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1.
Nat Chem Biol ; 11(9): 728-32, 2015 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26147354

ABSTRACT

The gateway to morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline since the enzyme yielding the first committed intermediate salutaridine is specific for (R)-reticuline. A fusion between a cytochrome P450 (CYP) and an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) catalyzes the S-to-R epimerization of reticuline via 1,2-dehydroreticuline. The reticuline epimerase (REPI) fusion was detected in opium poppy and in Papaver bracteatum, which accumulates thebaine. In contrast, orthologs encoding independent CYP and AKR enzymes catalyzing the respective synthesis and reduction of 1,2-dehydroreticuline were isolated from Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids. An ancestral relationship between these enzymes is supported by a conservation of introns in the gene fusions and independent orthologs. Suppression of REPI transcripts using virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy reduced levels of (R)-reticuline and morphinan alkaloids and increased the overall abundance of (S)-reticuline and its O-methylated derivatives. Discovery of REPI completes the isolation of genes responsible for known steps of morphine biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase/metabolism , Carbohydrate Epimerases/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Morphine/biosynthesis , Papaver/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Aldo-Keto Reductases , Alkaloids/biosynthesis , Alkaloids/chemistry , Base Sequence , Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry , Benzylisoquinolines/metabolism , Bromoviridae/genetics , Bromoviridae/metabolism , Carbohydrate Epimerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Carbohydrate Epimerases/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Exons , Gene Fusion , Introns , Ligases/genetics , Ligases/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Morphinans/chemistry , Morphinans/metabolism , Morphine/chemistry , Open Reading Frames , Opium/chemistry , Opium/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Papaver/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Stereoisomerism
2.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao ; 9(7): 752-60, 2011 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21749826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examines if homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can elicit ameliorative responses in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to arsenate. METHODS: The yeast S. cerevisiae 699 was cultured in a standard yeast extract peptone dextrose broth medium. It was exposed to the final concentration of 0.15 mmol/L arsenate for two intervals, 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cell viability was determined along with the assessment of several toxicity biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiol (GSH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, expressions of relevant stress transcription activators like Yap-1 and Msn 2, and mRNA expression of yeast caspase-1 (Yca-1) were also measured. RESULTS: Treatment of arsenate increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS accumulation and expressions of Yap-1, Msn 2 and Yca-1 and decreased GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD. Ars Alb 30C administration decreased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS formation and Msn 2 and Yca-1 expressions and increased cell viability, GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD significantly (P<0.05), except for a slight increase in Yap-1 expression. CONCLUSION: Ars Alb 30C triggers ameliorative responses in S. cerevisiae exposed to arsenate.


Subject(s)
Arsenicals/pharmacology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Arsenicals/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression , Homeopathy , Proteins , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 18-18, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopathy) | ID: biblio-1396574

ABSTRACT

Studies have shownthat homeopathy modulates the activity of both single-and multi-celled organisms;therefore, we propose a study into the action of Arnica Montanaand S. cerevisiae fungus nosode on growth "in vitro", and on the fermentation of S. cerevisiaeon brewer's wort. Methods:250 µL of medication in 30% alcohol were placed in 5 mL of Sabouraud Broth (SB) or wort, with 20 µL of fungus ata McFarland standard of 0.5 and in a dilution of 1:100. Fungal growth was evaluated via spectrophotometry at 600 nm or a cell count in a Neubauer chamber in a kinetic of 1 to 5 days' incubation at 25ºC. The production of alcohol by the fungus was evaluated using the BRIX index in the samekinetic. 1x107fungi/mL were previously incubated with medication for 5 days and, afterwards, placed in 20 mL of fresh wort, incubated at 25ºC for 7 days and evaluated for growth and sugar consumption. Resultsand Discussion: The SB results revealed that after 2days incubation with Arnica30CH, an increase in fungal growth was observed (p<0.0001), whilewith nosode 6 and 30CH there was a reduction in growth after 2 and 5 days incubation (p<0.001). The fungi incubated with Arnica30CH exhibited increased sugar consumption after 2 and5 days incubation (p<0.05), while the nosode 30CH resulted in lower sugar consumption after 2 and 3 days incubation (p<0.05). The results for fungal growth and sugar consumption with the wort were similar to those using SB.The fungalcultures previously incubated with homeopathic medication and subsequent incubation with fresh wortindicated a loss of distinction, bothin terms of fungal growth and sugar consumption. This piece of data may suggest action by the homeopathic medication only when in contact with the cells. Conclusion: The treatment of the S. cerevisiae fungus using Arnica and the S. cerevisiae nosode produced a significant modulation in fungal growth and sugar consumption.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Fermentation , Homeopathy
4.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 25(7): 347-51, 2006 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16898162

ABSTRACT

Copious historical reviews of Calabrese and Baldwin (Hum Exp Toxicol 2000; 19: 2-31; 32-40) attribute the description of the reversal of cellular activities from stimulation at low doses to inhibition at high doses by Schulz (Pflüg Arch 1988; 42: 517-41) as the prioritizing contribution to the phenomenon which was later called hormesis. However, an extended search of the older literature uncovers Virchow (Virch Arch 1854; 6: 133-34) as the first descriptor, three and a half decades in advance of Schulz. Virchow observed an increase of the beating activity of the ciliae of tracheal epithelia of postmortem mucosa by sodium and potassium hydroxide at low concentrations, and a concentration-dependent decrease to arrest at higher concentrations. This observation constituted a cornerstone in Virchow's 'cellular pathology', which was based on the theory of cellular 'irritation and irritability'. Schulz's experiment was essentially triggered by the psychiatrist Rudolf Arndt, an ardent protagonist of homeopathy. Schulz's pre-occupation with homeopathic principles, which dominates his scientific oeuvre over his lifetime, may be seen as one of the reasons for the marginalization of hormesis.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Toxicology/history , Animals , Fermentation , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Homeopathy/history , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mercuric Chloride/toxicity , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sodium Hydroxide/toxicity
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 43(11): 233-41, 2001.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11443967

ABSTRACT

The results of membrane and ozonation experiments carried out on various agro-industry effluents including fermentation (baker's yeast), corrugated board, opium alkaloid and textile dying industries are presented. The experiments were performed using lab-scale membrane and ozonation reactors. Color removals were in the range of 80 to 99% for the membrane treatment studies. Ozonation experiments have shown that color removals in the range of 83 to 98% are possible for the investigated wastewaters. Final color levels were lower than 100 Pt-Co unit, which is quite acceptable aesthetically. The relative unit treatment costs of ozonation were about two times higher than membrane systems especially for very strong colored effluents including fermentation and opium alkaloid industries. The study has demonstrated that both membrane and ozonation technologies are viable options for color removal.


Subject(s)
Industrial Waste/analysis , Ozone/metabolism , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Purification/methods , Agriculture , Book Industry/economics , Color , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Fermentation , Filtration/methods , Industrial Waste/economics , Membranes, Artificial , Opium/chemistry , Opium/economics , Opium/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Textile Industry/economics , Textile Industry/methods , Turkey , Waste Disposal, Fluid/economics , Water Purification/economics
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