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1.
Homeopathy ; 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary stones are the most common cause of acute ureteral obstruction. The homeopathic medicine Thlaspi bursa pastoris (TBP) has many symptoms similar to the typical symptoms of urolithiasis, yet its clinical usefulness has not been well documented. PATIENTS: In this study, the clinical symptoms of each of five patients, along with ultrasonographic evidence, were taken for the assessment of the outcome. TBP was prescribed in potency 30c and/or 200c to each patient on the basis of the main symptoms, typically dysuria, retention of urine and haematuria. Each case was followed for up to 6 months. Assessment of causal attribution of treatment effect was performed using the Modified Naranjo Criteria. RESULTS: There was full recovery of all five patients and post-treatment ultrasonography showed no calculi remaining. The Modified Naranjo Criteria total score for each patient was either +8/13 or +9/13. CONCLUSION: TBP was observed to be effective in eliminating renal stones within a short span of time and without any complications.

2.
Homeopathy ; 107(3): 209-217, 2018 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis (CD) is a frequently occurring medical condition, for which Vinca minor (VM) is one of the recommended homeopathic medicines. However, the symptoms indicating this medicine have not yet been assessed systematically. Likelihood ratio (LR), based on Bayesian statistics, may yield better estimation of a medicine's indication than the existing method of entry of symptoms into materia medica and repertories. METHODS: We investigated LRs of four CD symptoms of VM: (1) great sensitiveness of skin, with redness and soreness from slightest rubbing; (2) weeping eczema with foul, thick crusts; (3) itching amelioration in open air; and (4) CD of scalp. An observational, prospective, patient-outcome study was conducted in five different practice settings on 390 CD patients over 18 months using three outcomes-Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale (GHHOS), Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. The LR of each of the four symptoms was estimated as per the patient-rated outcomes on GHHOS. RESULTS: Seventy-four VM and 316 non-VM cases were analyzed. Estimated LRs were as follows: symptom 1, 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65 to 2.60); symptom 2, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.80 to 2.74); symptom 3, 1.70 (95% CI: 0.94 to 3.07); symptom 4, 1.36 (95% CI: 0.74 to 2.51). There were statistically significant reductions in SCORAD and DLQI scores over 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: There was insufficient evidence to attribute any of the four assessed symptoms clearly to VM. Though non-significant, a high LR was observed for "itching amelioration in open air" (symptom 3). Symptoms in the homeopathic materia medica for VM are perhaps over-represented. More research of this nature is warranted.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Materia Medica/administration & dosage , Vinca , Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Placebos , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Homeopathy ; 102(3): 187-92, 2013 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23870378

