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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298430

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture but can present chronic toxicity in low concentrations. Artemia salina is a common bio-indicator of ecotoxicity; it was used herein as a model to evaluate the effect of highly diluted-succussed glyphosate (potentized glyphosate) in glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) exposed living systems. Artemia salina cysts were kept in artificial seawater with 0.02% glyphosate (corresponding to 10% lethal concentration or LC10) under constant oxygenation, luminosity, and controlled temperature, to promote hatching in 48 h. Cysts were treated with 1% (v/v) potentized glyphosate in different dilution levels (Gly 6 cH, 30 cH, 200 cH) prepared the day before according to homeopathic techniques, using GBH from the same batch. Controls were unchallenged cysts, and cysts treated with succussed water or potentized vehicle. After 48 h, the number of born nauplii per 100 µL, nauplii vitality, and morphology were evaluated. The remaining seawater was used for physicochemical analyses using solvatochromic dyes. In a second set of experiments, Gly 6 cH treated cysts were observed under different degrees of salinity (50 to 100% seawater) and GBH concentrations (zero to LC 50); hatching and nauplii activity were recorded and analyzed using the ImageJ 1.52, plug-in Trackmate. The treatments were performed blind, and the codes were revealed after statistical analysis. Gly 6 cH increased nauplii vitality (p = 0.01) and improved the healthy/defective nauplii ratio (p = 0.005) but delayed hatching (p = 0.02). Overall, these results suggest Gly 6cH treatment promotes the emergence of the more GBH-resistant phenotype in the nauplii population. Also, Gly 6cH delays hatching, another useful survival mechanism in the presence of stress. Hatching arrest was most marked in 80% seawater when exposed to glyphosate at LC10. Water samples treated with Gly 6 cH showed specific interactions with solvatochromic dyes, mainly Coumarin 7, such that it appears to be a potential physicochemical marker for Gly 6 cH. In short, Gly 6 cH treatment appears to protect the Artemia salina population exposed to GBH at low concentrations.


Subject(s)
Cysts , Herbicides , Animals , Artemia , Herbicides/toxicity , Water/pharmacology , Glyphosate
2.
Homeopathy ; 111(2): 105-112, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 quickly became a serious public health problem worldwide, with serious economic and social repercussions. Homeopaths around the world have been studying to find a genus epidemicus (GE) medicine that might help in the prevention and treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of COVID-19 between employees who received or did not receive a homeopathic GE medicine for disease prevention. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis. The study population comprised all employees of a service sector company in São Paulo, Brazil, and followed up by the corporate Occupational Health department. Intervention consisted of administering Arsenicum album 30cH in a one-weekly dose. Primary outcome was incidence of COVID-19 during 3-months' follow-up (April to July, 2020). RESULTS: We analyzed 1,642 of 1,703 employees without previous diagnosis of COVID-19 at onset of the study period: 53.34% of employees were referred to telework at home and did not receive intervention (Group 1, G1); 24.66% remained working on-premises in the state of São Paulo and received the intervention (Group 2, G2); 21.98% remained working on company premises in other states and did not receive intervention (Group 3, G3). Incidence rate of COVID-19 was respectively 13.35%, 0.74%, and 67.87% (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of being infected in (1) G3 versus G1 was 13.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.21 to 18.39), (2) G3 versus G2 was 283.02 (95% CI, 88.98 to 900.18), and (3) G1 versus G2 was 20.66 (95% CI, 6.53 to 65.39). LIMITATIONS: The present is a retrospective analysis of a real-world experience. We could not ensure direct observed treatment, and neither could we control adherence to general prevention measures outside company premises. CONCLUSION: The incidence of COVID-19 was significantly lower amongst on-premises employees who received the GE medication in comparison to workers who did not receive the intervention (those either at other company premises or teleworking at home).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
3.
Homeopathy ; 110(4): 244-255, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474498

