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1.
Homeopathy ; 109(4): 198-206, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Conventional treatment such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiotherapy has decreased the mortality rate among cancer patients but has also revealed long-term side effects. Drug resistance and toxicity to normal cells compound the problems associated with the use of modern medicines. Hence, complementary or alternative treatment options are being explored. The current study, using different homeopathic potencies of Hydrastis canadensis, was conducted to distinguish between any effects they might have on hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of homeopathic medicine Hydrastis on hormone-dependent (MCF 7) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-468) breast cancer cells was assessed using viability and colony-forming assays after 48 or 72 hours of treatment. Flow cytometry-based Annexin V-PI (propidium iodide), caspase 3 and cell cycle analysis was performed following treatment of cells with mother tincture or various potencies of Hydrastis (1C, 2C, 30C, 200C). RESULTS: Different potencies of Hydrastis displayed selective cytotoxic effects against MCF 7 cells, but only marginal effects against MDA-MB-468. The maximum cytotoxicity was established in the case of 1C following 72 hours of treatment. Treatment of breast cancer cells revealed an increase in the G0/G1 cell population, along with an increase in the caspase 3 levels and induction of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Hydrastis may have a selective cytotoxic effect against hormone-dependent breast cancer MCF 7 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, which could be the plausible reason for the induction of apoptosis. The results need to be validated in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Hydrastis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , MCF-7 Cells
2.
Homeopathy ; 104(3): 197-204, 2015 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26143453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia eventually resulting in long-term complications. Increased glycation of proteins is implicated in the pathogenesis of complications. For treatment of diabetes, Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are frequently prescribed in homeopathy. However their role in glycation is not well elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of these homeopathic preparations in glycation induced structural modifications and further to examine their cellular protection ability. METHODS: In human erythrocytes, in vitro mother tincture and dilutions of S. jambolanum (Sj ф, 30c, 200c), C. indica (Ci ф, 30c, 200c) and standard antiglycator (AG) were compared and their antiglycation potential assessed by the estimating different markers of glycation (frcutosamines, carbonyls, bound sugar), structural modifications (free amino and thiol group). Phytochemical characterization (total phenolic, flavonoids and glycosides contents) was performed. RESULTS: The homeopathic preparations have different mode of action on albumin glycation modifications. Sj ф preparation demonstrated effective inhibition of all glycation, structural modifications except amino group protection. When dilutions were compared, Sj preparations showed reduction of glycation, structural modifications. All preparations showed significant erythrocyte protection. Sj ф preparation exhibited noteworthy antiglycation and cell protection ability as compared to AG. CONCLUSION: These homeopathic preparations especially Sj ф prevented glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity in human eryrthrocytre in vitro. Further investigation of their potential as antiglycators is justified.


Subject(s)
Dipsacaceae , Homeopathy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Serum Albumin/antagonists & inhibitors , Syzygium , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Serum Albumin
3.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 452892, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24672319