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a prospective, multi-centre, data collection survey of homeopathic practice in treatment of influenza-like illness in India during the 2009 pandemic of A/H1N1 influenza ('swine flu', SF). AIMS: To survey the practice of homeopathic practitioners in India in the management of SF, with respect to: (a) patients' symptoms at presentation and at follow-up (FU) consultation; (b) homeopathic medicines prescribed. METHODS: Data collection took place from October 2009 to February 2010, at the peak of the pandemic. All patients satisfying the minimum diagnostic symptoms of SF were eligible for inclusion. Data per appointment (in person or by telephone) were recorded by practitioners in spreadsheet format. All records were anonymised and included: whether patient was immunised against A/H1N1; influenza symptoms at consultation; the homeopathic medicine/s prescribed; whether antiviral medicine prescribed. RESULTS: Twenty-three homeopathic physicians contributed to data collection. At the first appointment, 1126 patients had valid SF symptoms. A total of 89 different combinations of SF symptoms was observed, the most common being temperature >38°C + cough + runny nose (n = 170; 15.1%). A total of 44 different remedies (or combinations of remedies) were used at these first appointments, the most frequently prescribed being Arsenicum album (n = 265; 23.5%). For a total of 99 FU appointments with valid SF symptoms, Arsenicum album was prescribed most frequently overall (n = 28; 28.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in India was characterised by several prominent symptoms and symptom/medicine associations, particularly temperature >38°C + cough + runny nose, associated with Arsenicum album. Future studies should collect additional keynote prescribing symptoms that influence the choice of homeopathic medicine.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/therapy , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , India , Prospective Studies
4.
Homeopathy ; 102(2): 130-8, 2013 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23622263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate homeopathic treatment in the management of diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy. METHODS: A prospective multi-centric clinical observational study was carried out from October 2005 to September 2009 by Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH) (India) at its five institutes/units. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) and presenting with symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) were screened, investigated and were enrolled in the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated by the diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy symptom score (DDSPSS) developed by the Council. A total of 15 homeopathic medicines were identified after repertorizing the nosological symptoms and signs of the disease. The appropriate constitutional medicine was selected and prescribed in 30, 200 and 1 M potency on an individualized basis. Patients were followed up regularly for 12 months. RESULTS: Out of 336 patients (167 males and 169 females) enrolled in the study, 247 patients (123 males and 124 females) were analyzed. All patients who attended at least three follow-up appointments and baseline curve conduction studies were included in the analysis.). A statistically significant improvement in DDSPSS total score (p = 0.0001) was found at 12 months from baseline. Most objective measures did not show significant improvement. Lycopodium clavatum (n = 132), Phosphorus (n = 27) and Sulphur (n = 26) were the medicines most frequently prescribed. Adverse event of hypoglycaemia was observed in one patient only. CONCLUSION: This study suggests homeopathic medicines may be effective in managing the symptoms of DPN patients. Further studies should be controlled and include the quality of life (QOL) assessment.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Homeopathy , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 12: 49, 2012 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22510227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A method for assessing the model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy is needed. To date, only conventional standards for assessing intrinsic bias (internal validity) of trials have been invoked, with little recognition of the special characteristics of homeopathy. We aimed to identify relevant judgmental domains to use in assessing the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). We define MVHT as the extent to which a homeopathic intervention and the main measure of its outcome, as implemented in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reflect 'state-of-the-art' homeopathic practice. METHODS: Using an iterative process, an international group of experts developed a set of six judgmental domains, with associated descriptive criteria. The domains address: (I) the rationale for the choice of the particular homeopathic intervention; (II) the homeopathic principles reflected in the intervention; (III) the extent of homeopathic practitioner input; (IV) the nature of the main outcome measure; (V) the capability of the main outcome measure to detect change; (VI) the length of follow-up to the endpoint of the study. Six papers reporting RCTs of homeopathy of varying design were randomly selected from the literature. A standard form was used to record each assessor's independent response per domain, using the optional verdicts 'Yes', 'Unclear', 'No'. Concordance among the eight verdicts per domain, across all six papers, was evaluated using the kappa (κ) statistic. RESULTS: The six judgmental domains enabled MVHT to be assessed with 'fair' to 'almost perfect' concordance in each case. For the six RCTs examined, the method allowed MVHT to be classified overall as 'acceptable' in three, 'unclear' in two, and 'inadequate' in one. CONCLUSION: Future systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy should adopt the MVHT method as part of a complete appraisal of trial validity.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Humans
6.
Homeopathy ; 101(2): 84-91, 2012 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22487367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to ascertain the therapeutic usefulness of homeopathic medicine in the management of chronic sinusitis (CS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicentre observational study at Institutes and Units of the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, India. Symptoms were assessed using the chronic sinusitis assessment score (CSAS). 17 pre-defined homeopathic medicines were shortlisted for prescription on the basis of repertorisation for the pathological symptoms of CS. Regimes and adjustment of regimes in the event of a change of symptoms were pre-defined. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: 628 patients suffering from CS confirmed on X-ray were enrolled from eight Institutes and Units of the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy. All 550 patients with at least one follow-up assessment were analyzed. There was a statistically significant reduction in CSAS (P = 0.0001, Friedman test) after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Radiological appearances also improved. A total of 13 out of 17 pre-defined medicines were prescribed in 550 patients, Sil. (55.2% of 210), Calc. (62.5% of 98), Lyc. (69% of 55), Phos. (66.7% of 45) and Kali iod. (65% of 40) were found to be most useful having marked improvement. 4/17 medicines were never prescribed. No complications were observed during treatment. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic treatment may be effective for CS patients. Controlled trials are required for further validation.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Radiography , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(1): 23-28, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Homeopathy remains one of the most sought after therapies for urological disorders. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the available clinical researches of homeopathy in the said conditions. CONTENT: Relevant trials published between Jan 1, 1981 and Dec 31, 2016 (with further extension up to Dec 31, 2017) was identified through a comprehensive search. Internal validity of the randomized trials and observational studies was assessed by The Cochrane Collaboration's tool and methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) criteria respectively, homeopathic model validity by Mathie's six judgmental domains, and quality of homeopathic individualization by Saha's criteria. SUMMARY: Four controlled (three randomized and one sequentially allocated controlled trial) trials were reviewed and 14 observational studies alongside - all demonstrated positive effect of homeopathy. Major focus areas were benign prostatic hypertrophy and renal stones. One of the four controlled trials had 'adequate' model validity, but suffered from 'high' risk of bias. None of the non-randomized studies was tagged as 'ideal' as all of those underperformed in the MINORS rating. Nine observational studies had 'adequate' model validity and quality criteria of individualization. Proof supporting individualized homeopathy from the controlled trials remained promising, still inconclusive. OUTLOOK: Although observational studies appeared to produce encouraging effects, lack of adequate quality data from randomized trials hindered to arrive at any conclusion regarding the efficacy or effectiveness of homeopathy in urological disorders. The findings from the RCTs remained scarce, underpowered and heterogeneous, had low reliability overall due to high or uncertain risk of bias and sub-standard model validity. Well-designed trials are warranted with improved methodological robustness. FUNDING: None; Registration web-link: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018081624&ID=CRD42018081624.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Urologic Diseases/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Treatment Outcome
8.
Complement Med Res ; 26(2): 111-117, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893676

