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1.
Homeopathy ; 108(2): 121-127, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the study of homeopathic medicines in proper perspective, emerging techniques in material science are being used. Vibrational spectroscopy is one such tool for providing information on different states of hydrogen bonding as an effect of potentization. The associated change in electrical properties is also correlated with this effect. OBJECTIVE: From the vibrational spectra, the changes in hydrogen bonding due to dilution followed by unidirectional vigorous shaking (together termed potentization) of 91% ethanol and two homeopathic medicines Chininum purum and Acidum benzoicum have been studied. The aim was to correlate the result with the change in the electrical properties of the system. METHODS: Raman spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational spectra. A U-shaped glass tube (electrochemical cell), where one arm contained bi-distilled water and the other arm alcohol/homeopathic medicine (the arms being separated by a platinum foil), was used to measure the voltage generated across two symmetrically placed platinum electrodes. RESULTS: For all samples, it was observed that potentization affected the intensity of OH stretching bands at the frequencies 3240 cm-1, 3420 cm-1 and 3620 cm-1, corresponding to strong hydrogen bond, weak hydrogen bond and broken hydrogen bond, respectively. With the increase in potency, in the presence and absence of the two medicines in ethanol, the number of OH groups linked by strong hydrogen bonds decreased, while the number of OH groups with weak hydrogen bonds increased. With the increase in potentization, the number of OH groups with broken hydrogen bonds showed a difference in the presence and absence of the medicine.The voltage measurements for ethanol show that, with succussion, the magnitude of voltage increased with the two medicines at lower potencies, but not at higher potency where the voltage is lower. Acidum benzoicum, which is acidic in nature, had higher voltage values (113mV, 130 mV and 118 mV at 6C, 30C and 200C, respectively), compared with Chininum purum, which is basic in nature (20 mV, 85 mV and 65 mV at 6C, 30C and 200C, respectively). CONCLUSION: The experimental results indicate a correlation between the vibrational and electrical properties of the homeopathic medicines Acidum benzoicum and Chininum purum at different potencies.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Materia Medica/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Análise Espectral Raman
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11963

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. Results: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. Conclusion: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur. (AU)


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. RESULTS: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. CONCLUSION: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur.


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11965

RESUMO

Objective: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. Results: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 8<202>1002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. Conclusion: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.(AU)


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. RESULTS: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 81002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. CONCLUSION: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
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