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this current study was to justify the incorporation of complementary and alternate medicine (CAM) in current cancer treatments. The major drawback of anticancer drugs is their nonselective killing, which ultimately leads to attrition of normal cells. Keeping this as the foundation of our study, we made an effort to compare the cytotoxicity associated with a known chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), with certain CAM therapies previously reported to have anticancer activity. The parameters chosen for the study were based on antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on normal, kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E). The MTT assay, colony formation assay, DNA fragmentation, and differential staining using AO/EB, following treatment with either 5-FU or CAM therapies, were performed. The CAM therapies under study were various extracts of wheatgrass, roots of Achyranthes aspera (AA), mushroom extracts (Pleurotus ostreatus, Macrolepiota procera, and Auricularia polytricha), and a homeopathic drug, Ruta graveolens (Ruta). The results showed that treatment of normal cells with the CAM therapies led to minimum cell damage in comparison to 5-FU. This evidence-based study will lead to greater acceptance of alternative therapies against cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival/drug effects , Complementary Therapies , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/drug effects
4.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(2): 235-240, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hangeshashinto is a Japanese Kampo medicine applied for the treatment of oral mucositis and gastroenteritis. Hangeshashinto exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and suppresses prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in the mucosa and has the ability to improve the inflammatory condition. In addition to these effects, because cAMP, a composition of Hangeshashinto, facilitates ciliary beat, Hangeshashinto could also improve the physiological function of the nasal mucosa, consist of ciliated epithelium, but details were unknown. METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Hangeshashinto on the nasal mucosa. Healthy nasal mucosal sections were collected from the nasal septum of ten Japanese white rabbits, placed in a collagen dish for tissue culture, and rinsed with two different concentrations of Hangeshashinto solution (1.0%, n = 10 and 2.5%, n = 10) and cAMP solution (50µM, n=10 and 100 µM, n=10) or saline (control, n = 10). Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) as a physiological function of the nasal mucosa was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after rinsing, and histological evaluation of epithelial damage was performed at 7 days after rinsing. RESULTS: CBF in the 1.0% but not in the 2.5% Hangeshashinto group, increased at 3 and 7 days compared with that in the control group (p < 0.05). This trend was also observed in the CBF in the 100 µM cAMP group, significant difference was not observed between the CBF of the 1.0% Hangeshashinto group and the 100 µM cAMP group at 1, 3 and 7 days after rinsing (p > 0.05). Histological score only in the 2.5% Hangeshashinto group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05), while a significant decline was not observed in the other groups compared to that in the control group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 1.0% Hangeshashinto solution facilitates the physiological function of the nasal mucosa by promoting ciliary functions without histological damage of cilia epithelium. When applied with the appropriate concentration, Hangeshashinto could have ability to improve the physiological functions of the nasal mucosal epithelium.


Subject(s)
Cilia/drug effects , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Medicine, Kampo , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cilia/physiology , Cyclic AMP/pharmacology , Epithelium/drug effects , Epithelium/physiology , In Vitro Techniques , Japan , Nasal Mucosa/physiology , Rabbits
5.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 33(11): 1760-3, 2010 Nov.
Article in Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21434440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the digestion of Bird's nest extract (BNE) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). METHODS: BNE were prepared and digested at 37 degrees C in SGF/SIF. At intervals of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min,the samples were taken out. Protein contents were determined by the method of Bradford, and digestion of BNE in SGF/SIF was observed according to the results of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). RESULTS: On SDS-PAGE,the crude BNE and the BNE in SGF/SIF gave different patterns, but all being rich in high molecular weight protein. After digestion in vitro, most of protein degraded to 40 kD below, but part of high molecular weight protein was stable, and a protein of 70 kD added. CONCLUSION: Most protein degraded to polypeptide, but there was anti-digest protein in the BNE, all being the high molecular weight protein. This suggested that the active component from BNE was probably exerted directly on human body.


Subject(s)
Birds , Gastric Juice/metabolism , Materia Medica/chemistry , Proteins/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Animals , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , In Vitro Techniques , Intestinal Absorption , Time Factors
6.
J Anesth ; 23(4): 513-9, 2009.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19921360

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated whether presynaptic facilitatory M1 and/or inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors contributed to pancuronium- and cisatracurium-induced tetanic fade. METHODS: Phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations of rats were indirectly stimulated with tetanic frequency (75 +/- 3.3 Hz; mean +/- SD). Doses of pancuronium, cisatracurium, hexamethonium, and d-tubocurarine for producing approximately 25% fade were determined. The effects of pirenzepine and methoctramine, blockers of presynaptic M1 and M2 receptors, respectively, on the tetanic fade were investigated. RESULTS: The concentrations required for approximately 25% fade were 413 microM for hexamethonium (26.8 +/- 2.4% 4% fade), 55 nM for d-tubocurarine (28.7 +/- 2.55% fade), 0.32 microM for pancuronium (25.4 +/- 2.2% fade), and 0.32 microM for cisatracurium (24.7 +/- 0.8% fade). Pirenzepine or methoctramine alone did not produce the fade. Methoctramine, 1 microM, attenuated the fade induced by hexamethonium (to 16.0 +/- 2.5% fade), d-tubocurarine (to 6.0 +/- 1.6 fade), pancuronium (to 8.0 +/- 4.0% fade), and cisatracurium (to 11.0 +/- 3.3% fade). 10 nM pirenzepine attenuated only the fades produced by pancuronium (to 5.0 +/- 0.11% fade) and cisatracurium (to 13.3 +/- 5.3% fade). Cisatracurium (0.32 microM) showed antiacetylcholinesterase activity (in plasma, 14.2 +/- 1.6%; 6%; in erythrocyt 17.2 +/- 2.66%) similar to that of pancuronium (0.32 microM). The selective A1 receptor blocker, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 2.5 nM), also attenuated the fades induced by pancuronium and cisatracurium. CONCLUSION: The tetanic fades produced by pancuronium and cisatracurium depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory M2 receptors; these agents also have anticholinesterase activities. The fades induced by these agents also depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory A1 receptors through the activation of stimulatory M1 receptors by acetylcholine.