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is a controversial form of complementary therapy, but is widely practised to treat asthma. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the controlled trials of homeopathy in bronchial asthma. Relevant trials published between Jan 1, 1981, and Dec 31, 2016, were considered. Substantive research articles, conference proceedings, and master and doctoral theses were eligible. Methodology was assessed by Jadad's scoring, internal validity by the Coch-rane tool, model validity by Mathie's criteria, and quality of individualization by Saha's criteria. Sixteen trials were eligible. The majority were positive, especially those testing complex formulations. Methodological quality was diverse; 8 trials had "high" risk of bias. Model validity and individualization quality were compromised. Due to both qualitative and quantitative inadequacies, proofs supporting individualized homeopathy remained inconclusive. The trials were positive (evidence level A), but inconsistent, and suffered from methodological heterogeneity, "high" to "uncertain" risk of bias, incomplete study reporting, inadequacy of independent replications, and small sample sizes.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Homeopathy/statistics & numerical data , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Models, Statistical
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 18(3/4): 47-62, 2019.
Article in English | HomeoIndex (homeopathy), LILACS | ID: biblio-1050039

ABSTRACT

Background Simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (SMCB) is characterized by recurrent mucoid or mucopurulent expectoration in absence of localized suppurative disease. This observational open label study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of homeopathic medicine in SMCB. Methods 1902 patients were screened from 07 centres out of which 1305 were excluded. 597 patients were enrolled as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 14 pre-defined homeopathic medicines were shortlisted for prescription after repertorizing the pathological symptoms of SMCB. Outcomes were assessed through chronic bronchitis symptom scale (CBSS) and FEV1/ FVC ratio with spirometry for over a period of two years. Appearance of any change (relief/ worse)/ status quo was immediately followed by placebo/ change in dilution/ change in remedy. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results: 532 patients were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle using last observation carry forward method. Mean CBS score reduced from 29.86±4.5 at baseline to 12.33±7.6 at completion of 2 years. Repeated measures ANOVA, at time points 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9, 12 ,15, 18, 21 and 24 months, showed significant reduction in CBS scores [Wilk's Lambda 0.104, F=564, df 524; p=00001]. The FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was maintained within normal limits. 86% prescriptions included Lycopodium, Arsenicum album, Pulsatilla, Phosphorus, Stannum metallicum, Calcarea carbonica, Silicea, Bryonia alba. Conclusion: The result suggests effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in early years of SCMB patients. Controlled trials are warranted. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bronchitis, Chronic/therapy , Homeopathy , Pulsatilla nigricans/therapeutic use , Arsenicum Album/therapeutic use , Calcarea Carbonica/therapeutic use , Lycopodium clavatum/therapeutic use , Silicea Terra/therapeutic use , Stannum Metallicum/therapeutic use , Bryonia
10.
J Altern Complement Med ; 17(8): 705-10, 2011 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21787219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The action of homeopathic medicines, in ultra-high dilution, is not directly observable. An attempt was made to explore autonomic response of selective homeopathic medicines, in healthy persons, using Medical Analyzer System (Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to observe the action of homeopathic medicines on physiologic variability of heart rate and blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pre- and postinterventional variability spectra of heart rate and blood flow of 77 subjects were recorded with the Medical Analyzer System, administering homeopathic preparations of Aconitum napellus (6c, 10M), Arsenicum album (200c, 1M), Gelsemium sempervirens (200c, 1M), Phosphorus (200c, 1M), Pulsatilla nigricans (200c) and Sulphur (200c, 1M) versus placebo control. The amplitude of the peaks viz. low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency was measured for postintervention analysis. An increase in the amplitude of any valid peak by 100% or a decrease by 50% was considered as significant change. RESULTS: Aconitum napellus produced a response in heart rate variability (HRV) with 30c potency and in blood flow variability with 1M potency. Sulphur 200c and 1M, Gelsemium 200c and Pulsatilla 200c, produced a 62.5% response in HRV against the placebo response of 16.6%. Gelsemium, Phosphorus, and Sulphur produced a response in blood flow variability with a 1M potency, similar to the response of Aconitum napellus 1M. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that it is possible to record the response of homeopathic medicines on physiologic parameters of the autonomic nervous system.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Coronary Circulation/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Homeopathy , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Young Adult
11.
J Altern Complement Med ; 17(11): 1037-42, 2011 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22087613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the usefulness of homeopathic therapy in the management of distressing symptoms encountered during climacteric years in women (primary objective) and also the changes brought about in the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lipid profile in these women after homeopathic treatment (secondary objective). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An open, multicenter, prospective, observational study was carried out to ascertain the usefulness of homeopathic treatment in distress during climacteric years (DDCY). Patients were enrolled from the general outpatient department of the six Institutes/Units of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) and were required to complete a follow-up period of 1 year as per the protocol designed by the CCRH. A uniform questionnaire assessing 15 predefined symptoms of menopause was adopted, with assessment of each symptom at every visit. Levels of serum FSH and lipid profile were monitored at entry and at completion. Effect size of the study was also calculated. CARA Software was used for repertorization of the presenting symptoms of menopause along with the characteristic attributes of each patient to arrive at a simillimum. The selected medicine was prescribed in a single dose as per the homeopathic principles. The assessment of the results was made through statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon signed rank test on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) comparing symptom score at entry and completion of 1 year of treatment and t test for analyzing improvement in laboratory findings. RESULTS: Homeopathic therapy was found to be useful in relieving menopausal distressing symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, anxiety, palpitation, depression, insomnia, and so on. Influence on serum levels of FSH, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein was not significant but serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein decreased significantly. Effect size of the study was found to be large. The medicines found to be most frequently indicated and useful were Sepia, Lachesis, Calcarea carb., Lycopodium, and Sulphur. CONCLUSIONS: This study proves the usefulness of homeopathic medicines in relieving DDCY.


