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1.
Homeopathy ; 112(1): 22-29, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are covered by large repertory rubrics and hence many remedies have been proposed as "genus epidemicus". The aim of this study was to combine the information from various data collections to prepare a COVID-19 Bayesian mini-repertory/an algorithm-based application (app) and test it. METHODS: In July 2021, 1,161 COVID-19 cases from 100 practitioners globally were combined. These data were used to calculate "condition-confined" likelihood ratios (LRs) for 59 symptoms of COVID-19. Out of these, 35 symptoms of the 11 medicines that had at least 20 cases each were considered. The information was entered in a spreadsheet (algorithm) to calculate combined LRs of specific combinations of symptoms. The algorithm contained the medicines Arsenicum album, Belladonna, Bryonia alba, Camphora, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hepar sulphuris, Mercurius solubilis, Nux vomica, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla and Rhus toxicodendron. To test concordance, the doctors were then invited to re-enter the symptoms of their cases into this algorithm. RESULTS: The algorithm was re-tested on 358 cases, and concordance was seen in 288 cases. On analysis of the data, bias was noticed in the Merc group, which was therefore excluded from the algorithm. The remaining 10 medicines, representing 81.8% of all cases, were included in the preparation of the next version of the homeopathic mini-repertory and app. CONCLUSION: The Bayesian mini-repertory and app is based on qualitative clinical experiences of various doctors in COVID-19 and gives indications for specific medicines for common COVID-19 symptoms. It is freely available [English: https://hpra.co.uk/; Spanish: https://hpra.co.uk/es ] for further testing and utilization by the profession.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Strychnos nux-vomica , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Algorithms
2.
Homeopathy ; 2023 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, such as the Omicron variant, during the third wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there was a need to identify useful homeopathic medicines. This study aimed to identify such medicines and their indications using prognostic factor research (PFR). METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-centred observational study conducted in January 2022, on confirmed COVID-19 cases. The data were collected from integrated COVID Care Centres in Delhi, India, where homeopathic medicines were prescribed along with conventional treatment. Only those cases that met a set of selection criteria were considered for analysis. The likelihood ratio (LR) was calculated for the frequently occurring symptoms of the frequently prescribed medicines. An LR of 1.3 or greater was considered meaningful. RESULTS: Out of the 362 COVID-19 cases, 263 cases were selected for analysis after applying selection criteria. Common symptoms included fatigue, cough, sore throat, myalgia and headache. Twenty-one medicines were prescribed, of which nine medicines - Gelsemium sempervirens, Bryonia alba, Hepar sulphuris, Rhus toxicodendron, Pulsatilla nigricans, Arsenicum album, Belladonna, Nux vomica and Phosphorus - were frequently used. By calculating LRs, the study identified meaningful indications for these medicines. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic medicines have shown promising results in the third wave of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. The medicines that were used in the first and second waves were found useful in the third wave also, and their indications were analogous to those found in the earlier waves. Certain new indications of some medicines were elicited in this wave, which warrant further research. However, it is important not to restrict to these medicines only and to continue data collection on COVID-19 in future waves for the improvement of the COVID-19 mini-repertory.

3.
