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1.
J Altern Complement Med ; 11(5): 807-12, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16296914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether potentized homeopathic drugs and their diluent media differ from each other with respect to their Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. DESIGN: FTIR spectra of Nux vomica 30C, Lycopodium 30C, Santonin 30C, Cina 30C, Cina 206C, Cina 1006C, and their diluent media 90% ethanol and Ethanol 30C were obtained in the wave number range of 2000-1000 cm1 at 20 degrees C. Potassium bromide powder soaked with the potencies, pressed into pellets, and air dried were used to measure the spectra. Because water structures in homeopathic potencies are thought to carry specific information on drug molecules and because O-H bending vibrational band (v2) exclusively belongs to water, the study was restricted to the bands in that wave number region. Alcohol has no absorption in the O-H bending region. RESULTS: The potencies were found to differ from each other and their diluent media in the number of v2 bands, their wave number (cm1), shape, and half-width (cm1) of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The number and other characteristics of the v2 band represent the number of hydrogen-bonded water species and their hydrogen-bonding strength, respectively. The potencies and their diluent media therefore differ from each other in the number of hydrogen-bonded water species and their hydrogen-bonding strength. The observation that KBr pellets soaked with a potentized drug retains its specific spectral absorption properties simply confirms that medicated sucrose globules, used in homeopathic dispensing, are capable of retaining the therapeutic properties of the drug.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Água/química
2.
J Altern Complement Med ; 9(5): 719-25, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14629849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary biomolecular target of a homeopathic potency is unknown. If it is a plasma membrane protein such as water-channel protein, the drug would alter water permeation in cells. Therefore, the objective is to see if potentized homeopathic drugs like Mercuric chloride 30c and Nux vomica 30c could alter permeation of water through the erythrocytes of a fresh water fish under acute ethanol intoxication. LOCATION: The work was carried out in the Zoology Laboratory of Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India. SUBJECT: Live freshwater catfish. DESIGN: Erythrocytes collected from fish with and without ethanol intoxication were incubated in distilled water at 30 degrees C for 30 minutes with Ethanol 30c (control), Merc cor 30c (test 1), and Nux vomica 30c (test 2). Merc cor 30c and Nux vom 30c were prepared by successive dilution of the respective mother tinctures with 90% ethanol (1:100) followed by sonication at 20 kHz for 30 seconds in 30 steps. Ethanol 30c was prepared in the same way from 90% ethanol diluted with 90% ethanol. In another experiment, fish were pretreated with Ethanol 30c and Nux vom 30c followed by ethanol injection at 2 g/kg of body weight. Then their erythrocytes were tested in vitro with the same potencies. After centrifugation of blood samples, fluid part was removed, erythrocyte pellets dried in a BioChemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; Atlas Surgical, New Delhi, India) incubator at 90 degrees C for 12 hours and intracellular water content measured. RESULTS: Red blood cells (RBCs) from ethanol-injected fish permeated more water than those from normal fish. Water permeation was enhanced with Merc cor 30c and Nux vom 30c. RBCs from fish pretreated with Nux vom 30c imbibed more water in in vitro treatments than those from fish pretreated with Ethanol 30c. CONCLUSION: Because water channel proteins or aquaporins are mainly responsible for water transport through the plasma membrane of RBCs, it is thought that potentized drugs interact with these proteins, thereby facilitating water influx in the cells.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Homeopatia/métodos , Cloreto de Mercúrio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Strychnos nux-vomica , Intoxicação Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Variância , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Membranas Intracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Altern Complement Med ; 7(2): 187-93, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11327524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To see whether Strychnos nux-vomica extract (mother tincture [MT]), its potency Nux 30c, and its principal alkaloid, strychnine, could reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats. To analyze the solution structure of Nux MT, Nux 30c, 90% ethanol, and ethanol 30c by means of electronic (ES) and nuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. DESIGN: Potentially alcoholic rats were first given 20% ethanol and then kept on a two-choice bottle, one with 20% ethanol and another with tap water. These rats were given the following oral treatments for 15 days: group 1, control; group 2, strychnine at 0.36 mg/kg per day; group 3, ethanolic extract of S. nux-vomica seeds (Nux MT) at 3.6 mg/kg per day; and group 4, Nux 30c at 0.05 mL/d per rat. Nux 30c was prepared by successive dilution of Nux MT and 90% ethanol (1:100) and sonication at 20 kHz for 30 seconds in 30 steps. RESULTS: Both Nux MT and Nux 30c significantly reduced ethanol intake and increased water intake in rats. ES of two dilutions of Nux MT and Nux 30c showed intersections at more than one point suggesting existence of molecular complexes. ES of Nux MT in CCl4 showed a red shift when 90% ethanol was added indicating molecular complexation and charge transfer interaction between ethanol and Nux compounds. NMR spectra of Nux MT, 90% ethanol, ethanol 30c, and Nux 30c indicated a change in solution structure of the medium (90% ethanol) of Nux 30c. CONCLUSION: Nux MT and Nux 30c could reduce ethanol intake in rats. The altered solution structure of Nux 30c is thought to mimic Nux MT and produce ethanol aversion in rats.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeopatia , Plantas Medicinais , Estricnina/farmacologia , Dissuasores de Álcool/uso terapêutico , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Estricnina/uso terapêutico
4.
Homeopathy ; 95(3): 144-7, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16815517

