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1.
Homeopathy ; 113(2): 67-79, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-diabetes (PD) contributes importantly to the disease burden worldwide and is a precursor to stroke, cardiovascular diseases, as well as type-2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: In this project, the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) was explored against placebos in the treatment of PD. METHODS: A 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the outpatient departments of a homeopathic medical college and hospital in India. Sixty participants with PD were randomized to receive either IHMs (n = 30) or identical-looking placebos (n = 30). Concomitant care measures were advised to both groups of participants in terms of dietary advice, yoga, meditation and exercise. The primary outcome measures were fasting blood sugar (FBS) and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); the secondary outcome was the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score. All the outcomes were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Inter-group differences and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance models after adjusting baseline differences using analysis of co-variance on the intention-to-treat data. RESULTS: Between-group differences for FBS were statistically significant, favoring IHMs against placebos (F 1,58 = 7.798, p = 0.007), but not for OGTT (F 1,58 = 1.691, p = 0.199). The secondary outcome, DSC-R total score, favoring IHMs significantly compared with placebos (F 1,58 = 15.752, p < 0.001). Calcarea Carbonicum, Thuja occidentalis and Sulphur were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No harm or serious adverse events were recorded from either of the participant groups. CONCLUSION: IHMs produced significantly better results than placebos in FBS and in DSC-R scores but not in OGTT. Independent replications with larger sample sizes are warranted to substantiate the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/10/021711.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Prediabetic State , Humans , Homeopathy/methods , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
2.
Homeopathy ; 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arsenicum album, Causticum, Nux vomica, Pulsatilla nigricans, Rhus toxicodendron and Sulphur are frequently prescribed homeopathic medicines; however, their symptoms, as mentioned in different homeopathic literature works, have rarely been investigated systematically. Likelihood ratio (LR), based on Bayesian statistics, may reflect a better estimation of the strengths of symptoms than the existing entries in the homeopathic literature. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, analytical patient outcome study was conducted in the outpatient departments of D. N. De Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, on 1,954 patients over 21 months. The outcomes were recorded at each follow-up using the Outcome Related to Impact on Daily Living (ORIDL) +4 to -4 scale. The average period of treatment for each participant was 3 months. The LRs of four symptoms for each of the six selected medicines were calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and two different remedies were prescribed. The prevalence, LR + , and LR - , with respective 95% confidence intervals, of different symptoms were reported. The study found that the following symptoms had particularly high LR+ scores: "intense sympathy for the suffering of others" (Causticum, LR+ = 12.0); "dyspepsia from business anxiety" (Nux vomica, LR+ = 27.4); "burning pain relieved by heat" (Arsenicum album, LR+ = 29.6); "envy" (Pulsatilla nigricans, LR+ = 13.2); "desire for milk" (Rhus toxicodendron, LR+ = 7.5); "very selfish, no regard for others" (Sulphur, LR+ = 20.6). The findings corroborated well with the presentation of the symptoms in different homeopathic materia medica and repertories. ORIDL scores of +2 or greater were identified most prominently for Pulsatilla nigricans (n = 138) and Sulphur (n = 119). CONCLUSION: There was adequate evidence to attribute all the assessed symptoms to the medicines investigated. Further studies with a larger population are warranted to tackle the possible confirmation bias.

3.