Subject(s)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Homeopathy , Lipids/blood , Menopause , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , Depression/therapy , Female , Hot Flashes/therapy , Humans , Menopause/blood , Menopause/psychology , Middle Aged , Observation , Prospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweating
13.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-621601

ABSTRACT

Background: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Homeopathic medicines are prepared through a characteristic process known as potentization, where serial dilutions are performed with strong strokes at each step of dilution. Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one single molecule of the corresponding starting-substance. Aim: To investigate a possible nanoscience mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nanodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed. Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be ?nothing?, but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, which had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon. Conclusions: During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The ?size? of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information - which biological systems are able to identify - to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.


Introdução: A homeopatia é um sistema de medicina empírica comprovada pelo teste do tempo faz dois séculos. Seus medicamentos são preparados através um processo típico conhecido como potenciação, no qual são realizadas diluições seriadas acompanhadas de intensa agitação em cada passo do processo. A homeopatia é objeto de controvérsia, porque a imensa maioria dos medicamentos utilizados não contém nenhuma molécula da substância de origem. Objetivo: Examinar medicamentos homeopáticos visando o seu possível mecanismo de ação à luz da nanociência. Metodologia: Foram preparadas amostras ultra puras, que foram examinadas sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e de transmissão (TEM) junto de nano-difração de área selecionada (SAD) e energia dispersiva de raios X (EDX). Também foi realizada análise de elementos-traço para silício. Resultados: Os medicamentos homeopáticos não resultaram ser ?nada?, mas continham bastantes nanopartículas e os conglomerados destas mostraram estrutura cristalina, rica em silício. Conclusões: Durante a agitação intensa que faz parte do processo de potenciação, a informação relacionada com a substância gradualmente diluída poderia ser codificada através de epitaxe por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas em silício presentes no medicamento resultante. O ?tamanho? da informação assim codificada poderia acompanhar o grau das potências. Sendo que os medicamentos homeopáticos possuem efeitos curativos, sua informação ? que os sistemas biológicos são capazes de interpretar - poderia ser transportada por essas nanopartículas junto da água interfacial na superfície delas até o alvo. Sabe-se que tais nanopartículas, como outras várias formas do silício, são capazes de interagir com proteínas e com células do sistema imune, de maneira que a homeopatia poderia constituir uma forma de nanomedicina. A possível confirmação, no entanto, exige novos caminhos de pesquisa em materiais e água interfacial.


Introducción: La homeopatía es un sistema empírico de medicina comprobado por la prueba del tiempo hace dos siglos. Sus medicamentos son preparados mediante un procedimiento típico llamado potenciación, durante el cual son realizadas diluciones seriadas acompañadas por intensa agitación en cada paso de preparación. La homeopatía es controvertida porque la mayoría de los medicamentos utilizados carecen de una única molécula de la sustancia de origen. Objetivo: Estudiar el posible mecanismo de acción de los medicamentos homeopáticos a la luz de la nanociencia. Metodología: Se preparó muestras ultra puras que fueron examinadas bajo microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) y de trasmisión (TEM) junto con nano-dispersión de área seleccionada (SAD) y energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX). También fue realizado análisis de trazos de elementos para sílice. Resultados: Los medicamentos homeopáticos no resultaron ser ?nada?, sino que contenían bastantes nanopartículas y los conglomerados de estas prestaron naturaliza cristalina rica en sílice. Conclusiones: Durante la fase de agitación intensa del proceso de potenciación, la información correspondiente a la sustancia en gradual disolución puede ser codificada por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas en sílice presentes en el medicamento homeopático resultante mediante epitaxis. El ?tamaño? de la información codificada puede ser paralelo al grado de la potencia medicamentosa. Como los medicamentos homeopáticos presentan efectos curativos, esas nanopartículas y el agua interfacial en su superficie podrían ser los portadores de esta información (que los sistemas biológicos son capaces de identificar) hasta el blanco. Se sabe que esas nanopartículas, como otras formas de sílice, son capaces de interactuar con proteínas y céluals del sistema inmune, de modo que la homeopatía podría representar una forma de nanomedicina. Sin embargo, posible confirmación exige nuevas vías de pesquisa en materiales agua interfacial.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles
14.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(37): 299-310, 2011.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-10733

ABSTRACT

Background: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Homeopathic medicines are prepared through a characteristic process known as potentization, where serial dilutions are performed with strong strokes at each step of dilution. Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one single molecule of the corresponding starting-substance. Aim: To investigate a possible nanoscience mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nanodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed. Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be ?nothing?, but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, which had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon. Conclusions: During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The ?size? of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information - which biological systems are able to identify - to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.(AU)