Subject(s)
Atracurium/analogs & derivatives , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Pancuronium/pharmacology , Receptor, Adenosine A1/drug effects , Receptor, Muscarinic M1/drug effects , Receptor, Muscarinic M2/drug effects , Animals , Atracurium/pharmacology , Diamines/pharmacology , Electric Stimulation , Hexamethonium/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Phrenic Nerve/drug effects , Pirenzepine/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xanthines/pharmacology
7.
Toxicology ; 233(1-3): 209-13, 2007 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17250944

ABSTRACT

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides or nerve agents cause severe intoxication by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, finally resulting in death due to respiratory failure. The phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation is considered as the classic model to investigate the effect of OP intoxications and oxime treatment at the neuromuscular junction. However, this preparation is unsuitable for larger species or for muscle strips from biopsies where no nerve is available for stimulation. An alternative technique is the indirect field stimulation of muscles containing intramuscular nerve branches only. The proposed method by Wolthuis et al. [Wolthuis, O.L., Vanwersch, R.A.P., Van Der Wiel, H.J., 1981. The efficacy of some bis-pyridinium oximes as antidotes to soman in isolated muscles of several species including man. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 70, 355-369] was modified and experimentally reevaluated in isolated mouse diaphragms. To confirm that electrical field stimulation technique induced muscle contraction only via the neuromuscular endplate the nicotinic antagonists pancuronium or d-tubocurarine (1microM) were given. In the presence of a nicotinic antagonist hardly any contraction was blocked after indirect field stimulation technique with very short pulses (5micros, <0.6A), in contrast to direct muscle stimulation (broader pulse width, or higher amplitude >0.6A). During paraoxon circumfusion (20min, 1micromol/l) muscle force generation by indirect stimulation was almost completely blocked. Restoration of paralyzed muscle function to 80% of initial values could be achieved after paraoxon wash out (20min) and circumfusion with obidoxime (1micromol/l, 20min). This data correspond quite well to data shown earlier when using conventional nerve stimulation techniques.


Subject(s)
Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Oximes/pharmacology , Paraoxon/poisoning , Animals , Diaphragm/drug effects , Diaphragm/innervation , Electric Stimulation , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/pharmacology , Pancuronium/pharmacology , Tubocurarine/pharmacology
8.
Complement Ther Med ; 15(2): 128-38, 2007 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17544864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Systematic assessment of the in vitro research on high potency effects. METHOD: Publications of experiments were collected through databases, experts, previous reviews, citation tracking. INCLUSION CRITERIA: stepwise agitated dilutions <10(-23); cells or molecules from human or animal. Experiments were assessed with the modified SAPEH score. RESULTS: From 75 publications, 67 experiments (1/3 of them replications) were evaluated. Nearly 3/4 of them found a high potency effect, and 2/3 of those 18 that scored 6 points or more and controlled contamination. Nearly 3/4 of all replications were positive. Design and experimental models of the reviewed experiments were inhomogenous, most were performed on basophiles. CONCLUSIONS: Even experiments with a high methodological standard could demonstrate an effect of high potencies. No positive result was stable enough to be reproduced by all investigators. A general adoption of succussed controls, randomization and blinding would strengthen the evidence of future experiments.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Materia Medica/standards , Animals , Blood Cells/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Quality Control , Research Design
9.
J Altern Complement Med ; 13(4): 403-7, 2007 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17532732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of homeopathic medicines for maintaining human health and treating disease has been extensively examined in clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of preclinical evaluations of the effects of homeopathic medicinal preparations on cellular signaling pathways relevant to the applications of these preparations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the immune-modulatory effects of Phase 6 (for the stimulation of the nonspecific defense system) and Flu Terminator (for influenza and viral diseases) (Be Well Homeopathics Inc. Miami, FL), two homeopathic preparations developed for the purpose, were evaluated in normal human leukocyte cultures in vitro. RESULTS: Both Phase 6 and Flu Terminator stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes, although higher doses often produced a weaker response than lower doses. The carrier solvent (20% ethanol) failed to elicit any cytokine synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the in vitro studies suggested that ultralow concentrations of ingredients in Phase 6 and Flu Terminator were capable of eliciting a human immune response.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/drug effects , Homeopathy , Inflammation Mediators/pharmacology , Leukocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 20(3): 175-9, 2007 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17545099