Homeopathy ; 112(4): 251-261, 2023 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36882111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin disease that can have a significant impact on quality of life. During the last four decades, a rising trend in AD has been observed in India. Homeopathic medicines are claimed to be beneficial in AD; however, convincing research evidence has been lacking. We compared the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) against placebos in the treatment of AD. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 6 months' duration (n = 60), adult patients were randomized to receive either IHMs (n = 30) or identical-looking placebos (n = 30). All participants received concomitant conventional care, which included the application of olive oil and maintaining local hygiene. The primary outcome measure was disease severity using the Patient-Oriented Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD) scale; secondary outcomes were the Atopic Dermatitis Burden Scale for Adults (ADBSA) and Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI) - all were measured at baseline and every month, up to 6 months. Group differences were calculated on the intention-to-treat sample. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, inter-group differences became statistically significant on PO-SCORAD, the primary outcome (-18.1; 95% confidence interval, -24.0 to -12.2), favoring IHMs against placebos (F 1, 52 = 14.735; p <0.001; two-way repeated measures analysis of variance). Inter-group differences for the secondary outcomes favored homeopathy, but were overall statistically non-significant (ADBSA: F 1, 52 = 0.019; p = 0.891; DLQI: F 1, 52 = 0.692; p = 0.409). CONCLUSION: IHMs performed significantly better than placebos in reducing the severity of AD in adults, though the medicines had no overall significant impact on AD burden or DLQI.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Homeopathy , Humans , Adult , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Follow-Up Studies , Double-Blind Method , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
4.
Homeopathy ; 112(2): 85-96, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122588

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia (HU) is a major health issue in India and across the globe. It increases the disease burden and hampers quality of life. This study was aimed at exploring the effects of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) against placebo in the treatment of HU. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients suffering from HU in the outpatient department of D. N. De Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. Each patient received either IHMs or identical-looking placebos, along with advice on dietary modifications irrespective of codes. Serum uric acid (SUA) level was the primary outcome measure; the HU quality of life questionnaire (HUQLQ) and the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP-2) were the secondary outcomes; all measured at baseline, and every month, up to 3 months. Group differences were examined by two-way (split-half) repeated-measures analysis of variance after adjusting for baseline differences. Significance level was set at p ≤0.05, two-tailed. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat sample (n = 58) was analyzed. Between-group differences in SUA levels (F 1, 56 = 13.833, p <0.001), HUQLQ scores (F 1, 56 = 32.982, p <0.001) and MYMOP-2 profile scores (F 1, 56 = 23.873, p <0.001) were statistically significant, favoring IHMs against placebos, with medium to large effect sizes. Calcarea carbonica and Pulsatilla nigricans were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No serious adverse events were reported from either of the groups. CONCLUSION: IHMs showed significantly better results than placebos in reducing SUA levels and improving quality of life in patients suffering from HU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/10/021503; UTN: U1111-1241-1431.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Hyperuricemia , Materia Medica , Humans , Homeopathy/methods , Quality of Life , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Hyperuricemia/etiology , Uric Acid , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
5.
Homeopathy ; 112(2): 74-84, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (TC; ringworm or dermatophytosis) is a superficial skin infection caused by Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton genera of dermatophytes. We compared the effects of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) in fifty-millesimal (LM) potencies against placebo in TC. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two parallel arms trial was conducted on 62 individuals suffering from TC at the National Institute of Homoeopathy, India. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either IHMs in LM potencies or identical-looking placebos for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure was the number of participants showing complete disappearance of skin lesions after 3 months. Secondary outcomes were a numeric rating scale (NRS) measuring intensity of itching and the Skindex-29 questionnaire (overall, and three sub-scales - degree of symptoms, psychological functioning, emotional status). All were assessed at baseline and every month, up to 3 months. The intention-to-treat sample was analyzed to detect inter-group differences using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance after adjusting for baseline differences. RESULTS: The primary outcome revealed no improvement in either of the groups (χ 2 = 0.012, p = 0.999). Inter-group differences in some of the secondary outcomes favored IHMs against placebo - itching NRS (mean group difference after 3 months: -0.