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1.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 26-26, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396705

RESUMO

Drugs at high dilution (HD) produce therapeutic effect on man, animals and plants. Experimental evidence shows that free water molecules and hydrogen bond strength of OH groups constitute the physical basis of HDs which are otherwise devoid of original drug molecules. HDs are produced in aqueous EtOH by serial dilution of a substance with mechanical agitation or succussion in each step, and are called potencies. Three potencies 6 cH, 12 cH and 30 cH of two drugs Anacardium orientale and Natrum muriaticum(NaCl) and their mother tincture (MT) are used in this study. Electronic spectra of these MTs and potencies, all in 90% EtOH, were taken in the wavelength region of 190 nm ­350 nm. The objective is to find out any additional physical-chemical entities in potencies besides the aforesaid two factors. It was reported earlier that charge transfer (CT) interaction accompanies potentization of drugs. This study focused on the CT interaction. The results indicate that spectral pattern and absorbance intensities of the test samples vary from each other. Natm 6cH (absorbance 0.30 at 196.53nm), 12cH (abs. 0.06 at 196.53nm) and 30cH (abs. 1.32 at 196.5nm). Anac 6cH (abs. 0.33 at 203nm), 12cH (abs. 0.61 at 208nm) and 30cH (abs. 0.09 at 200.67nm). The spectrum of each potency shows two peaks. The 2nd peak at higher wave length belongs to CT interaction. Anac 6cH suc, 7cH unsuc. Insersections at 197.14nm with abs. 0.05, and 290nm with abs. 0.01. Anac 12cH suc, 13cH unsuc. Intersections at 196.93nm with abs. 0.06, and 273nm with abs. 0.00. Anac 30cH suc, 31cH unsuc. Intersections at 194.42nm with abs. -0.05, 238.03nm with abs. -0.01, 252.15nm with abs. -0.002, and 261nm with abs. 0.004. Natm 6cH suc, 7cH unsuc. Intersection at 199.44nm with Abs -0.11. Natm 12cH suc, 13cH unsuc. Instersection at 200.48nm with abs. -0.11. Natm 30cH suc, 31cH unsuc. Intersection at 204.24nm with abs. -0.08. Potentization involves CT interaction in consecutive potencies. Water and EtOH do not form a homogeneous mixture and have aggregates of EtOHand water molecules. CT interactions occur in these individual aggregates and are mostly inter molecular within EtOH or water. These aggregates vary from each other in the test samples. The spectra of test samples were analysed for margin of error (MOE). The MOE is very small (0.001-0.002%), and for this reason the difference between the spectra is significant. Besides that the intersection between consecutive spectra vary in number and position. It is concluded that water and EtOH aggregates and their relative distribution constitute additional physical-chemical basis of potencies.


Assuntos
Espectrofotometria , Escalas de Preparação , Medicamento Homeopático
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(2/3): 16-23, June 4, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396355

RESUMO

The application of synthetic fertilizers reduces the natural fertility of the soil and contaminates groundwater. Some photosynthesis inhibitors at ultra-high dilution (UHD) increase photosynthesis, growth, and yield of crops. A weedicide Paraquat at UHD enhanced the growth and yield of potatoes in fields. The objective is to see whether the UHD of Paraquat is also effective on rice. This weedicide was serially diluted with distilled water and manually succussed in 30 steps following the preparation of homeopathic dilutions called potencies. In this way, the 30thpotency of Paraquat called Paraquat 30 cH was prepared and preserved in 90 % ethanol. Paraquat 30 cH was diluted with water 1:1000 (v/v) and sprayed on rice plants in a field measuring 0.3125 acres. The control plot of the same area was situated 300 meters away from the test plot. Three treatments were given at an interval of 7 days. The treated plot showed increased growth, chlorophyll content, and rice yield significantlycompared to control. The UHD of the weedicide produced precisely the opposite effect of the crude material on plants. The increased growth and yield of rice by Paraquat 30 cH may be due to the enhancement of photosynthesis of treated plants. The UHD of Paraquat increased the yield of rice by 19.35% over the control.


Assuntos
Paraquat/administração & dosagem , Oryza , Fertilizantes , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. RESULTS: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. CONCLUSION: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur.