RESUMO

Lady's finger plants (Hibiscus esculentus), grown in pots, were inoculated with the second-stage larvae (76+/-6) of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, starting 7 days later they were treated with Cina 30c, Santonin 30c or Ethanol 30c by foliar spray for 10 consecutive days. The drugs in 90% ethanol were diluted with distilled water 1:1000 before application on plants. Thirty days after the last treatment the plants were uprooted. Cina 30c and Santonin 30c reduced nematode infestation of plants significantly in terms of root-gall number, root-protein content and nematode population in roots. Santonin 30c reduced root water content. Santonin 30c may have influenced the water channel proteins of root tissues thereby altering the water contents of roots. The reduced water content in roots might have adversely affected the root-knot nematodes and thus reduced nematode infestation. Ethanol 30c also has some effect on treated plants.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Hibiscus , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Santonina/farmacologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Homeopatia/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Materia Medica , Meristema , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Br Homeopath J ; 89(2): 73-7, 2000 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10826446

RESUMO

Nux vomica 30c, 200c and 1000c were administered orally to three batches of albino mice for three days. Six hours after the last dose on the third day the mice were injected i.p. with ethanol 4g/kg body wt. They lost their righting reflex and lay motionless apparently sleeping due to alcohol. Mice treated with three potencies of Nux vomica regained their righting reflex more quickly than the corresponding untreated controls. Each of the three batches of mice was tested twice for ethanol sedation, once with a potency of Nux vomica and another time with a placebo control. The time interval between drug treatment and control was 10 days. NMR spectra of Nux 30, Nux 200, Nux 1000, alcohol 30, alcohol 30 (unagitated) and 90% alcohol showed significant difference from each other with respect to the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the deuterium nuclei. This gives a measurable physical basis of the effective high potencies of Nux vomica.


Assuntos
Etanol/antagonistas & inibidores , Homeopatia , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estricnina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Estricnina/administração & dosagem
6.
Br Homeopath J ; 90(2): 79-85, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11341461

RESUMO

Adult toads, Bufo melanostictus, were administered Nux vomica (Nux v) 30 prepared with and without succussion on the tongue. The drug was mixed with sterile distilled water at the rate 0.05ml/ml water and given orally 0.05ml/individual. The control consisted of blank ethanol solution. Seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica were ground and extracted with 90% ethanol in the laboratory. Nux v 30 was prepared by successive dilution and succussion in 30 steps, Nux v 30 u was prepared by successive dilution only. Four hours after treatment, toads were given 25% ethanol i.p. at 8g/kg body weight. The duration of ethanol induced sleep time was recorded for each toad. Both Nux v 30 and Nux v 30 u significantly reduced ethanol induced sleep time in toads as compared to their respective controls. Electronic, infra red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Nux v 30, Nux v 30 u and their diluent medium (90% ethanol) show marked differences from each other. These dilutions and ethanol 30 and ethanol 30 u show marked differences from each other with respect to spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and chemical shift. The difference has been attributed to the variation in intra and inter-molecular association of ethanol and water.