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1 to -0.4; p = 0.001); Skindex-29 overall (mean group difference after 3 months: 3.2 [95% CI, -0.6 to 7.0; p = 0.009]); Skindex-29 degree of symptoms (mean group difference after 3 months: 0.9 [95% CI, -0.2 to 1.9; p = 0.007]); and Skindex-29 psychological functioning (mean group difference after 3 months: 1.7 [95% CI, 0-3.4; p = 0.002]). CONCLUSION: Results were negative on the primary outcome; however, secondary outcomes included some statistically significant results favoring IHMs against placebo after 3 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/11/021999; UTN: U1111-1242-0070.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Tinea , Humans , Homeopathy/methods , Double-Blind Method , Tinea/drug therapy , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Pruritus/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Homeopathy ; 112(3): 170-183, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513330

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases, contributes to 0.5% of the total disease burden. The burden is highest in sub-Saharan Africa, central Asia, central and Andean Latin America, and south-east Asia. Asian countries report an overall prevalence of 6/1,000 and that in India of 5.59/1,000. We examined whether individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) can produce a significantly different effect from placebos in treatment of pediatric epilepsy in the context of ongoing standard care (SC) using anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: The study was a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 60) conducted at the pediatric outpatient department of a homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. Patients were randomized to receive either IHMs plus SC (n = 30) or identical-looking placebos plus SC (n = 30). The primary outcome measure was the Hague Seizure Severity Scale (HASS); secondary outcomes were the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE-16) and the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL) questionnaires; all were measured at baseline and after the 3rd and 6th month of intervention. The intention-to-treat sample was analyzed to detect group differences and effect sizes. RESULTS: Recruitment and retention rates were 65.2% and 91.7% respectively. Although improvements were greater in the IHMs group than with placebos, with small to medium effect sizes, the inter-group differences were statistically non-significant - for HASS (F 1, 58 = 0.000, p = 1.000, two-way repeated measures analysis of variance), QOLCE-16 (F 1, 58 = 1.428, p = 0.237), PedsQL (2-4 years) (F 1, 8 = 0.685, p = 0.432) and PedsQL (5-18 years) (F 1, 47 = 0.000, p = 0.995). Calcarea carbonica, Ignatia amara, Natrum muriaticum and Phosphorus were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No serious adverse events were reported from either of the two groups. CONCLUSION: Improvements in the outcome measures were statistically non-significantly greater in the IHMs group than in the placebos group, with small effect sizes. A different trial design and prescribing approach might work better in future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2018/10/016027.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Humans , Child , Quality of Life , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/etiology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Homeopathy ; 112(4): 240-250, 2023 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696909

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lumbar spondylosis (LS) is a degenerative disorder of the lumbar spine. Despite substantial research efforts, no gold-standard treatment for LS has been identified. The efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) in LS has remained under-researched. In this study, the efficacy of IHMs was compared with identical-looking placebos in the treatment of low back pain associated with LS. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the National Institute of Homoeopathy, West Bengal, India. Patients were randomized to receive IHMs or placebos, along with standardized concomitant care for both the groups. The Oswestry low back pain and disability questionnaire (ODQ) was the primary outcome; the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) and the short form of the McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) were the secondary outcomes. Each was measured at baseline and every month for 3 months. The intention-to-treat (ITT) sample was analyzed to detect any inter-group differences using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance models overall and by unpaired t-tests at different time points. RESULTS: Enrolment was stopped prematurely because of time restrictions; 55 patients were randomized (verum: 28; control: 27); 49 were analyzed by ITT (verum: 26; control: 23). Inter-group differences in ODQ (F 1, 47 = 0.001, p = 0.977), RMQ (F 1, 47 = 0.190, p = 0.665) and SF-MPQ total score (F 1, 47 = 3.183, p = 0.081) at 3 months were not statistically significant. SF-MPQ total score after 2 months (p = 0.030) revealed inter-group statistical significance, favoring IHMs against placebos. Some of the SF-MPQ sub-scales at different time points were also statistically significant: e.g., the SF-MPQ average pain score after 2 months (p = 0.002) and 3 months (p = 0.007). Rhus toxicodendron, Sulphur and Pulsatilla nigricans were the most frequently indicated medicines. CONCLUSION: Owing to failure in detecting a statistically significant effect for the primary outcome and in recruiting a sufficient number of participants, our trial remained inconclusive. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/11/021918.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Low Back Pain , Spondylosis , Humans , Low Back Pain/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method
8.