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11963

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. Results: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. Conclusion: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur. (AU)


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. RESULTS: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 81002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. CONCLUSION: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11965

RESUMO

Objective: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. Results: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 8<202>1002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. Conclusion: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.(AU)


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(1): 4-11, 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11057

RESUMO

Objective: In a series of experiments we showed that treatment of a plant or animal with a dilutedand agitated substance might affect other plants or animals connected to the former by the capillarywater in cotton threads. The aim of the present study was to establish whether drug effect could betransferred in a cell-free medium.Design: Two test tubes, each containing 1 ml of 1% starch solution and 1 ml of á-amylase, wereconnected by means wet cotton threads encased in a polythene tube. One of the tubes alsocontained Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c) 30 cH and the other ethanol solution (control). After 15min, the enzyme activity was stopped with DNSA, and the breakdown product of starch, maltose,was estimated. A third, separate tube contained all the tested materials except for Merc-c and thecontrol solution. In a second experiment two tubes, one containing 1,200 ppm and the other 200ppm of maltose, were similarly connected over 15 min. Both experiments were repeated 20 times.Results: In the first experiment, the amount of maltose was similar in both connected tubes, but itwas significantly lower in the unconnected tube. In the second experiment, maltose concentrationin both tubes remained unchanged.Conclusion: The information of Merc-c 30 cH was effectively transferred through capillary waterbetween two tubes in cell-free medium. This effect was not due to physical transfer of either solventor solutes. Water seems to the most probable carrier of information in diluted and agitatedsolutions.(AU)


Assuntos
Maltose , Amido , Água , Mercurius Corrosivus/análise , Altas Potências , alfa-Amilases , Técnicas In Vitro , Homeopatia , Etanol
8.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(1): 4-11, 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-757858

RESUMO

In a series of experiments we showed that treatment of a plant or animal with a dilutedand agitated substance might affect other plants or animals connected to the former by the capillarywater in cotton threads. The aim of the present study was to establish whether drug effect could betransferred in a cell-free medium.Design: Two test tubes, each containing 1 ml of 1% starch solution and 1 ml of á-amylase, wereconnected by means wet cotton threads encased in a polythene tube. One of the tubes alsocontained Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c) 30 cH and the other ethanol solution (control). After 15min, the enzyme activity was stopped with DNSA, and the breakdown product of starch, maltose,was estimated. A third, separate tube contained all the tested materials except for Merc-c and thecontrol solution. In a second experiment two tubes, one containing 1,200 ppm and the other 200ppm of maltose, were similarly connected over 15 min. Both experiments were repeated 20 times.Results: In the first experiment, the amount of maltose was similar in both connected tubes, but itwas significantly lower in the unconnected tube. In the second experiment, maltose concentrationin both tubes remained unchanged.Conclusion: The information of Merc-c 30 cH was effectively transferred through capillary waterbetween two tubes in cell-free medium. This effect was not due to physical transfer of either solventor solutes. Water seems to the most probable carrier of information in diluted and agitatedsolutions...


Assuntos
Humanos , Altas Potências , Amido , Homeopatia , Maltose , Mercurius Corrosivus/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , alfa-Amilases , Água , Etanol
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 8-15, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-783318

RESUMO

Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) we have demonstrated that homeopathic potencies of Natrum mur, Cantharis, Nux vomica and Sulphur show differences with respect to the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. The purpose of the present study is to confirm this phenomenon in three potencies of two more drugs Calcarea carb and Silicea. Design: The potencies used for each of the two drugs were 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH. The control was 90% ethanol as also the potentized drugs. The control, as well as the potencies, were diluted with distilled water to reduce the level of ethanol to 0.03 molar fraction in each of them. FTIR spectra of all the potentized drugs, control and sterile distilled water (reference water) were taken in the wave number region of 4000-2800 cm-1. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) of OH band was measured for each spectrum. The width was divided into two in the middle. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution - absorbance of reference water) for each potency and the control was obtained after normalization of the spectrum at 3410 cm-1. One difference spectrum so obtained for a potency was subtracted from another to find out if there is a difference between two different potencies. Results: The half width half maximum (hwhm) in both the high and low-frequency sides of the OH band is far less narrow in potencies than in the control as compared to that in water. The difference spectra for different potencies show different levels of fall in intensity at the wave number region of dip at 3630 cm-1...


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Calcarea Carbonica/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Mecanismo de Ação do Medicamento Homeopático , Silicea Terra/farmacologia
10.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 8-15, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11147

RESUMO

Objective: Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) we have demonstrated that homeopathic potencies of Natrum mur, Cantharis, Nux vomica and Sulphur show differences with respect to the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. The purpose of the present study is to confirm this phenomenon in three potencies of two more drugs Calcarea carb and Silicea. Design: The potencies used for each of the two drugs were 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH. The control was 90% ethanol as also the potentized drugs. The control, as well as the potencies, were diluted with distilled water to reduce the level of ethanol to 0.03 molar fraction in each of them. FTIR spectra of all the potentized drugs, control and sterile distilled water (reference water) were taken in the wave number region of 4000-2800 cm-1. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) of OH band was measured for each spectrum. The width was divided into two in the middle. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution - absorbance of reference water) for each potency and the control was obtained after normalization of the spectrum at 3410 cm-1. One difference spectrum so obtained for a potency was subtracted from another to find out if there is a difference between two different potencies. Results: The half width half maximum (hwhm) in both the high and low-frequency sides of the OH band is far less narrow in potencies than in the control as compared to that in water. The difference spectra for different potencies show different levels of fall in intensity at the wave number region of dip at 3630 cm-1. The level of dip at 3630 cm-1 and subsequent rise in intensity in the lower frequency region represent the quantity of free water molecules and strong alcoholic OH bond around 3250 cm-1, respectively. The results of subtraction between two different potencies are not zero but have marked positive or negative values. Conclusion (i) Potencies have stronger intermolecular interactions and a higher number of chemical environments than the control, as revealed by the data on hwhm. (ii) The three potencies of each of the two drugs show distinct variation in the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. (iii) There exists both inter-drug and inter-potency variation as revealed by the difference spectra and results of subtraction between two difference spectra.(AU)