Homeopathy ; 112(1): 12-21, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical profile and course of COVID-19 evolved perilously in a second wave, leading to the use of various treatment modalities that included homeopathy. This prognostic factor research (PFR) study aimed to identify clinically useful homeopathic medicines in this second wave. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multi-centred observational study performed from March 2021 to May 2021 on confirmed COVID-19 cases who were either in home isolation or at COVID Care Centres in Delhi, India. The data were collected from integrated COVID Care Centres where homeopathic medicines were prescribed along with conventional treatment. Only those cases that met a set of selection criteria were considered for analysis. The likelihood ratio (LR) was calculated for the frequently occurring symptoms of the prescribed medicines. An LR of 1.3 or greater was considered meaningful. RESULTS: Out of 769 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported, 514 cases were selected for analysis, including 467 in home isolation. The most common complaints were cough, fever, myalgia, sore throat, loss of taste and/or smell, and anxiety. Most cases improved and there was no adverse reaction. Certain new symptoms, e.g., headache, dryness of mouth and conjunctivitis, were also seen. Thirty-nine medicines were prescribed, the most frequent being Bryonia alba followed by Arsenicum album, Pulsatilla nigricans, Belladonna, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hepar sulphuris, Phosphorus, Rhus toxicodendron and Mercurius solubilis. By calculating LR, the prescribing indications of these nine medicines were ascertained. CONCLUSION: Add-on use of homeopathic medicines has shown encouraging results in the second wave of COVID-19 in integrated care facilities. Further COVID-related research is required to be undertaken on the most commonly prescribed medicines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Materia Medica/therapeutic use
4.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 31-41, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that is fatal if treatment is not given. The available chemotherapeutic options are unsatisfactory, and so complementary therapies like homeopathy might be a promising approach. METHODS: A nosode from a pure axenic culture of Leishmania donovani was prepared and screened for its anti-leishmanial potential both in an in-vitro and an in-vivo experimental approach. RESULTS: Leishmania donovani amastigote promastigote nosode (LdAPN 30C) exhibited significant anti-leishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania donovani and was found to be safe. A study conducted on VL-infected mice revealed that LdAPN 30C resolved the disease by modulating the host immune response toward the Th1 type through upregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) and inducing nitric oxide (NO) levels in the infected macrophages. The hepatic parasite load was also found to be significantly decreased. The nosode was found to be safe, as no histological alterations in the liver or kidney were observed in the animals treated with the LdAPN 30C. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in which an axenic culture of Leishmania donovani has been used for the preparation of a homeopathic medication. The study highlights the anti-leishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of a homeopathic nosode in experimental VL.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Materia Medica , Animals , Cytokines , Immunity , Immunosuppression Therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 10-21, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Signaling molecules such as cytokines and interleukins are key mediators for the immune response in responding to internal or external stimuli. Homeopathically prepared signaling molecules have been used therapeutically for about five decades. However, these types of products are not available in many countries and their usage by homoeopaths is also infrequent. The aim of this scoping review is to map the available pre-clinical and clinical data related to the therapeutic use of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of clinical and pre-clinical studies of therapeutically used signaling molecules that have been prepared in accordance with an officially recognized homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Articles in peer-reviewed journals reporting original clinical or pre-clinical research of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules such as interleukins, cytokines, antibodies, growth factors, neuropeptides and hormones, were eligible. Non-English language papers were excluded, unless we were able to obtain an English translation. An appraisal of eligible studies took place by rating the direction of the outcomes on a five-point scale. The quality of the papers was not systematically assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eligible papers, reporting findings for four different manufacturers' products, were identified and reviewed. Seventeen papers reported pre-clinical studies, and 11 reported clinical studies (six experimental, five observational). A wide range of signaling molecules, as well as normal T-cell expressed specific nucleic acids, were used. A majority of the products (21 of 28) contained two or more signaling molecules. The most common clinical indications were psoriasis, vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory allergies, polycystic ovary syndrome, and herpes. The direction of the outcomes was positive in 26 papers and unclear in two papers. CONCLUSION: This scoping review found that there is a body of evidence on the use of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules. From a homeopathy perspective, these substances appear to have therapeutic potential. Further steps to explore this potential are warranted.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Psoriasis , Cytokines , Humans
6.
Homeopathy ; 111(2): 121-133, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resistance to artemisinin and its partner drugs has threatened the sustainability of continuing the global efforts to curb malaria, which urges the need to look for newer therapies to control the disease without any adverse side effects. In the present study, novel homeopathic nosodes were prepared from Plasmodium falciparum and also assessed for their in vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. METHODS: Three nosodes were prepared from P. falciparum (chloroquine [CQ]-sensitive [3D7] and CQ-resistant [RKL-9] strains) as per the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India, viz. cell-free parasite nosode, infected RBCs nosode, mixture nosode. In vitro anti-malarial activity was assessed by schizont maturation inhibition assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Knight and Peter's method was used to determine in vivo suppressive activity. Mice were inoculated with P. berghei-infected erythrocytes on day 1 and treatment was initiated on the same day. Biochemical, cytokine and histopathological analyses were carried out using standard methods. RESULTS: In vitro: the nosodes exhibited considerable activity against P. falciparum with maximum 71.42% (3D7) and 68.57% (RKL-9) inhibition by mixture nosode followed by cell-free parasite nosode (62.85% 3D7 and 60% RKL-9) and infected RBCs nosode (60.61% 3D7 and 57.14% RKL-9). The nosodes were non-toxic to RAW macrophage cell line with >70% cell viability. In vivo: Considerable suppressive efficacy was observed in mixture nosode-treated mice, with 0.005 ± 0.001% parasitemia on day 35. Levels of liver and kidney function biomarkers were within the normal range in the mixture nosode-treated groups. Cytokine analysis revealed increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10, whilst a decline in IL-17 and IFN-γ was evident in the mixture nosode-treated mice. CONCLUSION: The mixture nosode exhibited promising anti-malarial activity against P. falciparum and P. berghei. Biochemical and histopathological studies also highlighted the safety of the nosode for the rodent host. The study provides valuable insight into a novel medicament that has potential for use in the treatment of malaria.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Homeopathy , Malaria , Materia Medica , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/parasitology , Materia Medica/standards , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Mice
7.