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Finding solutions to mitigate the impact of pollution on living systems is a matter of great interest. Homeopathic preparations of toxic substances have been described in the literature as attenuation factors for intoxication. Herein, an experimental study using Artemia salina and mercury chloride was developed as a model to identify aspects related to bioresilience. AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe the effects of homeopathic Mercurius corrosivus (MC) on Artemia salina cysts hatching and on mercury bioavailability. METHODS: Artemia salina cysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC potencies (6cH, 30cH, and 200cH) were prepared in sterile purified water and poured into artificial sea water. Different controls were used (non-challenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatching. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MC biological activity. RESULTS: Significant delay (p < 0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed only after treatment with MC 30cH, compared with controls. This result was associated with an increase of THg concentration in water (p = 0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p < 0.0001) in suspended micraggregates, suggesting changes in mercury bioavailability. A specific interaction of MC 30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p = 0.0017) was found. CONCLUSION: Changes in hatching rate and possible changes in Hg bioavailability are postulated as protective effects of MC 30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its natural bioresilience processes.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Mercury , Animals , Artemia , Chlorides , Mercuric Chloride
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 9-9, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396587

ABSTRACT

Different environmental conditions can influence the effects of toxic agents on living beings. Recently, a series of experiments performed in Artemia salina submitted to different kinds of intoxication have shown that both, isotherapic and succussed watercan change Artemia salina ́s bio resilience at different levels. Moreover, it seems to vary according to the circalunar cycle. Objective:To verify if circalunar phases and water agitation can modify the toxicity of lead chloride on Artemia salina in vitro. Methodology:Artemia salina cysts were exposed to seawater containing 0.04% of lead chloride (equal to EC10 or 10% effective concentration, previously determined in a pilot study) in 96-well culture plates. Thirty-six experimental repetitions were performed in four series to observe the possible effects of adding stirred water, the so-called succussed water, and the moon phases. The hatched cysts were recorded after 48 hours using a digital microscope (1000x magnification) to identify the hatching percentage and the viability and mobility of the born nauplii. Results:The exposition of cysts to PbCl2 led to an increase in the hatching rate, and it was more evident during the full moon (p = 0.00014) The addition of succussed water into the seawater medium reduced this effect to the baseline levels. An increase in mobility was seen in nauplii born from exposed cysts during the full moon (p = 0.00077), but this effect was not affected by the treatment with succussed water. Discussion:Although the effects of lead chloride EC10 on the increase of nauplii hatching were expected, two environmental variables changed the sensitivity of cysts to this harmful stimulus. The circalunar cycle varied the hatching rate according to the moon phase, even in laboratory conditions, and the addition of succussed water into the medium reduced the hatching rate, even with different intensities according to the moon phase. The organization of nano and microbubbles generated after the succussion of water could be related to this protective effect and can explain, at least partially the effects of high diluted preparations on this biological context. Conclusion:Environmental factors, such as the circalunar cycle and products of water agitation, can modulate the adaptative control of hatching in Artemia salina exposed to lead chloride at EC10.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia , Chlorides/analysis , Ecotoxicology
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 6-6, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396757

ABSTRACT

Isotherapics preparedfromtoxic substances have been described as attenuation factors for heavy metal intoxicationin aquatic animals. Herein, Artemia salinaand mercury chloride were usedas a model to identify treatment-related bioresilience. The aim was to describe the effects of Mercurius corrosivus(MC) in different potencies on Artemia salinacyst hatching and on mercury bioavailability. Artemia salinacysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC6cH, 30cH, and 200cHwere prepared and poured into artificial seawater. Different controls were used (nonchallenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed for4 weeks to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatchingconsidering all moon phases. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MCbiological activity. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed modelswas used for evaluating the effect of different treatments andthe simultaneous influence of the moon phases on the cystshatching rate, at both observation times (24 and 48 hours).When necessary, outliers were removed, using the Tukeycriterion.Thelevel of significance αwas set at 5%. Significant delay (p<0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed after treatment with MC30cH, compared with the controls. An increase inTHg concentration in seawater (p<0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p<0.0001) in suspended micro-aggregateswas also seen, with possiblerelation with mercury bioavailability. Specific interaction of MC30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p<0.0017) was found. The other observed potencies of Mercurius corrosivus6 and 200 cH were not significant in relation to the observed groups.The results werepostulated as being protective effects of MC30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its bioresilience.


Subject(s)
Artemia , Ecotoxicology , Homeopathy , Mercury
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