Homeopathy ; 2023 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed at examining the feasibility issues of comparing individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) with identical-looking placebos for treating knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Forty eligible patients participated in this double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled feasibility trial in the outpatient clinics of a homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. Either IHMs or identical-looking placebos were administered, along with mutually agreed-upon concomitant care guidelines. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was the primary outcome measure, and derived Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores from KOOS, EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were the secondary outcomes; all measured at baseline and after 2 months. Group differences and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were estimated using an intention-to-treat approach. p-Values less than 0.05 (two-tailed) were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Enrolment/screening and trial retention rates were 43% and 85% respectively. Recruitment was difficult owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Group differences were statistically significant, favoring IHMs against placebos in all the KOOS sub-scales: symptoms (p < 0.001), pain (p = 0.002), activities of daily living (p < 0.001), sports or recreation (p = 0.016), and quality of life (p = 0.002). Derived WOMAC scores from KOOS favored IHMs against placebos: stiffness (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.001). The EQ-5D-5L questionnaire score (p < 0.001) and EQ-5D-5L VAS scores (p < 0.001) also yielded significant results, favoring IHMs over placebos. All the effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Sulphur was the most frequently prescribed homeopathic medication. Neither group reported any harm or serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although recruitment was sub-optimal due to prevailing COVID-19 conditions during the trial, the action of IHMs was found to be superior to that of placebos in the treatment of knee OA. Larger and more definitive studies, with independent replications, are required to substantiate the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2021/02/031453.

9.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 22-30, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a chronic degenerative condition causing marked thickening and fibrosis of the plantar fascia, and collagen necrosis, chondroid metaplasia and calcification. There is little convincing evidence in support of various approaches, including homeopathy, for treating PF. This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) compared with placebo in the treatment of PF. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the outpatient departments of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. Patients were randomized to receive either IHMs or identical-looking placebo in the mutual context of conservative non-medicinal management. The Foot Function Index (FFI) questionnaire, as an outcome measure, was administered at baseline, and every month, up to 3 months. Group differences (unpaired t-tests) and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated on an intention-to-treat sample. The sample was analyzed statistically after adjusting for baseline differences. RESULTS: The target sample size was 128; however, only 75 could be enrolled (IHMs: 37; Placebo: 38). Attrition rate was 9.3% (IHMs: 4, Placebo: 3). Differences between groups in total FFI% score favored IHMs against placebo at all the time points, with large effect sizes: month 1 (mean difference, -10.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], -15.7 to -4.2; p = 0.001; d = 0.8); month 2 (mean difference, -14.3; 95% CI, -20.4 to -8.2; p <0.001; d = 1.1); and month 3 (mean difference, -23.3; 95% CI, -30.5 to -16.2; p <0.001; d = 1.5). Similar significant results were also observed on three FFI sub-scales (pain%, disability%, and activity limitation%). Natrum muriaticum (n = 14; 18.7%) and Rhus toxicodendron and Ruta graveolens (n = 11 each; 14.7%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No harms, serious adverse events, or intercurrent illnesses were recorded in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: IHMs acted significantly better than placebo in the treatment of PF; however, the trial being underpowered, the results should be interpreted as preliminary only. Independent replications are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2018/10/016014.


Subject(s)
Fasciitis, Plantar , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Double-Blind Method , Fasciitis, Plantar/drug therapy , Humans , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
10.
Homeopathy ; 111(4): 240-251, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acne is estimated to affect 9.4% of the global population, making it the 8th most prevalent disease worldwide. Acne vulgaris (AV) is among the diseases that directly affect quality of life. This trial evaluated the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHM) against placebo in AV. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the National Institute of Homoeopathy, India, 126 patients suffering from AV were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either IHM (verum) in centesimal potencies or identical-looking placebo (control). The primary outcome measure was the Global Acne Grading System score; secondary outcomes were the Cardiff Acne Disability Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires - all measured at baseline and 3 months after the intervention. Group differences and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated on the intention-to-treat sample. RESULTS: Overall, improvements were greater in the IHM group than placebo, with small to medium effect sizes after 3 months of intervention; however, the inter-group differences were statistically non-significant. Sulphur (17.5%), Natrum muriaticum (15.1%), Calcarea phosphorica (14.3%), Pulsatilla nigricans (10.3%), and Antimonium crudum (7.1%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines; Pulsatilla nigricans, Tuberculinum bovinum and Natrum muriaticum were the most effective of those used. No harms, unintended effects, homeopathic aggravations or any serious adverse events were reported from either group. CONCLUSION: There was non-significant direction of effect favoring homeopathy against placebo in the treatment of AV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2018/11/016248; UTN: U1111-1221-8164.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Humans , Quality of Life , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
11.