ABSTRACT

Effects of Saussurea lappa root extracts prepared in ethanol according to the homeopathic principles were assessed on leukocyte phagocytic activity, lymphocyte transformation and mitogen-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats (PBMC) in vitro. Leukocyte phagocytic activity was measured by flow cytometry, lymphocyte proliferation by MTT and IFN-gamma level in cell culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. The results obtained demonstrated that all test dilutions (D4, D6, D8) of Saussurea lappa in ethanol have exerted a stimulating effect on leukocyte phagocytic activity in dose-dependent manner. A 10 microl dose of Saussurea lappa of each dilution markedly enhanced phagocytic activity, while other doses tested made only a feeble stimulating effect. The increases with 10 microl dose were found significantly (P<0.01) different between each dilution, maximal stimulation was observed by D8 dilution. Different doses (10 microl, 2 microl, 1 microl, 0.5 microl) of all test dilutions (D4, D6, D8) of Saussurea lappa in sterile 0.9% NaCl solution inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. Maximal inhibitory effect was observed with the 2 microl dose. Similarly, Saussurea lappa suppressed the secretion of IFN-gamma by mitogen-activated (PHA; 2.5 microg/ml) of peripheral mononuclear cells in dose-dependent manner. In conclusion these findings suggest that enhanced leukocyte phagocytic activity may be helpful to clear the soluble immune complexes produced during a sustained immune response against self antigens which causes chronic inflammatory injury of tissue. On the other hand, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma by Saussurea lappa may contribute to suppress immune-mediated inflammatory reactions possibly through a cell-mediated cytokine pathway. Thus it is concievable that ethanolic extracts of Saussurea lappa roots in homeopathetic dilutions may be considered as a potential candidate for therapeutic support in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Saussurea/chemistry , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol , Goats , Homeopathy , In Vitro Techniques , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Roots , Solvents
11.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 10-10, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396744

ABSTRACT

A common clinical occurrence in dogs is otitis externa caused by excessive growth of yeasts Malassezia pachydermatis, which can become chronic after wrong treatments, in which microbial resistance can occur. Homeopathic remedies can be considered a successful alternative, selecting the medicine through the similitude principle. Herein, 50 µL of a 1:1000 dilution of Malassezia pachydermatis suspension at 0.5 McFarland scale was used to seed the yeast into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates using a Drigalski spreader to proceed with colony unit counting. Before being seeded, the yeast suspensions were treated with 1% of different homeopathic treatments previously selected from a pilot study, which means Sulphur 6cH, Dolichos pruriens 6cH, and Kali carbonicum 6cH, being water, and succussed water used as controls. For comparison, a set of Sabouraud dextrose agar plates containing 1% Tween 80 was seeded in parallel. The treatments were made blind and evaluated in triplicate. Contaminated cultures were withdrawn. The number of colonies per plate was assessed, and smears were made from the cultures to classify yeast growth according to cytomorphology on ImageJ®software. The preliminary results show no significant effect of all tested medicines compared to the controls. High data variability was also observed, mainly in those cultures whose medium was prepared with Twin 80. In conclusion, at this point of the study, no evidence of the effects of the studied medicines on Malassezia pachydermatis growth in vitro could be identified. The analysis of cytomorphology is still in course.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Otitis Externa/therapy , Yeasts , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Malassezia , In Vitro Techniques
12.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(3): 72-82, 20220819.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392795