Homeopathy ; 111(3): 157-163, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several homeopathic prognostic factor research (PFR) projects have been undertaken. We found two projects with comparable outcomes to assess consistency and possible flaws. METHODS: Two comparisons were made. (1) Outcome of a PFR data collection from the Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) by about 100 doctors with 541 cases was compared with a previous analysis of 161 cases in the same database. (2) The updated LMHI database was also compared with a data collection carried out in India by four doctors with a total of 1,445 cases. Differences that resulted in conflicting outcomes (indication in one, contraindication in the other) were examined for possible causes. RESULTS: There was only a single outcome in the updated LMHI database that conflicted with the previous dataset, and this could have been due to statistical variation. The Indian data contained many cases, from few doctors, while the LMHI database had few cases per doctor, but many doctors. The overlap between the projects (individual cases entered in both) was between zero and 22%. In 72 comparisons we found six (8.3%) conflicting outcomes. Possible causes were statistical error due to small numbers of cases and/or observers, confirmation bias, and keynote prescribing if this resulted in symptoms being inadequately checked. CONCLUSION: There was little conflict between the outcomes of the two versions of one project and between the two different PFR projects. Differences could mostly be explained by causes that can be managed. This consistency should primarily be interpreted as showing a strong overall consensus between homeopathic practitioners worldwide, but with variation of consensus between small groups of practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Homeopathy , Homeopathy/methods , Humans , India , Pandemics , Prognosis
8.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 57-65, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factor research (PFR), prevalence of symptoms and likelihood ratio (LR) play an important role in identifying prescribing indications of useful homeopathic remedies. It involves meticulous unbiased collection and analysis of data collected during clinical practice. This paper is an attempt to identify causes of bias and suggests ways to mitigate them for improving the accuracy in prescribing for better clinical outcomes and execution of randomized controlled studies. METHODS: A prospective, open label, observational study was performed from April 2020 to December 2020 at two COVID Health Centers. A custom-made Excel spreadsheet containing 71 fields covering a spectrum of COVID-19 symptoms was shared with doctors for regular reporting. Cases suitable for PFR were selected. LR was calculated for commonly occurring symptoms. Outlier values with LR ≥5 were identified and variance of LRs was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 1,889 treated cases of confirmed COVID-19, 1,445 cases were selected for pre-specified reasons. Nine medicines, Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, Pulsatilla nigricans, Hepar sulphuricus, Magnesia muriaticum, Phosphorus, Nux vomica and Belladonna, were most frequently prescribed. Outlier values and large variance for Hepar sulphuricus and Magnesia muriaticum were noticed as indication of bias. Confirmation bias leading to lowering of symptom threshold, keynote prescribing, and deficiency in checking of all symptoms in each case were identified as the most important sources of bias. CONCLUSION: Careful identification of biases and remedial steps such as training of doctors, regular monitoring of data, checking of all pre-defined symptoms, and multicenter data collection are important steps to mitigate biases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Bias , Data Collection , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 94-101, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel pandemic disease offered the opportunity to create new, disease-specific, symptom rubrics for the homeopathic repertory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discover the relationship between specific symptoms and specific medicines, especially of symptoms occurring frequently in this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide collection of data in all possible formats by various parties was coordinated by the Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis. As the data came in, more symptoms were assessed prospectively. Frequent analysis and feedback by electronic newsletters were used to improve the quality of the data. Likelihood ratios (LRs) of symptoms were calculated. An algorithm for combining symptom LRs was programmed and published in the form of an app. The app was tested against 18 well-described successful cases from Hong Kong. RESULTS: LRs of common symptoms such as 'Fatigue' and 'Headache' provided better differentiation between medicines than did existing repertory entries, which are based only on the narrow presence or absence of symptoms. A mini-repertory for COVID-19 symptoms was published and supported by a web-based algorithm. With a choice of 20 common symptoms, this algorithm produced the same outcome as a full homeopathic analysis based upon a larger number of symptoms, including some that are traditionally considered more specific to particular medicines. CONCLUSION: A repertory based on clinical data and LRs can differentiate between homeopathic medicines using a limited number of frequently occurring epidemic symptoms. A Bayesian computer algorithm to combine symptoms can complement a full homeopathic analysis of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Phytotherapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Databases, Factual , Female , Homeopathy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