Homeopathy ; 111(2): 97-104, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is some evidence that homeopathic treatment has been used successfully in previous epidemics, and currently some countries are testing homeoprophylaxis for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is a strong tradition of homeopathic treatment in India: therefore, we decided to compare three different homeopathic medicines against placebo in prevention of COVID-19 infections. METHODS: In this double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, four parallel arms, community-based, clinical trial, a 20,000-person sample of the population residing in Ward Number 57 of the Tangra area, Kolkata, was randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio of clusters to receive one of three homeopathic medicines (Bryonia alba 30cH, Gelsemium sempervirens 30cH, Phosphorus 30cH) or identical-looking placebo, for 3 (children) or 6 (adults) days. All the participants, who were aged 5 to 75 years, received ascorbic acid (vitamin C) tablets of 500 mg, once per day for 6 days. In addition, instructions on healthy diet and general hygienic measures, including hand washing, social distancing and proper use of mask and gloves, were given to all the participants. RESULTS: No new confirmed COVID-19 cases were diagnosed in the target population during the follow-up timeframe of 1 month-December 20, 2020 to January 19, 2021-thus making the trial inconclusive. The Phosphorus group had the least exposure to COVID-19 compared with the other groups. In comparison with placebo, the occurrence of unconfirmed COVID-19 cases was significantly less in the Phosphorus group (week 1: odds ratio [OR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.16; week 2: OR, 0.004; 95% CI, 0.0002 to 0.06; week 3: OR, 0.007; 95% CI, 0.0004 to 0.11; week 4: OR, 0.009; 95% CI, 0.0006 to 0.14), but not in the Bryonia or Gelsemium groups. CONCLUSION: Overall, the trial was inconclusive. The possible effect exerted by Phosphorus necessitates further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2020/11/029265.


Subject(s)
Bryonia , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Gelsemium , Homeopathy , Materia Medica , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phosphorus , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 149-159, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though frequently used in practice, research studies have shown inconclusive benefits of homeopathy in the treatment of warts. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a future definitive trial, with preliminary assessment of differences between effects of individualized homeopathic (IH) medicines and placebos in treatment of cutaneous warts. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 60) was conducted at the dermatology outpatient department of D.N. De Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal. Patients were randomized to receive either IH (n = 30) or identical-looking placebo (n = 30). Primary outcome measures were numbers and sizes of the warts; secondary outcome was the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire measured at baseline, and every month up to 3 months. Group differences and effect sizes were calculated on the intention-to-treat sample. RESULTS: Attrition rate was 11.6% (IH, 3; placebo, 4). Intra-group changes were significantly greater (all p < 0.05, Friedman tests) in IH than placebo. Inter-group differences were statistically non-significant (all p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney U tests) with small effect sizes-both in the primary outcomes (number of warts after 3 months: IH median [inter-quartile range; IQR] 1 [1, 3] vs. placebo 1 [1, 2]; p = 0.741; size of warts after 3 months: IH 5.6 mm [2.6, 40.2] vs. placebo 6.3 [0.8, 16.7]; p = 0.515) and in the secondary outcomes (DLQI total after 3 months: IH 4.5 [2, 6.2] vs. placebo 4.5 [2.5, 8]; p = 0.935). Thuja occidentalis (28.3%), Natrum muriaticum (10%) and Sulphur (8.3%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No harms, homeopathic aggravations, or serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: As regards efficacy, the preliminary study was inconclusive, with a statistically non-significant direction of effect favoring homeopathy. The trial succeeded in showing that an adequately powered definitive trial is both feasible and warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/10/021659; UTN: U1111-1241-7340.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Warts/drug therapy , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Materia Medica/standards , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Placebos , Treatment Outcome , Warts/physiopathology
13.