Assuntos
Etanol/antagonistas & inibidores , Materia Medica/administração & dosagem , Materia Medica/farmacologia , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Estricnina/administração & dosagem , Estricnina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Bufonidae , Raios Infravermelhos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
7.
Homeopathy ; 91(4): 217-20, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12422924

RESUMO

Mercuric chloride 30c and Mercuric iodide 30c were prepared by successive dilution in 30 steps of 1:100 followed by sonication at 20KHz for 30s at each step. Both were prepared in two media: 90% ethanol and distilled water. Three preparations of Mercuric chloride 30 in water were used: 12-month old, 1-month old and 4-day old. The controls for the water and ethanol-water preparations were pure water 30c and 90% ethanol 30c, respectively. For the three water preparations there were three matched controls of water 30c of the same ages. Each potentized substance or its control was mixed with distilled water 1:100 before testing. Hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase was measured by the standard procedure after incubation for 15 min at 27 degrees C. Mercuric chloride 30c and Mercuric iodide 30c in both water and aqueous ethanol media, enhanced enzyme activity significantly, compared to their respective controls. Mercuric chloride 30c, prepared in water 12 months previously, produced no significant change in the enzyme activity compared to its control. We hypothesize that the structure of the active molecule imprinted on water polymers during the process of dynamization. The specifically structured water interacts with the active sites of alpha-amylase, modifying its activity. Ethanol molecules have large non-polar part stabilizing the water structure and thus retaining activity for a longer time.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Homeopatia , Iodetos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Mercúrio/farmacologia , Compostos de Mercúrio/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Etanol , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Amido , Fatores de Tempo , Água , alfa-Amilases/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Br. homoeopath. j ; 84(1): 6-10, jan. 1995. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-4387

RESUMO

Agaricus muscarius 30s, a potentized homoeopathic drug prepared by sucessive dilution and sonication from the alcoholic extract of the fungus of the same name, significantly reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice and rats. The drug produced the anticataleptic effect when administred orally and no such effect when administered intraperitoneally. Open field activity of the mice was suppressed more with haloperidol (hal) alone than with the combination of Agaricus 30s (oral) and hal. Agaricus 30s, given intraperitoneally, did not alter hal-induced suppression of the spontaneous activity of mice. Based on the previoluly reported results with Agaricus in combination with apomorphine, D1 and D2 agonists, it was thought that Agaricus might have served as a D1 blocker. It war further assumed that the effect of Agaricus was mediated throught the oral taste receptors


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Agaricus muscarius/farmacologia , Catalepsia/prevenção & controle , Haloperidol , Pesquisa Homeopática Básica , Administração Oral
9.
Br. homoeopath. j ; 89(2): 73-7, apr. 2000. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-5580

RESUMO

Nux vomica 30c, 200c and 1000c were administered orally to three batches of albino mice for three days. Six hours after the last dose on the third day the mice were injected i.p. with ethanol 4gkg body wt. They lost theur righting reflex and lay motionless apparently sleeping due to alcohol.Mice treated with three potencies of Nux vomica regained their rightinh reflex more quickly than the correponding untreated controls. Each of the three batches of mice was tested twice for ethanol sedation... (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , /farmacologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Homeopática Básica , Sono , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Altas Potências , Mecanismo de Ação do Medicamento Homeopático , Índia
10.
Homeopathy (Londres. 2002) ; 91(4): 217-220, oct. 2002. tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-6857

RESUMO

Mercuric chloride 30c and Mercuric iodide 30c were prepared by successive dilution in 30 steps of 1:100 followed by sonication at 20 KHz for 30s at each step. Both were prepared in... (AU)


Assuntos
Pesquisa Homeopática Básica , alfa-Amilases , Amido , Mercurius Corrosivus , Hidrólise
11.
Br. homoeopath. j ; 90(2): 79-85, apr. 2001. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-5705

RESUMO

Adult toads, Bufo melanostictus, were administered Nux vomica (Nux v) 30 prepared with and without succussion on the tongue. The drug was mixed with sterile distilled water at the rate 0.05ml/individual. The control consisted... (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dinamização , /uso terapêutico , Potência , Alcoolismo/terapia
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