10.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 86-93, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify indicated homeopathic remedies based on the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in India. METHODS: In this retrospective, cohort study, confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at a COVID Health Centre in New Delhi between April 29 and June 17, 2020 were given conventional and homeopathic treatment. Patients were grouped into mild, moderate or severe categories of disease. Their symptomatologic profiles were analyzed to identify indicated homeopathic medicines. RESULTS: A total of 196 COVID-19 patients were admitted. One hundred and seventy-eight patients had mild symptoms; eighteen patients had moderate symptoms; no patients with severe symptoms were included as they were referred to tertiary care centers with ventilatory support. The mean age of patients with mild symptoms was significantly lower (38.6 years; standard deviation or SD ± 15.8) compared with patients in the moderate category (66.0 years; SD ± 9.09). The most important symptoms identified were fever (43.4%), cough (47.4%), sore throat (29.6%), headache (18.4%), myalgia (17.9%), fatigue (16.8%), chest discomfort (13.8%), chills (12.6%), shortness of breath (11.2%) and loss of taste (10.2%). Twenty-eight homeopathic medicines were prescribed, the most frequently indicated being Bryonia alba (33.3%), Arsenicum album (18.1%), Pulsatilla nigricans (13.8%), Nux vomica (8%), Rhus toxicodendron (7.2%) and Gelsemium sempervirens (5.8%), in 30C potency. CONCLUSION: Data from the current study reveal that Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Pulsatilla nigricans, Nux vomica, Rhus toxicodendron and Gelsemium sempervirens are the most frequently indicated homeopathic medicines. A randomized controlled clinical trial based on this finding is the next step.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Phytotherapy , Adult , Aged , Arsenicals/therapeutic use , Bryonia , Cohort Studies , Female , Gelsemium , Homeopathy , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulsatilla , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Strychnos nux-vomica , Toxicodendron
11.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 160-167, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease; its clinical profile and natural history are evolving. Each well-recorded case in homeopathic practice is important for deciding the future course of action. This study aims at identifying clinically useful homeopathic remedies and their prescribing symptoms using the prognostic factor research model. METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-centric, observational study performed from April 2020 to July 2020 at various public health care clinics. The data were collected prospectively from clinical practice at integrated COVID-19 care facilities in India. Good-quality cases were selected using a specific set of criteria. These cases were analyzed for elucidating prognostic factors by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of each frequently occurring symptom. The symptoms with high LR values (>1) were considered as prescribing indications of the specific remedy. RESULTS: Out of 327 COVID-19 cases reported, 211 met the selection criteria for analysis. The most common complaints were fatigue, sore throat, dry cough, myalgia, fever, dry mouth and throat, increased thirst, headache, decreased appetite, anxiety, and altered taste. Twenty-seven remedies were prescribed and four of them-Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Pulsatilla nigricans-were the most frequently used. A high LR was obtained for certain symptoms, which enabled differentiation between the remedies for a given patient. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic medicines were associated with improvement in symptoms of COVID-19 cases. Characteristic symptoms of four frequently indicated remedies have been identified using prognostic factor research, findings that can contribute to accurate homeopathic prescribing during future controlled research in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Homeopathy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Homeopathy ; 109(4): 213-223, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases that warrant serious attention. A disease of socio-economically poor people, it demands safer and cheaper drugs that help to overcome the limitations faced by the existing anti-leishmanials. Complementary or traditional medicines might be a good option, with an added advantage that resistance may not develop against these drugs. Thus, the present investigation was performed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial efficacy of an ultra-diluted homeopathic medicine (Iodium 30c) in experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL). METHODS: Compliant with strict ethical standards in animal experimentation, the study was performed in-vivo in inbred BALB/c mice which were injected intravenously with 1 × 107 promastigotes of Leishmania donovani before (therapeutic) or after (prophylactic) treatment with Iodium 30c for 30 days. In other groups of mice (n = 6 per group), amphotericin B served as positive control, infected animals as the disease control, while the naïve controls included normal animals; animals receiving only Iodium 30c or Alcohol 30c served as sham controls. The anti-leishmanial efficacy was assessed by determining the hepatic parasite load and analysing percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Biochemical analysis and histological studies were performed to check any toxicities. RESULTS: Iodium-treated animals showed a significantly reduced parasite load (to 1503 ± 39 Leishman Donovan Units, LDU) as compared with the infected controls (4489 ± 256 LDU) (p < 0.05): thus, the mean therapeutic efficacy of Iodium 30c was 66.5%. In addition, the population of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after treatment. No toxicity was observed, as evidenced from biochemical and histopathological studies of the liver and kidneys. Efficacy of Iodium 30c prophylaxis was 58.3%, while the therapeutic efficacy of amphotericin B was 85.9%. CONCLUSION: This original study has shown that Iodium 30c had significant impact in controlling parasite replication in experimental VL, though the effect was less than that using standard pharmaceutical treatment.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Iodates/pharmacology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , India , Leishmania donovani/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasite Load
13.