Homeopathy ; 110(1): 13-26, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder, with up to an estimated 134 million Indian sufferers, and having significant impact on quality of life (QOL) and health costs. Despite the evidence favoring homeopathy in CRS being inadequate, it is highly popular. This trial attempts to study the efficacy of individualized homeopathy (IH) medicines in comparison with placebo in patients with CRS. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, preliminary trial (n = 62) was conducted at the National Institute of Homoeopathy, West Bengal, India. Primary outcome measure was the sino-nasal outcome test-20 (SNOT-20) questionnaire; secondary outcomes were the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and EQ-5D-5L visual analog scale scores, and five numeric rating scales (0-10) assessing intensity of sneezing, rhinorrhea, post-nasal drip, facial pain/pressure, and disturbance in sense of smell, all measured at baseline and after the 2nd and 4th months of intervention. Group differences and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated on the intention-to-treat sample. RESULTS: Groups were comparable at baseline. Attrition rate was 6.5% (IH: 1, Placebo: 3). Although improvements in both primary and secondary outcome measures were higher in the IH group than placebo, with small to medium effect sizes, the group differences were statistically non-significant (all p > 0.05, unpaired t-tests). Calcarea carbonica, Lycopodium clavatum, Sulphur, Natrum muriaticum and Pulsatilla nigricans were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No harmful or unintended effects, homeopathic aggravations or any serious adverse events were reported from either group. CONCLUSION: There was a small but non-significant direction of effect favoring homeopathy, which ultimately renders the trial as inconclusive. Rigorous trials and independent replications are recommended to arrive at a confirmatory conclusion. [Trial registration: CTRI/2018/03/012557; UTN: U1111-1210-7201].


Subject(s)
Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
14.
Homeopathy ; 108(4): 240-247, 2019 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of temperament in the selection of an individualized homeopathic medicine has not been evaluated systematically. The current study explored this under-researched area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, open, randomized (1:1), two parallel arms, pilot trial was performed on patients suffering from various chronic diseases. Each patient's temperament was assessed using a newly developed "temperament diagnostic questionnaire". Outcome measures were health status using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and a visual analog scale (VAS) of patient's self-rated health, measured at baseline and at 3 months. Homeopathic medicines were prescribed on the basis of individualization, randomly with or without accounting for individual temperament, and patients grouped accordingly (temperament(+) and temperament(-)). Baseline comparability of the two groups was checked, followed by analysis of group differences. A p-value < 0.01 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Fifty protocol-compliant patients were analyzed. The two groups were comparable at baseline. Over 3 months of intervention, there was significant improvement (p < 0.01) in each group. Though improvement in the EQ-5D-5L score was greater in the temperament(+) group (mean difference, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 4.5), the change did not achieve the threshold for statistical significance (p = 0.029). Improvement in VAS score was significantly greater in the temperament(+) group than in temperament(-) patients (mean difference, 15.2; 95% CI, 4.9 to 25.4; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Considering temperament as a key element of individualized prescription may enhance health improvement from homeopathic treatment in chronic diseases. Independently replicated rigorous trials with validated scales are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2018/03/012433.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Temperament , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Homeopathy ; 107(3): 209-217, 2018 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis (CD) is a frequently occurring medical condition, for which Vinca minor (VM) is one of the recommended homeopathic medicines. However, the symptoms indicating this medicine have not yet been assessed systematically. Likelihood ratio (LR), based on Bayesian statistics, may yield better estimation of a medicine's indication than the existing method of entry of symptoms into materia medica and repertories. METHODS: We investigated LRs of four CD symptoms of VM: (1) great sensitiveness of skin, with redness and soreness from slightest rubbing; (2) weeping eczema with foul, thick crusts; (3) itching amelioration in open