Introdução: A homeopatia é um sistema de medicina empírica comprovada pelo teste do tempo faz dois séculos. Seus medicamentos são preparados através um processo típico conhecido como potenciação, no qual são realizadas diluições seriadas acompanhadas de intensa agitação em cada passo do processo. A homeopatia é objeto de controvérsia, porque a imensa maioria dos medicamentos utilizados não contém nenhuma molécula da substância de origem. Objetivo: Examinar medicamentos homeopáticos visando o seu possível mecanismo de ação à luz da nanociência. Metodologia: Foram preparadas amostras ultra puras, que foram examinadas sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e de transmissão (TEM) junto de nano-difração de área selecionada (SAD) e energia dispersiva de raios X (EDX). Também foi realizada análise de elementos-traço para silício. Resultados: Os medicamentos homeopáticos não resultaram ser ?nada?, mas continham bastantes nanopartículas e os conglomerados destas mostraram estrutura cristalina, rica em silício. Conclusões: Durante a agitação intensa que faz parte do processo de potenciação, a informação relacionada com a substância gradualmente diluída poderia ser codificada através de epitaxe por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas em silício presentes no medicamento resultante. O ?tamanho? da informação assim codificada poderia acompanhar o grau das potências. Sendo que os medicamentos homeopáticos possuem efeitos curativos, sua informação ? que os sistemas biológicos são capazes de interpretar - poderia ser transportada por essas nanopartículas junto da água interfacial na superfície delas até o alvo. Sabe-se que tais nanopartículas, como outras várias formas do silício, são capazes de interagir com proteínas e com células do sistema imune, de maneira que a homeopatia poderia constituir uma forma de nanomedicina. A possível confirmação, no entanto, exige novos caminhos de pesquisa em materiais e água interfacial.(AU)


Introducción: La homeopatía es un sistema empírico de medicina comprobado por la prueba del tiempo hace dos siglos. Sus medicamentos son preparados mediante un procedimiento típico llamado potenciación, durante el cual son realizadas diluciones seriadas acompañadas por intensa agitación en cada paso de preparación. La homeopatía es controvertida porque la mayoría de los medicamentos utilizados carecen de una única molécula de la sustancia de origen. Objetivo: Estudiar el posible mecanismo de acción de los medicamentos homeopáticos a la luz de la nanociencia. Metodología: Se preparó muestras ultra puras que fueron examinadas bajo microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) y de trasmisión (TEM) junto con nano-dispersión de área seleccionada (SAD) y energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX). También fue realizado análisis de trazos de elementos para sílice. Resultados: Los medicamentos homeopáticos no resultaron ser ?nada?, sino que contenían bastantes nanopartículas y los conglomerados de estas prestaron naturaliza cristalina rica en sílice. Conclusiones: Durante la fase de agitación intensa del proceso de potenciación, la información correspondiente a la sustancia en gradual disolución puede ser codificada por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas en sílice presentes en el medicamento homeopático resultante mediante epitaxis. El ?tamaño? de la información codificada puede ser paralelo al grado de la potencia medicamentosa. Como los medicamentos homeopáticos presentan efectos curativos, esas nanopartículas y el agua interfacial en su superficie podrían ser los portadores de esta información (que los sistemas biológicos son capaces de identificar) hasta el blanco. Se sabe que esas nanopartículas, como otras formas de sílice, son capaces de interactuar con proteínas y céluals del sistema inmune, de modo que la homeopatía podría representar una forma de nanomedicina. Sin embargo, posible confirmación exige nuevas vías de pesquisa en materiales agua interfacial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Nanomedicine
15.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(37): 299-310, 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | LILACS-Express | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-10747

ABSTRACT

Background: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Homeopathic medicines are prepared through a characteristic process known as potentization, where serial dilutions are performed with strong strokes at each step of dilution. Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one single molecule of the corresponding starting-substance. Aim: To investigate a possible nanoscience mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nanodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed. Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be ?nothing?, but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, which had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon. Conclusions: During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The ?size? of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information - which biological systems are able to identify - to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.(AU)


Introdução: A homeopatia é um sistema de medicina empírica comprovada pelo teste do tempo faz dois séculos. Seus medicamentos são preparados através um processo típico conhecido como potenciação, no qual são realizadas diluições seriadas acompanhadas de intensa agitação em cada passo do processo. A homeopatia é objeto de controvérsia, porque a imensa maioria dos medicamentos utilizados não contém nenhuma molécula da substância de origem. Objetivo: Examinar medicamentos homeopáticos visando o seu possível mecanismo de ação à luz da nanociência. Metodologia: Foram preparadas amostras ultra puras, que foram examinadas sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e de transmissão (TEM) junto de nano-difração de área selecionada (SAD) e energia dispersiva de raios X (EDX). Também foi realizada análise de elementos-traço para silício. Resultados: Os medicamentos homeopáticos não resultaram ser ?nada?, mas continham bastantes nanopartículas e os conglomerados destas mostraram estrutura cristalina, rica em silício. Conclusões: Durante a agitação intensa que faz parte do processo de potenciação, a informação relacionada com a substância gradualmente diluída poderia ser codificada através de epitaxe por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas em silício presentes no medicamento resultante. O ?tamanho? da informação assim codificada poderia acompanhar o grau das potências. Sendo que os medicamentos homeopáticos possuem efeitos curativos, sua informação ? que os sistemas biológicos são capazes de interpretar - poderia ser transportada por essas nanopartículas junto da água interfacial na superfície delas até o alvo. Sabe-se que tais nanopartículas, como outras várias formas do silício, são capazes de interagir com proteínas e com células do sistema imune, de maneira que a homeopatia poderia constituir uma forma de nanomedicina. A possível confirmação, no entanto, exige novos caminhos de pesquisa em materiais e água interfacial.(AU)