ABSTRACT

Frecuentemente, se hayan especies del género Candida en la microbiota oral de los humanos. Objetivo: comparar la efectividad antimicrobiana de la terapia fotodinámica sobre las cepas de Candida albicans en superficies acrílicas para prótesis dentales, empleando láser con 660nm de longitud de onda y azul de metileno como agente fotosensibilizador, con respecto a otros métodos terapéuticos. Metodología: estudio in vitro, empleando 60 discos de acrílico de termocurado sumergidos en una suspensión de C. albicans, generando una simulación de biofilm sobre la superficie de una prótesis dental. Luego se conformaron cinco grupos al azar de 12 unidades a los que se aplicó diferentes procedimientos terapéuticos: G1 (suero fisiológico), G2 (clorhexidi-na al 0,12%), G3 (nistatina en solución tópica en 0,001ml/ul), G4 (azul de metileno al 0,005% + láser diodo con λ=660nm, 100mW, 32J/cm2) y G5 (azul de metileno 0,01% + láser diodo con λ=660nm, 100mW, 321J/cm2). Resultados: Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa al comparar los grupos G4 y G5 con respecto a los G1 y G3 (p<0,05). Conclusión: la eficacia en la reducción del número de UFC viables de C. albicans resultó superior en los grupos donde se empleó radiación láser con una longitud de onda de 660nm con diferentes concentraciones de azul de metileno. El uso de nistatina y de suero fisiológico tuvieron los menores valores de eficacia.


Species of the genus Candida are frequently found in the oral microbiota of humans. Objective: to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of photodynamic therapy on Candida albicansstrains on acrylic surfaces for dental prostheses by using a 660nm wavelength laser and methyle-ne blue as a photosensitizing agent, with respect to other therapeutic methods. Methodology: in vitro study, using 60 thermosetting acrylic discs immersed in a suspension of C. albicans, gene-rating a biofilm simulation on the surface of a dental prosthesis. After that, five random groups of 12 units were formed to apply them different therapeutic procedures: G1 (saline solution), G2 (chlorhexidine 0.12%), G3 (nystatin in topical solution at 0.001ml/ul), G4 (0.005% methylene blue + diode laser with λ=660nm, 100mW, 32J/cm2) and G5 (0.01% methylene blue + diode laser with λ=660nm, 100mW, 321J/cm2). Results: a statistically significant difference was observed when comparing groups G4 and G5 with respect to G1 and G3 (p<0.05). Conclusion: the efficacy in reducing the number of viable C. albicans CFU was higher in the groups where laser radiation with a wavelength of 660nm was used with different concentrations of methylene blue. The use of nystatin and physiological saline had the lowest efficacy values


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Photochemotherapy , Candida albicans , Dental Prosthesis , Therapeutics , In Vitro Techniques , Homeopathic Therapeutic Approaches
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20486, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403694

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present research investigation, various concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extract of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde (family: Caesalpinaceae) dried bark and carbopol polymer at different temperature ranges were optimized for the preparation of gel formulation. Natural penetration enhancers, v.i.z., eucalyptus oil and peppermint oil were incorporated separately in the extract based gel formulations to study the rate of drug permeation across egg membrane, using franz diffusion cell. In vitro anti-arthritis potential of the formulations was also studied using inhibition of albumin denaturation, antiproteinase activity and membrane stabilization method. As per the results of current study, it is established that S. asoca dried bark hydroalcoholic extract based gel prepared using peppermint oil as penetration enhancer exhibited good permeation rate of 8.48% at the end of 3 h. The percentage inhibition of proteins by antiproteinase method at concentration of 50 µg/ml was 50.01±1.00% which was close to 53.92±0.99% as shown by the standard drug, Diclofenac. Also, the percent protein inhibition determined using membrane stabilization method was found to be 49.70±1.00%, however, it was 63.32±0.94% for the standard drug, Diclofenac. Hence, it is concluded that peppermint oil may act as a good candidate for the preparation of potent anti-rheumatic gel preparations.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Joanesia asoca/analysis , Mentha piperita/anatomy & histology , Hydroalcoholic Solution , Eucalyptus Oil/analysis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/agonists
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468482

