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1.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11052

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...(AU)


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754746

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11039

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Anuros , Sulphur , Sepia succus , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754742

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom.


Assuntos
Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Anuros , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Sepia succus , Sulphur
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10895

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.(AU)


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Etanol , Altas Potências
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688231

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.


Assuntos
Animais , Altas Potências , Etanol , Reflexo de Endireitamento
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