Introducción: La homeopatía es un sistema empírico de medicina comprobado por la prueba del tiempo hace dos siglos. Sus medicamentos son preparados mediante un procedimiento típico llamado potenciación, durante el cual son realizadas diluciones seriadas acompañadas por intensa agitación en cada paso de preparación. La homeopatía es controvertida porque la mayoría de los medicamentos utilizados carecen de una única molécula de la sustancia de origen. Objetivo: Estudiar el posible mecanismo de acción de los medicamentos homeopáticos a la luz de la nanociencia. Metodología: Se preparó muestras ultra puras que fueron examinadas bajo microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) y de trasmisión (TEM) junto con nano-dispersión de área seleccionada (SAD) y energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX). También fue realizado análisis de trazos de elementos para sílice. Resultados: Los medicamentos homeopáticos no resultaron ser ?nada?, sino que contenían bastantes nanopartículas y los conglomerados de estas prestaron naturaliza cristalina rica en sílice. Conclusiones: Durante la fase de agitación intensa del proceso de potenciación, la información correspondiente a la sustancia en gradual disolución puede ser codificada por nanopartículas cristalinas ricas en sílice presentes en el medicamento homeopático resultante mediante epitaxis. El ?tamaño? de la información codificada puede ser paralelo al grado de la potencia medicamentosa. Como los medicamentos homeopáticos presentan efectos curativos, esas nanopartículas y el agua interfacial en su superficie podrían ser los portadores de esta información (que los sistemas biológicos son capaces de identificar) hasta el blanco. Se sabe que esas nanopartículas, como otras formas de sílice, son capaces de interactuar con proteínas y céluals del sistema inmune, de modo que la homeopatía podría representar una forma de nanomedicina. Sin embargo, posible confirmación exige nuevas vías de pesquisa en materiales agua interfacial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine , Homeopathy , Nanoparticles
16.
Homeopatia Méx ; 85(704): 7-15, Sept-Oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-11653

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la Homeopatía es un sistema empírico de curación con dos siglos de antigüedad, sometido a la prueba del tiempo. Los medicamentos homeopáticos son preparados mediante un procedimiento característico denominado poteciación, durante el cual se realizan diluciones en serie con sacudidas intensas en cada paso de la dilución. La homeopatía es controvertida porque la mayoría de los medicamentos utilizados no contienen una sola molécula de la sustancia de partida correspondiente. Objetivo: estudiar un posible mecanismo de acción de los medicamnetos homeopáticos a la luz de la nanociencia. Metodologia: Se prepararon muestras ultra-puras que fueron examinadas por microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés) y microscopía de trasmisión electrónica de barrido (TEM, por sus siglas en inglés) y análisis de energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX, por sus siglas en inglés). También se realizó un análisis de oligoelementos (TEA, por sus siglas en inglés) para el silicio. Resultados: Los medicamentos homeopáticos no resultaron ser "nada", snio que contenían nanopartículas y los conglomerados de las mismas, que eran de naturaleza cristalina y ricos en silicio.Conclusiones: Durante las sacudidas intensas involucradas en el proceso de potenciación, la información derivada de la sustancia de partida sometida a dilución gradual podría ser codificada por epitaxia de las nanopartículas cristalinas ricas en silicio presentes en el medicamento homeopático resultante[...] Sin embargo, la posible confirmación de esto requiere de la realización de investigación adicional sobre los materiales y el agua interfacial. (AU)


Background: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Hoemopathic medicines are prepared through a characterustuc process know as potentization, where serial silutions are perfomed with strong strokes at each step of dilution> Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one sigle molecule of the corresponding starting-substance.Aim: To investigate a possible nanosciene mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines.Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nonodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed.Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be "nothing", but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, wich had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon.Conclusions: During the violente strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. [...] Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.(AU)


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Nanomedicine , Pulsatilla nigricans , Colchicinum , Atropa belladonna
17.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 9(30)2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-542661

ABSTRACT

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a group of homeopathic medicines in children with acute rhinitis. Materials and methods: In this multi-centric open clinical trial, a total of 784 children (408 males; 384 females) aged 6 months to 15 years, presenting symptoms of acute rhinitis were enrolled from 7 Institutes/ Units under the Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (India). Symptoms were assessed using an acute rhinitis symptom score (ARSS). A total of 13 homeopathic medicines were shortlisted after repertorizing the nosological symptoms of acute rhinitis in children and the results were analyzed. The medicines were prescribed in dilution 6c (10-12) and doses were repeated from few minutes to few hours as per the need of the case. Appearance of any change (improvement or worsening) was followed by placebo / change in dilution or change in medicine according to the response of the patient. The follow up period was up to the 7th day of illness. Results: Out of 784 children enrolled, 638 children were followed up and analyzed. A significant change in the score from the baseline (p<0.05) was observed. Twelve medicines were found to be useful in 638 children suffering from acute rhinitis and among them Nux-v (n=109), Merc (n=106) and Bell (n=88) were the most useful. No complications were observed during the treatment. Adverse events in the form of hyperpyrexia were observed in 2 children only. Conclusion: This study indicates the usefulness of homeopathic medicines in the management of acute rhinitis of children; controlled studies are needed to investigate their efficacy and effectiveness.