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica/farmacologia , Silicea Terra/farmacologia , Altas Potências , Mecanismo de Ação do Medicamento Homeopático , Ligação de Hidrogênio
11.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11052

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...(AU)


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754746

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11039

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Anuros , Sulphur , Sepia succus , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento
14.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754742

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom.


Assuntos
Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Anuros , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Sepia succus , Sulphur
15.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 12(43): 44-51, 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Homeopathic potencies have been reported to produce alteration of contraction in isolated rat ileum in an organ bath. Potentized homeopathic drugs like Lycopus V and Aurum met are used for the treatment of hypertension. AIM The purpose of this study is to see whether Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH could produce relaxation of isolated rat aorta in the organ bath. METHODS The aorta of rats were dissected out, placed in Krebs-Henseleit solution, cleared of connective tissue and endothelium and cut into 2-2.5 mm long rings. The rings were fixed in organ baths with the upper end connected by a string to an isometric transducer which was finally attached through a data acquisitation equipment to a computer. Aurum met 30 CH Lycopus V 30 CH, and their medium 90% ethanol were added separately to the bathing fluid containing the aorta rings which were precontracted with noradrenalin (NA). RESULTS Both the drugs produced significant relaxation of the aorta (p<0.001) precontracted with NA (10-7 M). The control did not show any marked effect on the NA induced contraction of aorta. CONCLUSION A potentised drug is thought to be specifically structured water which can transform the water structure in the bathing fluid and the isolated tissue immersed in the fluid into its own form. This in turn produces the observed relaxation. Both Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH are effective in reducing NA induced contraction of rat aorta. Drugs can directly act on the isolated rat aorta without any system of influence. KEY WORDS High dilution drug, isolated aorta, hypertension, noradrenalin. (AU)


Introdução e objetivo: Segundo alguns estudos, diluições homeopáticas alteram a contratilidade de íleo isolado de rato, em banho de órgãos. Os medicamentos homeopáticos como Aurum metallicum Lycopus virginicus são usados no tratamento da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se Lycps 30 cH e Aur 30 cH podem induzir o relaxamento da aorta isolada de ratos, em banho de órgãos. Métodos: A aorta foi dissecada e, livre de tecido conjuntivo e endotelio, foi colocada em solução de Krebs-Henseleit, sendo seccionada em anéis de 2 a 2,5 cm de comprimento. Os anéis foram fixados em banho de órgãos, a extremidade superior ligada por um cabo a um transdutor isométrico, por sua vez ligado a dispositivos de registro de dados em um computador. Aur 30 cH, Lycps 30 cH e etanol 90%, foram adicionados separadamente ao líquido do banho contendo os anéis de aorta previamente contraídas pela noradrenalina (NA) ou norpinefrina (NE). Resultados: Os dois medicamentos testados induziram relaxamento significativo (p <0,001), do preparada de aorta contraída por NA (10-7 M), enquanto que a solução de controle não produziu efeitos significativos. Conclusão: Ambas as drogas foram usadas em diluições homeopáticas demasiado elevadas para admitir a presença de moléculas da substância original. Assim, o mecanismo farmacológico tradicional envolvendo as moléculas da droga e receptores no músculo liso da aorta deve ser descartado. Embora reconhecidamente diferente, o mecanismo envolvido permanece desconhecido. Lycps 30 e Aur 30 CH mostraram-se eficazes na redução da contratilidade da aorta de ratos, induzida por NA. As drogas podem agir diretamente na aorta isolada de ratos sem influência sistêmica. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Altas Potências , Aorta , Hipertensão , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Aurum Metallicum , Lycopus
16.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 12(43): 44-51, 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Homeopathic potencies have been reported to produce alteration of contraction in isolated rat ileum in an organ bath. Potentized homeopathic drugs like Lycopus V and Aurum met are used for the treatment of hypertension. AIM The purpose of this study is to see whether Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH could produce relaxation of isolated rat aorta in the organ bath. METHODS The aorta of rats were dissected out, placed in Krebs-Henseleit solution, cleared of connective tissue and endothelium and cut into 2-2.5 mm long rings. The rings were fixed in organ baths with the upper end connected by a string to an isometric transducer which was finally attached through a data acquisitation equipment to a computer. Aurum met 30 CH Lycopus V 30 CH, and their medium 90% ethanol were added separately to the bathing fluid containing the aorta rings which were precontracted with noradrenalin (NA). RESULTS Both the drugs produced significant relaxation of the aorta (p<0.001) precontracted with NA (10-7 M). The control did not show any marked effect on the NA induced contraction of aorta. CONCLUSION A potentised drug is thought to be specifically structured water which can transform the water structure in the bathing fluid and the isolated tissue immersed in the fluid into its own form. This in turn produces the observed relaxation. Both Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH are effective in reducing NA induced contraction of rat aorta. Drugs can directly act on the isolated rat aorta without any system of influence. KEY WORDS High dilution drug, isolated aorta, hypertension, noradrenalin.