Homeopathy ; 109(4): 198-206, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Conventional treatment such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiotherapy has decreased the mortality rate among cancer patients but has also revealed long-term side effects. Drug resistance and toxicity to normal cells compound the problems associated with the use of modern medicines. Hence, complementary or alternative treatment options are being explored. The current study, using different homeopathic potencies of Hydrastis canadensis, was conducted to distinguish between any effects they might have on hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of homeopathic medicine Hydrastis on hormone-dependent (MCF 7) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-468) breast cancer cells was assessed using viability and colony-forming assays after 48 or 72 hours of treatment. Flow cytometry-based Annexin V-PI (propidium iodide), caspase 3 and cell cycle analysis was performed following treatment of cells with mother tincture or various potencies of Hydrastis (1C, 2C, 30C, 200C). RESULTS: Different potencies of Hydrastis displayed selective cytotoxic effects against MCF 7 cells, but only marginal effects against MDA-MB-468. The maximum cytotoxicity was established in the case of 1C following 72 hours of treatment. Treatment of breast cancer cells revealed an increase in the G0/G1 cell population, along with an increase in the caspase 3 levels and induction of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Hydrastis may have a selective cytotoxic effect against hormone-dependent breast cancer MCF 7 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, which could be the plausible reason for the induction of apoptosis. The results need to be validated in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Hydrastis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , MCF-7 Cells
14.
Homeopathy ; 107(2): 130-136, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the effects of nanoparticles in homeopathic preparations of copper salts on the electrical properties of polymer film. Previous work showed that the incorporation of metal-derived homeopathic medicines increases the dielectric constant and alternating current (AC) conductivity of an electroactive polymer film that is commonly used as a capacitor in the electronic industry.We report here the effect of dilution of one homeopathic medicine, Cuprum arsenicosum (CuAs), at 200C potency on the electrical properties of the polymer film of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). METHODS: CuAs 200c was incorporated in the film by the solution casting method. The electrical characteristics were measured at different frequencies using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance meter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to detect phase change in the polymer film due to the incorporation of CuAs. Morphology and particle size were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. RESULTS: At 10 kHz frequency, both dielectric constant and AC conductivity increased approximately 18 times for the polymer film when incorporated with 2 mL CuAs at 200C potency. FTIR indicated the increase in conducting phase, while FESEM and EDX confirmed the presence of spherical CuAs particles. CONCLUSION: The incorporation of CuAs in the electroactive polymer film enhances the conductivity and dielectric constant. We conclude that these changes arise from the change in phase of the polymer film, and because of the presence of two different metals that affects the interfacial polarization.


Subject(s)
Arsenites/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Homeopathy , Hydroxides/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Indicator Dilution Techniques , Polyvinyls
15.
Homeopathy ; 111(4): 307-310, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988580
16.