ABSTRACT

Plants that produce secondary metabolites with allelopathic activity or phytotoxicity can be biotechnologically important, serving as sources of allelochemicals, and thus contributing to the agroindustrial sector. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) is an Amazonian species that grows in clumps called vismiais, from which most other plants are absent. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify possible phytotoxicity effects of hexane and methanol extracts of Vismia japurensis leaves and branches in vivo and from seedlings grown in vitro on Lactuca sativa. In addition, fresh and dry leaves were assayed by the sandwich method in order to determine their ability to release allelochemicals. The hexanic extract from in vitro seedlings reduced germination by 10%, while the methanol extract produced a 16% reduction in germination speed. Root growth of Lactuca sativa was inhibited by 64.7% when subjected to hexane leaf extract, by 39.3% under the influence of hexane branch extract, and by 96.09% for in vitro seedling hexanic extract. When analysed by thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, extracts showed evidence of terpenes, anthraquinones and flavonoids, with greater intensity of signals in the aromatic region of in vitro seedling hexanic extract. Clearly, Vismia japurensis has a high biotechnological potential in terms of the production of substances of low polarity with capacity to interfere in plant development.


Plantas que produzem metabólitos secundários com atividade alelopática ou fitotóxica podem ser biotecnologicamente importantes, servindo como fontes de aleloquímicos e, assim, contribuindo para o setor agroindustrial. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) é uma espécie amazônica que cresce em grupos, formando vismiais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de extratos hexânicos e metanólicos de folhas e ramos de Vismia japurensis in vivo e de plântulas cultivadas in vitro sobre Lactuca sativa. Além disso, folhas frescas e secas foram analisadas pelo método sanduíche, a fim de determinar sua capacidade de liberação de aleloquímicos. O extrato hexânico de plântulas in vitro reduziu a germinação em 10% e o extrato metanólico promoveu uma redução de 16% na velocidade de germinação. O crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa foi inibido em 64,7% quando submetido ao extrato hexânico das folhas, em 39,3% sob influência do extrato hexânico dos galhos e em 96,09% para o extrato de hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Quando analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H, os extratos mostraram evidências de terpenos, antraquinonas e flavonoides, com maior intensidade de sinais na região aromática do extrato hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Assim, Vismia japurensis possui elevado potencial biotecnológico em termos de produção de substâncias de baixa polaridade com capacidade de interferência no desenvolvimento de plantas.


Subject(s)
Lactuca/drug effects , Anthraquinones , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Clusiaceae/toxicity , Terpenes , In Vitro Techniques
15.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 19-19, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396573

ABSTRACT

Sporothrix brasiliensisis one of themost virulent zoonosis which affects animals and humans. This fungus is responsible for subcutaneous infection and its contamination is possible through trauma to the skin. Sporotrichosis is highly prevalent in feline. And Rio de Janeiro appears to have the highest occurrence of cases. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the in vitroefficacy of Sporothrix brasiliensisbiotherapic, with and without an association to allopathic medicine commonly used in the treatment.Methodology: Conidiumcells of Sporothrix brasiliensiswill be cultured in Potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 5 to 7 days and yeast cells in Brain heart infusion (BHI) for 3 to 5 days. After incubation, the cells will be scraped with a drigalski handle and filtered using cells strainer into a tube and centrifuge for 5 minutes at 3000 RPM. The cells will be resuspended with Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), centrifuge again,and finally resuspended in PBS. After preparing the inocule, the microplates will be prepared. There will be 5groups in vitro. The first one will be the control group, only fungi. The second will be the treatment of fungi with homeopathic medicine (Sporothrix brasiliensis30DH). The third group will be the homeopathic medicine in association with itraconazole. The fourth will be the treatment with itraconazole only. And the last group will be the fungi with dynamized distilled water 30DH. Sporothrix brasiliensis30DHwill be prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. Results and discussions: The experiments are still in progress and the results will be analyzed through Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine statistically significant differences. Previous articles based on biotherapic treatments demonstrated successful results, so our research group is conducting these experiments to evaluate the effect in this model. Conclusion: Experiments will be made to verify the efficacy of biotherapic on sporotrichosis treatments.