air; and (4) CD of scalp. An observational, prospective, patient-outcome study was conducted in five different practice settings on 390 CD patients over 18 months using three outcomes-Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale (GHHOS), Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. The LR of each of the four symptoms was estimated as per the patient-rated outcomes on GHHOS. RESULTS: Seventy-four VM and 316 non-VM cases were analyzed. Estimated LRs were as follows: symptom 1, 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65 to 2.60); symptom 2, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.80 to 2.74); symptom 3, 1.70 (95% CI: 0.94 to 3.07); symptom 4, 1.36 (95% CI: 0.74 to 2.51). There were statistically significant reductions in SCORAD and DLQI scores over 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: There was insufficient evidence to attribute any of the four assessed symptoms clearly to VM. Though non-significant, a high LR was observed for "itching amelioration in open air" (symptom 3). Symptoms in the homeopathic materia medica for VM are perhaps over-represented. More research of this nature is warranted.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Materia Medica/administration & dosage , Vinca , Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Placebos , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Complement Med Res ; 31(1): 1-9, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is leading to unknown and unusual health conditions that are challenging to manage. Post-COVID-19 fatigue is one of those challenges, becoming increasingly common as the pandemic evolves, as it impairs the quality of life of an individual. This trial attempts to identify the preliminary evidence of the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) against placebos in the treatment of post-COVID-19 fatigue in adults. METHODS: A 3-month, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial was conducted at the outpatient department of The Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, India. Sixty participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either IHMs (n = 30) or identical-looking placebos (n = 30). The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and Outcome in Relation to Impact on Daily Living (ORIDL), respectively, measured every month, for up to 3 months. Comparative analysis was carried out on the intention-to-treat sample to detect group differences. RESULTS: Group differences in both the primary (FAS total: F1, 58 = 14.356, p < 0.001) and secondary outcomes (ORIDL: F1, 58 = 210.986, p < 0.001) after 3 months favored IHMs against placebos. Lycopodium clavatum (11.7%), sulfur (11.7%), Arsenicum album (10%), and Thuja occidentalis (10%) were the most frequently indicated medicines. No harm, unintended effects, homeopathic aggravations, or any serious adverse events were reported from either of the groups. CONCLUSION: IHMs produced significantly better effects than placebos in the treatment of post-COVID-19 fatigue in adults. Definitive robust trials may be undertaken to confirm the findings.EinleitungDie Coronainfektion (COVID-19) zieht unbekannte und ungewöhnliche gesundheitliche Probleme nach sich, deren Management oft eine Herausforderung darstellt. Das gilt unter anderem für Ermüdung nach einer COVID-19-Erkrankung, die mit zunehmender Dauer der Pandemie immer häufiger auftritt und die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen beeinträchtigt. In dieser Studie wird versucht, vorläufige Belege für die Wirksamkeit individualisierter homöopathischer Mittel (IHM) im Vergleich zu Placebo zur Behandlung von Ermüdung nach COVID-19 bei Erwachsenen zu identifizieren.MethodenEine einfach verblindete, randomisierte, placebokontrollierte Parallelgruppenstudie von 3 Monaten Dauer wurde im ambulanten Bereich des Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital in Indien durchgeführt. 60 Teilnehmer erhielten nach Randomisierung im Verhältnis 1:1 entweder IHM (n = 30) oder identisch aussehendes Placebo (n = 30). Die primäre und die sekundäre Zielgröße waren die Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) und das Outcome in Relation to Impact on Daily Living (ORIDL) für bis zu 3 Monate, jeweils monatlich gemessen. Vergleichende Analysen wurden an der Intent-to-treat-Population durchgeführt, um Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen zu erkennen.ErgebnisseGruppenunterschiede bei der primären (FAS gesamt: F1, 58 = 14,356; p < 0.001) sowie der sekundären Zielgröße (ORIDL: F1, 58 = 210,986; p < 0.001) nach 3 Monaten sprachen für die IHM gegenüber Placebo. Lycopodium clavatum (11.7%), sulfur (11.7%), Arsenicum album (10%) und Thuja occidentalis (10%) waren die am häufigsten indizierten Mittel. In beiden Gruppen wurden keine Schädigungen, unbeabsichtigten Wirkungen, homöopathischen Verschlechterungen oder jegliche schwerwiegenden unerwünschten Ereignisse beobachtet.SchlussfolgerungDie IHM erzielten signifikant bessere Effekte als Placebo in der Behandlung von Post-COVID-Ermüdung bei Erwachsenen. Definitive, belastbare Studien können eingeleitet werden, um diese Befunde zu bestätigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Materia Medica , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , India , Quality of Life , Single-Blind Method , Sulfur