Complement Med Res ; 30(6): 471-480, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of Eupatorium perfoliatum (EP) 30C on the incidence of dengue fever and acute febrile illness (AFI) during the 2017 dengue outbreak. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open-label, community-based parallel cohort study involving apparently healthy individuals residing in 06 urban slums (JJ colony) of Delhi. The participants were enrolled in two cohorts - the medicine cohort (MC) and the control cohort (CC). Participants in MC were given weekly one dose of EP 30C for 10 weeks along with Information, Education and Communication (IEC) material regarding dengue. Participants in the CC were provided with the IEC material only. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dengue fever as per case definitions notified in the national guidelines for clinical management of dengue fever by the Government of India during the 10 weeks follow-up period. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of AFI and the hospitalization of confirmed dengue cases. RESULTS: The analysis included 40,769 participants residing in 06 slum clusters of Delhi out of which 28,321 participants were in MC and 12,448 participants were in CC. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue in the MC was 2.57 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-3.22) in comparison with 7.55 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% CI, 6.12-9.21) in the CC. The incidence of AFI in the MC was 19.66 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% CI, 18.07-21.36) in comparison with 40.96 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% CI, 37.48-44.67) in the CC. The overall protective effect of EP against laboratory-confirmed dengue was 65.77% (95% CI, 53.37-74.87; p = 0.0001) and against AFI was 52.58% (95% CI, 46.37-58.07; p = 0.0001). Hospitalization reported in the MC was nil as against 4.35% in the CC. No dengue-related case fatalities were reported from either cohort. None of the participants from the MC reported any adverse events owing to the prophylactic intervention. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that EP 30C was able to prevent dengue significantly. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm or refute our findings.ZielDas Ziel dieser Studie war die Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit von Eupatorium perfoliatum (EP) 30C auf die Inzidenz von Dengue-Fieber und akuter fiebriger Erkrankung (AFE) während des Dengue-Ausbruchs 2017.MethodenWir führten eine prospektive, unverblindete, Bevölkerungs-Parallelgruppen-Kohortenstudie mit augenscheinlich gesunden Bewohnern von 6 städtischen Slums (JJ-Kolonie) in Delhi durch. Die Teilnehmer wurden in 2 Kohorten aufgenommen, einer Medizinkohorte (MK) und einer Kontrollkohorte (KK). Die Teilnehmer in der MK erhielten 10 Wochen lang wöchentlich eine Dosis EP 30C und dazu Aufklärungsmaterialien über Dengue. Die Teilnehmer in der KK erhielten nur die Aufklärungsmaterialien. Die primäre Zielgröße war die Dengue-Fieber-Inzidenz laut der in den nationalen Leitlinien für das klinische Management des Dengue-Fiebers von der indischen Regierung bekannt gegebenen Falldefinition in dem zehnwöchigen Beobachtungszeitraum. Die sekundären Zielgrößen waren die Inzidenz von AFE und die Anzahl hospitalisierter bestätigter Dengue-Fälle.ErgebnisseIn die Analyse wurden 40,769 Bewohner von 6 Slum-Clustern in Delhi einbezogen, davon wurden 28,321 Teilnehmer in die MK aufgenommen und 12,448 Teilnehmer in die KK. Die Inzidenz von im Labor bestätigter Dengue betrug in der MK 2,57 pro 10,000 Personen/Woche (95%-Konfidenzintervall [KI]: 2,02­3,22), verglichen mit 7,55 pro 10,000 Personen/Woche (95%-KI: 6,12­9,21) in der KK. Die Inzidenz von AFI betrug in der MK 19,66 pro 10,000 Personen/Woche (95%-Konfidenzintervall [KI]: 18,07­21,36), verglichen mit 40,96 pro 10,000 Personen/Woche (95%-KI: 37,48­44,67) in der KK. Der Schutzeffekt (SE) von EP betrug gegen im Labor bestätigte Dengue 65,77% (95%-KI: 53,37­74,87; p = 0,0001) und gegen AFI 52,58% (95%-KI: 46,37­58,07; p = 0,0001). Die Hospitalisierungsrate war in der MK gleich Null versus 4,35% in der KK. In keiner Kohorte waren Dengue-bedingte Todesfälle zu verzeichnen. Bei keinem der Teilnehmer in der MK traten jegliche unerwünschten Ereignisse infolge der prophylaktischen Maßnahme auf.SchlussfolgerungDie Studie gelangt zu dem Schluss, dass Eupatorium perfoliatum 30C in signifikantem Maße Dengue vorbeugen konnte. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien sind erforderlich, um unsere Ergebnisse zu bestätigen bzw. zu widerlegen.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Eupatorium , Humans , Poverty Areas , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control
17.