Subject(s)
Sporotrichosis/therapy , In Vitro Techniques , Biotherapics/therapeutic use
16.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 12-12, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396583

ABSTRACT

The method of preserving substances of natural origin should not only maintain the microbiological safety of the product but also the integrity of its therapeutic potential. Essential oils obtained from plants are complex mixtures of substances and it issuggested to keep them under refrigeration for better conservation. On the other hand, homeopathic mother tincture prepared from plant is kept at room temperature. Aim: This work aimed to evaluate if the freezing process changes the in vitro antifungal activity potential of the homeopathic preparation Aloysia polystachya1CH against Candida albicans. Methodology:The inoculum of C. albicansATCC 10231 was cultivated in culture médium Sabouroud (Himedia®), standardized on a spectrometer and distributed in a 96-well plate. Then, A. polystachya1CH was added to the wells, prepared accordingtothe Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (FHB, 3rd edition) from A. polystachya essencial oil. An aliquot of this homeopathic preparation was frozen and after 40 days it was submitted to the same methodology for evaluation of the antifungal activity. After incubation, the plates were read with triphenyltetrazolic (TTC) (Vetec®). Results and discussion: The results of the in vitroevaluation showed that the freezing process retained the antifungal activity of the dynamized essential oil of A. polystachya1CH against C. albicans. Conclusion: Under the conditions evaluated in this study, the freezing method presented as a viable method of conservation of dynamized plant material.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Derived Preparations , Antifungal Agents
17.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 18-18, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396574

ABSTRACT

Studies have shownthat homeopathy modulates the activity of both single-and multi-celled organisms;therefore, we propose a study into the action of Arnica Montanaand S. cerevisiae fungus nosode on growth "in vitro", and on the fermentation of S. cerevisiaeon brewer's wort. Methods:250 µL of medication in 30% alcohol were placed in 5 mL of Sabouraud Broth (SB) or wort, with 20 µL of fungus ata McFarland standard of 0.5 and in a dilution of 1:100. Fungal growth was evaluated via spectrophotometry at 600 nm or a cell count in a Neubauer chamber in a kinetic of 1 to 5 days' incubation at 25ºC. The production of alcohol by the fungus was evaluated using the BRIX index in the samekinetic. 1x107fungi/mL were previously incubated with medication for 5 days and, afterwards, placed in 20 mL of fresh wort, incubated at 25ºC for 7 days and evaluated for growth and sugar consumption. Resultsand Discussion: The SB results revealed that after 2days incubation with Arnica30CH, an increase in fungal growth was observed (p<0.0001), whilewith nosode 6 and 30CH there was a reduction in growth after 2 and 5 days incubation (p<0.001). The fungi incubated with Arnica30CH exhibited increased sugar consumption after 2 and5 days incubation (p<0.05), while the nosode 30CH resulted in lower sugar consumption after 2 and 3 days incubation (p<0.05). The results for fungal growth and sugar consumption with the wort were similar to those using SB.The fungalcultures previously incubated with homeopathic medication and subsequent incubation with fresh wortindicated a loss of distinction, bothin terms of fungal growth and sugar consumption. This piece of data may suggest action by the homeopathic medication only when in contact with the cells. Conclusion: The treatment of the S. cerevisiae fungus using Arnica and the S. cerevisiae nosode produced a significant modulation in fungal growth and sugar consumption.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Fermentation , Homeopathy
18.
J Altern Complement Med ; 12(4): 359-65, 2006 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16722785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Homeopathic drugs even with dilutions beyond 10(23) (high potencies) are frequently used, although their working mechanism is still unknown. Curative information preserved in solvent structure is postulated to exert biologic effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test for a stimulating or inhibiting effect of high potencies of the homeopathic remedy HgCl2 (Mercurius corrosivus) on two sugar hydrolases. METHODS: High potencies were produced using stepwise dilution plus shaking. Controls included potentized solvent (aqua bidestillata), equimolar dilutions without shaking, and enzyme-free references. Tested were potencies with dilution factors 1:200 (CC) on diastase extract from winter barley, and 1:100 (C) on alpha-amylase from hog pancreas. Enzyme activity was colorimetrically determined by Lugol's iodine-starch reaction. RESULTS: An inhibiting effect of HgCl2 on enzyme activities was observed only in low potencies and dilutions. Statistically significant differences between potencies and controls were not found in randomized and blinded experiments. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental design provided independent reproducible results of cell-free in vitro assays. However, it did not indicate an effect of potentized HgCl2 on hydrolases. Demonstrating potency effects may require additional experimental features.