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301139

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Sciatica is a debilitating condition that causes pain in its distribution or in the lumbosacral nerve root that is connected to it. Although there are claims that homeopathy can reduce sciatica pain, systematic scientific proof is currently lacking. The objective of the trial was to determine whether individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) were as effective as identical-looking placebos in treating sciatica pain. Design: This is a double-blind, randomized (1:1), two parallel arms, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: The study was conducted at Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Sixty participants with sciatica pain were included in this study. Interventions: Verum (n = 30; IHMs plus concomitant care) versus control (n = 30; placebos plus concomitant care). Outcome measures: Primary-Sciatica Bothersome Index (SBI) and Sciatica Frequency Index (SFI) scores and secondary-Roland Morris Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMPDQ), Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), and Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire (OLBPQ) scores: all of them were measured at baseline, and every month, up to 3 months. Results: Intention-to-treat sample (n = 60) was analyzed. Group differences were examined by two-way (split-half) repeated measure analysis of variance, primarily accounting for between groups and time interactions, and additionally, by unpaired t tests comparing the estimates obtained individually every month. The level of significance was set at p < 0.025 and <0.05 two tailed for the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Group differences could not achieve significance in SBI (p = 0.044), SFI (p = 0.080), and RMPDQ scores (p = 0.134), but were significant for SF-MPQ (p = 0.007) and OLBPQ (p = 0.036). Gnaphalium polycephalum (n = 6; 10%) was the most frequently prescribed medicine. No harm, serious adverse events, or intercurrent illnesses were recorded in either of the groups. Conclusions: The primary outcome failed to demonstrate evidently that homeopathy was effective beyond placebo, and the trial remained inconclusive. Independent replications are warranted to confirm the findings. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2020/10/028617.

20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301138

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) in treating hemorrhoids compared with placebo. Design: This is a double-blind, randomized (1:1), two parallel arms, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: The trial was conducted at the surgery outpatient department of the State National Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Subjects: Patients were 140 women and men, aged between 18 and 65 years, with a diagnosis of primary hemorrhoids grades I-III for at least 3 months. Excluded were the patients with grade IV hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and fistula, hypertrophic anal papillae, inflammatory bowel disease, coagulation disorders, rectal malignancies, obstructed portal circulation, patients requiring immediate surgical intervention, and vulnerable samples. Interventions: Patients were randomized to Group 1 (n = 70; IHMs plus concomitant care; verum) and Group 2 (n = 70; placebos plus concomitant care; control). Outcome measures: Primary-the anorectal symptom severity and quality-of-life (ARSSQoL) questionnaire, and secondary-the EuroQol 5-dimensions 5-levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS); all of them were measured at baseline, and every month, up to 3 months. Results: Out of the 140 randomized patients, 122 were protocol compliant. Intention-to-treat sample (n = 140) was analyzed. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05 two tailed. Statistically significant between-group differences were elicited in the ARSSQoL total (Mann-Whitney U [MWU]: 1227.0, p < 0.001) and EQ-5D-5L VAS (MWU: 1228.0, p = 0.001) favoring homeopathy against placebos. Sulfur was the most frequently prescribed medicine. No harm or serious adverse events were reported from either of the groups. Conclusions: IHMs demonstrated superior results over placebo in the short-term treatment of hemorrhoids of grades I-III. The findings are promising, but need to be substantiated by further phase 3 trials. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2020/03/024342.

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