glyphosate at LC10. Water samples treated with Gly 6 cH showed specific interactions with solvatochromic dyes, mainly Coumarin 7, such that it appears to be a potential physicochemical marker for Gly 6 cH. In short, Gly 6 cH treatment appears to protect the Artemia salina population exposed to GBH at low concentrations.


Subject(s)
Cysts , Herbicides , Animals , Artemia , Herbicides/toxicity , Water/pharmacology , Glyphosate
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 15-16, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396738

ABSTRACT

Conventional science regards the study of UHD (highly homeopathically potentized) solutions as pseudo-science. However, an increasing number of rigorous scientific investigations demonstrate differences in physicochemical and physical characteristics of such solutions. Strictly chemically regarded, they correspond to highly distilled water. Our research team developed a system of physicochemical and UV spectrographic measurements, whereby the differences may be consistently confirmed with high statistical significance.Methods:For measurement of the physicochemical parameters,we usedpH,electrical conductivity,and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)sensors.For UV/VIS spectroscopymeasurements,we useda Macherey-Nagelspectrophotometer.For UHD research, we used two batches of substances: Russian (R) and Brazilian (B). In R, distilled water (W) was used for dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH9), potentized dilution of antibodies to interferon-gamma (Abs IFNγ cH9), the same original substance in the form of a mixture of potencies (Abs IFNγ cH12, cH30, cH50, shortly Abs IFNγ mix). Furthermore, we prepared higher potencies of the substances (supplementary potentiation) in a specially prepared solution and measured their characteristics. In B, the solution was used for further dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH1) and Glyphosate potencies (Gly cH6 => cH8, cH30 => cH 32, and cH200 => cH 202).For direct or post-hoc analysis, we used Wilcoxon signed-rank test, two-tailed.Results:UV-VIS spectroscopy (R): measurements of received liquids potentized for further cH1 show statistically significant differences between all substances, except between water W and W cH9 at 260 nm. Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W= 0.007; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.008; Abs IFNγ cH9vs. W=0.044; Abs IFNγ cH9vs.W cH9= 0.026; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9= 0.007; W vs.W cH9= 0.506.Physicochemical measurements:R: measurementsdemonstrated statistical difference only in pH (Abs IFNγ mix towards all others). Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W=0.022; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.005; Abs IFNγ mixvs.Abs IFNγ cH9=0.025. After supplementarypotentiation, we obtained a more conspicuous picture with many statistical differences in conductivity and ORP, ranging from p= 0.001 to 0.046.A difference between water and potentized water has also been demonstrated.B: the measurements demonstrated statistical differences mainly in pH between Gly cH8 and the rest and between Gly cH202 and W cH1.Significant differences (p-values) were as follows:Gly cH8vs. Gly cH32 =0.027; Gly cH8vs. Gly cH202 = 0.011; Gly cH8vs. W cH1= 0.014; Gly cH202vs. W cH1= 0.034.Conclusion:UV/VIS at wavelength 260 nm Abs IFNγ mix discloses a pattern similar to exclusion zone (EZ)water at 270 nm.By additional potentiation and with physicochemical measurements, we obtained higher statistical differences than in the original dilutions.In contrast, UV/VIS spectroscopy showed more conspicuous results without additional potentiation. However, the very act of succussion becomes very distinct


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Potency , Chemical Phenomena , Photoelectron Spectroscopy
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 7(24): 122-131, 2008. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529829

ABSTRACT

We followed a hypothesis that biologically relevant information from various substances can be non-chemically transferred to organisms through a combination of a high voltage electric field that can stably imprint information into water or a water solution. A special device was constructed, and a thoroughly tested biological sensor system (i.e. cress seedlings exposed to a defined heat stress), was used. The results demonstrate a clear evidence of biological effects of electrically imprinted information of biologically active substances into water solution, however not necessarily with an obvious connection to the effects of the original (donor) substance. The growth reaction of cress seedlings was either stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on the time of the application.


Seguimos a hipótese de que informação biologicamente relevante de várias substâncias pode ser transferida de maneira não química a organismos, através da combinação de um campo elétrico de alta intensidade, que pode imprimir estavelmente informação na água ou sistemas aquosos. Foi construído um aparelho especial e foi utilizado um sistema sensor especial, amplamente provado (plantas de agrião expostas a estresse térmico definido). Os resultados demonstram evidência dos efeitos de informação eletricamente impressa de substâncias biologicamente ativas em soluções aquosas. No entanto, estes efeitos não estão necessariamente ligados aos próprios da substância original (doadora). A reação de crescimento das plantas de agrião foi ora estimulatória ou inibidora, dependendo do momento da aplicação.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae , Cytokines , Germination , Herbicides , Homeopathy
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 7(24): 122-131, 2008. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-9221

ABSTRACT

We followed a hypothesis that biologically relevant information from various substances can be non-chemically transferred to organisms through a combination of a high voltage electric field that can stably imprint information into water or a water solution. A special device was constructed, and a thoroughly tested biological sensor system (i.e. cress seedlings exposed to a defined heat stress), was used. The results demonstrate a clear evidence of biological effects of electrically imprinted information of biologically active substances into water solution, however not necessarily with an obvious connection to the effects of the original (donor) substance. The growth reaction of cress seedlings was either stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on the time of the application.(AU)


Seguimos a hipótese de que informação biologicamente relevante de várias substâncias pode ser transferida de maneira não química a organismos, através da combinação de um campo elétrico de alta intensidade, que pode imprimir estavelmente informação na água ou sistemas aquosos. Foi construído um aparelho especial e foi utilizado um sistema sensor especial, amplamente provado (plantas de agrião expostas a estresse térmico definido). Os resultados demonstram evidência dos efeitos de informação eletricamente impressa de substâncias biologicamente ativas em soluções aquosas. No entanto, estes efeitos não estão necessariamente ligados aos próprios da substância original (doadora). A reação de crescimento das plantas de agrião foi ora estimulatória ou inibidora, dependendo do momento da aplicação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Herbicides , Cytokines , Brassicaceae , Germination
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