Subject(s)
Amylases/drug effects , Homeopathy/methods , Mercuric Chloride/pharmacology , Solutions/analysis , alpha-Amylases/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Compounding/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Mercury Compounds/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design/standards
19.
J Altern Complement Med ; 12(5): 421-7, 2006 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16813505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Biologic effects of high homeopathic potencies can be studied in cell cultures using cell lines or primary cells. We hypothesized that primary cells would be more apt to respond to high potencies than cell lines, especially cancer cell lines. We set out to investigate the effects of low doses and high homeopathic potencies of cadmium chloride, respectively, in an intoxication model with human primary lymphocytes compared to a human leukemia cell line (Jurkat). DESIGN: Cells were pretreated with either low concentrations (nM-microM) or high potencies (pool 15-20c) of cadmium for 120 hours, following which they were exposed to a toxic treatment with a range of cadmium concentrations (8-80 microM) during 24 hours. Cell viability was eventually assessed by use of the MTS/PES assay. Controls included a vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for the low concentrations of cadmium or water 15-20c for cadmium 15-20c. A total of 34 experiments were conducted, 23 with low concentrations and 11 with high potencies of cadmium. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Pretreatment with low concentrations or high potencies of cadmium significantly increased cell viability in primary lymphocytes after toxic challenge, compared to control cells (mean effect +/- standard error = 19% +/- 0.9% for low concentrations respectively 8% +/- 0.6% for high potencies of cadmium; p < 0.001 in both cases). The pretreatment effect of low doses was significant also in cancerous lymphocytes (4% +/- 0.5%; p < 0.001), albeit weaker than in normal lymphocytes. However, high homeopathic potencies had no effect on cancerous lymphocytes (1% +/- 1.9%; p = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: High homeopathic potencies exhibit a biologic effect on cell cultures of normal primary lymphocytes. Cancerous lymphocytes (Jurkat), having lost the ability to respond to regulatory signals, seem to be fairly unresponsive to high homeopathic potencies.


Subject(s)
Cadmium Chloride/pharmacology , Carcinogens/pharmacology , Homeopathy , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Cadmium Chloride/administration & dosage , Carcinogens/administration & dosage , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Jurkat Cells/drug effects , Leukemia, T-Cell/drug therapy
20.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 25(7): 347-51, 2006 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16898162

ABSTRACT

Copious historical reviews of Calabrese and Baldwin (Hum Exp Toxicol 2000; 19: 2-31; 32-40) attribute the description of the reversal of cellular activities from stimulation at low doses to inhibition at high doses by Schulz (Pflüg Arch 1988; 42: 517-41) as the prioritizing contribution to the phenomenon which was later called hormesis. However, an extended search of the older literature uncovers Virchow (Virch Arch 1854; 6: 133-34) as the first descriptor, three and a half decades in advance of Schulz. Virchow observed an increase of the beating activity of the ciliae of tracheal epithelia of postmortem mucosa by sodium and potassium hydroxide at low concentrations, and a concentration-dependent decrease to arrest at higher concentrations. This observation constituted a cornerstone in Virchow's 'cellular pathology', which was based on the theory of cellular 'irritation and irritability'. Schulz's experiment was essentially triggered by the psychiatrist Rudolf Arndt, an ardent protagonist of homeopathy. Schulz's pre-occupation with homeopathic principles, which dominates his scientific oeuvre over his lifetime, may be seen as one of the reasons for the marginalization of hormesis.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Toxicology/history , Animals , Fermentation , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Homeopathy/history , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mercuric Chloride/toxicity , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sodium Hydroxide/toxicity
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