Objetivos; este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de um grupo de medicamentos em crianças com rinite aguda. Materiais e métodos: neste estudo multicêntrico aberto, foram recrutadas 784 crianças (408 masculinas; 384 femininas) com idade entre 6 meses e 15 anos apresentando sintomas de rinite aguda e que consultaram 7 institutos/centros sob o Conselho Central de Pesquisa em Homeopatia (Índia). Os sintomas foram avaliados através de um escore para sintomas de rinite aguda (ARSS). Um total de 13 medicamentos homeopáticos foi estabelecido após repertorização dos sintomas nosológicos da rinite aguda em crianças e os resultados foram analisados. Os medicamentos foram prescritos na diluição 6cH (10-12) e as doses foram repetidas de minutos a horas segundo a necessidade em cada caso. O aparecimento de qualquer mudança (melhora ou piora) foi seguido pela prescrição de placebo ou mudança da diluição ou do medicamento, de acordo com a resposta do paciente. O período de acompanhamento foi até o 7º dia da doença. Resultados: dentre as 784 crianças recrutadas, 638 foram acompanhadas e analisadas. Houve mudança significativa no escore (p<0,05) por comparação ao ingresso. Doze medicamentos foram úteis em 638 crianças com rinite aguda, entre eles Nux-v (n=109), Merc (n=106) e Bell (n=88) foram os mais úteis. Não foram observadas complicações durante o tratamento. Efeitos adversos sob a forma de hiperpirexia foram observados somente em 2 crianças. Conclusão: este estudo indica a utilidade dos medicamentos homeopáticos no manejo da rinite aguda em crianças; são necessários estudos controlados para determinar sua eficácia e efetividade.


Objetivos: este estudio buscó evaluar el efecto de un grupo de medicamentos homeopáticos en niños portadores de rinitis aguda. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio multicéntrico abierto fueron reclutados 784 niños (408 niños; 384 niñas) de edad entre 6 meses y 15 años que consultaron con síntomas de rinitis aguda en 7 institutos/centros dependientes del Consejo Central de Investigación en Homeopatía (India). Los síntomas fueron evaluados mediante un score para síntomas de rinitis aguda (ARSS). Fueron listados 13 medicamentos homeopáticos después de repertorización y análisis de los síntomas de rinitis aguda en niños. Los medicamentos fueron prescritos en la dilución 6cH (10~12) y las dosis fueron repetidas desde minutos a horas según la necesidad en cada caso. La aparición de todo cambio (mejoría o empeoramiento) fue seguida de prescripción de placebo/cambio de la dilución o del medicamento según la respuesta del paciente. Los pacientes fueron acompañados hasta el 7º día de tratamiento. Resultados: De 784 niños reclutados, 638 fueron acompañados y analizados. Fue observado cambio significativo en el score (p<0,05). Doce medicamentos se mostraron útiles en 638 niños portadores de rinitis aguda; entre ellos, Nux-v (n=108), Merc (n=106) y Bell (n=88) fueron los más útiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Homeopathy , Homeopathic Remedy , Rhinitis
18.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 9(30): 30-42, 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: hom-10396

ABSTRACT

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a group of homeopathic medicines in children with acute rhinitis. Materials and methods: In this multi-centric open clinical trial, a total of 784 children (408 males; 384 females) aged 6 months to 15 years, presenting symptoms of acute rhinitis were enrolled from 7 Institutes/ Units under the Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (India). Symptoms were assessed using an acute rhinitis symptom score (ARSS). A total of 13 homeopathic medicines were shortlisted after repertorizing the nosological symptoms of acute rhinitis in children and the results were analyzed. The medicines were prescribed in dilution 6c (10-12) and doses were repeated from few minutes to few hours as per the need of the case. Appearance of any change (improvement or worsening) was followed by placebo / change in dilution or change in medicine according to the response of the patient. The follow up period was up to the 7th day of illness. Results: Out of 784 children enrolled, 638 children were followed up and analyzed. A significant change in the score from the baseline (p<0.05) was observed. Twelve medicines were found to be useful in 638 children suffering from acute rhinitis and among them Nux-v (n=109), Merc (n=106) and Bell (n=88) were the most useful. No complications were observed during the treatment. Adverse events in the form of hyperpyrexia were observed in 2 children only. Conclusion: This study indicates the usefulness of homeopathic medicines in the management of acute rhinitis of children; controlled studies are needed to investigate their efficacy and effectiveness.(AU)