Complement Med Res ; 29(1): 43-52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New effective, economical and safe antimalarial drugs are urgently needed due to the development of multi-drug-resistant strains of the parasite. Homeopathy uses ultra-diluted doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes to cure various ailments. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacy of a homeopathic drug, Chininum sulphuricum 30C. METHODS: In vitro antiplasmodial activity was screened against the P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain, and cell viability was assessed against normal human dermal fibroblasts and HepG2 cells. Suppressive, preventive and curative studies were carried out against P. berghei-infected mice in vivo. RESULTS: Chininum sulphuricum (30C) revealed good antiplasmodial activity in vitro, with 92.79 ± 6.93% inhibition against the 3D7 strain. The cell viability was 83.6 ± 0.6% against normal human dermal fibroblasts and 95.22 ± 5.1% against HepG2 cells. It also exhibited suppressive efficacy with 95.56% chemosuppression on day 7 with no mortality throughout the follow-up period of 28 days. It also showed preventive activity against the disease. Drug treatment was also safe to the liver and kidney function of the host as evidenced by biochemical studies. CONCLUSION: Chininum sulphuricum 30C exhibited considerable antimalarial activity along with safety to the liver and kidney function of the host.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Mice , Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium falciparum
18.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(3): 18-22, Oct.10 2016.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-910733

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic medicines affect physical properties of matter which depend on the characteristic and the potency of the medicine1. These effects can be explained from two aspects: (a) classical and (b) quantum electrodynamical. Using three different sets of experiments where homeopathic medicines have affected the physical properties of matter, we have shown how the results can be interpreted from both these points of view. (AU)


Subject(s)
Mechanisms of Action of Homeopathic Remedies , Nanoparticles , Quantum Theory
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 2-7, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-11146

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic medicines are often prescribed at very high dilutions and it is a clinically observed fact that the medicinal effect of the drug remains even at these high dilutions. The increase in potency of a medicine due to potentization is still debatable from physico-chemical point of view. Out of various hypotheses to explain this phenomenon, a recent hypothesis, advanced by us and supported by others, is that the size of the constituent particles decreases and eventually achieves nano dimension due to potentization. From the experiments performed by our group, the size of nanoparticles (NPs) of Cuprum metallicum, Zincum oxydatum, Aurum metallicum, Ferrum metallicum and Aconitum napellus (6cH, 30cH and 200cH) have been estimated. A general mathematical expression of the form y = a x-n has been derived which relates the size of NPs (y) with the corresponding potencies (x). There is no method to calculate the accurate potency of the homeopathic medicine, as the potency of a medicine depends to some extent on the method of preparation, for which a standardized procedure is warranted. Also, while handling a medicine, the solvent might evaporate causing a change in the potency. Thus by measuring the size of the NPs and using our proposed standard curve, the potency may be estimated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Cuprum/pharmacology , Zincum Oxydatum/pharmacology , Aurum Metallicum/pharmacology , Ferrum/pharmacology , Aconitum ferox/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , High Potencies , Homeopathy
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 2-7, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783314

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic medicines are often prescribed at very high dilutions and it is a clinically observed fact that the medicinal effect of the drug remains even at these high dilutions. The increase in potency of a medicine due to potentization is still debatable from physico-chemical point of view. Out of various hypotheses to explain this phenomenon, a recent hypothesis, advanced by us and supported by others, is that the size of the constituent particles decreases and eventually achieves nano dimension due to potentization. From the experiments performed by our group, the size of nanoparticles (NPs) of Cuprum metallicum, Zincum oxydatum, Aurum metallicum, Ferrum metallicum and Aconitum napellus (6cH, 30cH and 200cH) have been estimated. A general mathematical expression of the form y = a x-n has been derived which relates the size of NPs (y) with the corresponding potencies (x). There is no method to calculate the accurate potency of the homeopathic medicine, as the potency of a medicine depends to some extent on the method of preparation, for which a standardized procedure is warranted. Also, while handling a medicine, the solvent might evaporate causing a change in the potency. Thus by measuring the size of the NPs and using our proposed standard curve, the potency may be estimated...


Subject(s)
Humans , Aconitum ferox/pharmacology , High Potencies , Aurum Metallicum/pharmacology , Cuprum/pharmacology , Ferrum/pharmacology , Homeopathy , Nanoparticles , Zincum Oxydatum/pharmacology
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