Introdução e objetivo: Segundo alguns estudos, diluições homeopáticas alteram a contratilidade de íleo isolado de rato, em banho de órgãos. Os medicamentos homeopáticos como Aurum metallicum Lycopus virginicus são usados no tratamento da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se Lycps 30 cH e Aur 30 cH podem induzir o relaxamento da aorta isolada de ratos, em banho de órgãos. Métodos: A aorta foi dissecada e, livre de tecido conjuntivo e endotelio, foi colocada em solução de Krebs-Henseleit, sendo seccionada em anéis de 2 a 2,5 cm de comprimento. Os anéis foram fixados em banho de órgãos, a extremidade superior ligada por um cabo a um transdutor isométrico, por sua vez ligado a dispositivos de registro de dados em um computador. Aur 30 cH, Lycps 30 cH e etanol 90%, foram adicionados separadamente ao líquido do banho contendo os anéis de aorta previamente contraídas pela noradrenalina (NA) ou norpinefrina (NE). Resultados: Os dois medicamentos testados induziram relaxamento significativo (p <0,001), do preparada de aorta contraída por NA (10-7 M), enquanto que a solução de controle não produziu efeitos significativos. Conclusão: Ambas as drogas foram usadas em diluições homeopáticas demasiado elevadas para admitir a presença de moléculas da substância original. Assim, o mecanismo farmacológico tradicional envolvendo as moléculas da droga e receptores no músculo liso da aorta deve ser descartado. Embora reconhecidamente diferente, o mecanismo envolvido permanece desconhecido. Lycps 30 e Aur 30 CH mostraram-se eficazes na redução da contratilidade da aorta de ratos, induzida por NA. As drogas podem agir diretamente na aorta isolada de ratos sem influência sistêmica.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Altas Potências , Aorta , Aurum Metallicum , Hipertensão , Lycopus , Norepinefrina/farmacologia
17.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10895

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.(AU)


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Etanol , Altas Potências
18.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688231

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.


Assuntos
Animais , Altas Potências , Etanol , Reflexo de Endireitamento
19.
Homeopatia Méx ; 83(690): 24-36, mayo-jun. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-731442

RESUMO

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de Causticum 30C y Rhus toxicodendron 30C en un modelo experimental en ratas, en el que después de administrar cierta sustancia productora de inflamación (adyuvante completo de Freund) en una pata, se valoró la lesión, con y sin tratamiento homeopático, demostrando que dicho tratamiento disminuyó significativamente la inflamación en el modelo experimental.


In this study the anti-inflammatory effect of Causticum 30C and Rhus toxicodendron 30C in an experimental rat model is tested, after administering an inflammation producing substance (Freund’s complete adjuvant) in the rat leg, inflammation is valued with and without homeopathic treatment proving significantly that the treatment decreases inflammation this experimental model.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Artrite/terapia , Causticum/uso terapêutico , Adjuvante de Freund , Toxicodendron/uso terapêutico
20.
Homeopatia Méx ; 83(690): 24-36, mayo-jun. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10995

RESUMO

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de Causticum 30C y Rhus toxicodendron 30C en un modelo experimental en ratas, en el que después de administrar cierta sustancia productora de inflamación (adyuvante completo de Freund) en una pata, se valoró la lesión, con y sin tratamiento homeopático, demostrando que dicho tratamiento disminuyó significativamente la inflamación en el modelo experimental. (AU)


In this study the anti-inflammatory effect of Causticum 30C and Rhus toxicodendron 30C in an experimental rat model is tested, after administering an inflammation producing substance (Freund’s complete adjuvant) in the rat leg, inflammation is valued with and without homeopathic treatment proving significantly that the treatment decreases inflammation this experimental model. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Toxicodendron/uso terapêutico , Causticum/uso terapêutico , Artrite/terapia , Adjuvante de Freund
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