Objetivos; este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de um grupo de medicamentos em crianças com rinite aguda. Materiais e métodos: neste estudo multicêntrico aberto, foram recrutadas 784 crianças (408 masculinas; 384 femininas) com idade entre 6 meses e 15 anos apresentando sintomas de rinite aguda e que consultaram 7 institutos/centros sob o Conselho Central de Pesquisa em Homeopatia (Índia). Os sintomas foram avaliados através de um escore para sintomas de rinite aguda (ARSS). Um total de 13 medicamentos homeopáticos foi estabelecido após repertorização dos sintomas nosológicos da rinite aguda em crianças e os resultados foram analisados. Os medicamentos foram prescritos na diluição 6cH (10-12) e as doses foram repetidas de minutos a horas segundo a necessidade em cada caso. O aparecimento de qualquer mudança (melhora ou piora) foi seguido pela prescrição de placebo ou mudança da diluição ou do medicamento, de acordo com a resposta do paciente. O período de acompanhamento foi até o 7º dia da doença. Resultados: dentre as 784 crianças recrutadas, 638 foram acompanhadas e analisadas. Houve mudança significativa no escore (p<0,05) por comparação ao ingresso. Doze medicamentos foram úteis em 638 crianças com rinite aguda, entre eles Nux-v (n=109), Merc (n=106) e Bell (n=88) foram os mais úteis. Não foram observadas complicações durante o tratamento. Efeitos adversos sob a forma de hiperpirexia foram observados somente em 2 crianças. Conclusão: este estudo indica a utilidade dos medicamentos homeopáticos no manejo da rinite aguda em crianças; são necessários estudos controlados para determinar sua eficácia e efetividade.(AU)


Objetivos: este estudio buscó evaluar el efecto de un grupo de medicamentos homeopáticos en niños portadores de rinitis aguda. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio multicéntrico abierto fueron reclutados 784 niños (408 niños; 384 niñas) de edad entre 6 meses y 15 años que consultaron con síntomas de rinitis aguda en 7 institutos/centros dependientes del Consejo Central de Investigación en Homeopatía (India). Los síntomas fueron evaluados mediante un score para síntomas de rinitis aguda (ARSS). Fueron listados 13 medicamentos homeopáticos después de repertorización y análisis de los síntomas de rinitis aguda en niños. Los medicamentos fueron prescritos en la dilución 6cH (10~12) y las dosis fueron repetidas desde minutos a horas según la necesidad en cada caso. La aparición de todo cambio (mejoría o empeoramiento) fue seguida de prescripción de placebo/cambio de la dilución o del medicamento según la respuesta del paciente. Los pacientes fueron acompañados hasta el 7º día de tratamiento. Resultados: De 784 niños reclutados, 638 fueron acompañados y analizados. Fue observado cambio significativo en el score (p<0,05). Doce medicamentos se mostraron útiles en 638 niños portadores de rinitis aguda; entre ellos, Nux-v (n=108), Merc (n=106) y Bell (n=88) fueron los más útiles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Homeopathy , Rhinitis , Homeopathic Remedy
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 7(23): 56-62, 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529857

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a common disease, widespread all over the world, that has no satisfactory treatment up to now. Homeopathy has a long tradition of being used to treat influenza and has accumulated empirical and experimental evidence showing positive effects. Large scale observational studies in different continents have never been carried out to assess the overall benefits of homeopathy in flu, what prescription strategy and medicines are more effective and for which group of patients it can be most helpful. On the other hand, there is a predicted pandemic of avian flu and it is important to be proactive and to be prepared to test homeopathy in this context. This worldwide study will collect observational data on patients with influenza or influenza-like illness treated with homeopathic by experienced homeopathic doctors during a period of 2 years. Measurements will include duration of influenza illness, change in total score of symptoms and clinical scales, as well as safety aspects (presence of adverse effects and complications). Homeopathic and any conventional medicines prescribed will be registered. Data will be entered and loaded in a web application, and will be statistically analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques. Ethical approval will be sought, and all cases are to be submitted in an anonymous way to protect patient identity. This project aims to enable collection of useful data, together with the development of information technology infrastructure, that could be useful in future multi-centre randomized controlled trials in the treatment of influenza patients with homeopathy, besides testing a new strategy for accumulating evidence on the benefit of homeopathic treatment in other diseases and conditions.


A influenza é uma moléstia comum, distribuída no mundo todo, sem tratamento satisfatório na atualidade. A homeopatia possui uma longa tradição de uso na influenza e acumula evidências empíricas e experimentais de seu efeito positivo. No entanto, não têm sido realizados estudos observacionais em larga escala em diversos continentes para determinar quais são os benefícios globais da homeopatia neste quadro; quais são as estratégias prescritivas e os medicamentos mais eficazes e em quais grupos de pacientes pode ser mais benéfica. Por outro lado, está prevista uma pandemia de gripe aviária, motivo pelo qual é fundamental se adotar uma atitude ativa e estar preparados para testar a homeopatia neste contexto. Este estudo, de abrangência mundial, registrará dados observacionais de pacientes com influenza ou moléstias semelhantes, tratados homeopaticamente por médicos experientes, durante um período de 2 anos.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Homeopathy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine
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