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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16137982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis caused by the gastrointestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis occurs in humans, domestic animals and wild animals. It is difficult to control the muscle phase of the parasite. Homeopathic drugs such as Cina and Santoninum have anthelmintic properties. We have observed that in material doses, the homeopathic drug Podophyllum also has nematotoxic properties. We have also observed that homeopathic potency can influence the water permeability of cells. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether potentized homeopathic drugs such as Cina 30, Santoninum 30 and Podophyllum mother tincture can affect the muscle phase of the parasite T. spiralis in mice. Another objective was to see whether trichinellosis and its treatment with the 3 named homeopathic drugs could alter the water content in the muscle tissue of mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cina 30 and Santoninum 30 were prepared from the mother tincture of the flowering tops of Artemisia nilagirica and its active principle santonin, in each case by successive dilution (1:100) with 90% ethanol and sonication in 30 steps following the single glass method (K30). Ethanol 30 was prepared by successive dilution of 90% ethanol with 90% ethanol (1:100) followed by sonication in 30 steps. In each step, the dilution was sonicated at 20 KHz for 30 s. We have observed before that sonication is a more uniform, measurable and effective process of mechanical agitation of a liquid than manual succussion. Experimentally infected mice were orally treated with an aqueous Podophyllum suspension at 60 mg/kg/day. Each potentized drug was diluted 1:20 with distilled water and administered orally at 0.05 ml/mouse/day. Each mouse was inoculated with T. spiralis larvae at a dose of 200 larvae/mouse by esophageal intubation. Treatment was started on day 7 post-infection and continued for 120 days. After completion of treatment, the mice were sacrificed and the larvae were extracted from muscles by HCl-pepsin digestion. The water content of the muscles was measured by determining the difference between fresh weight and dry weight of the tissue. RESULTS: Podophyllum Theta, Cina 30 and Santoninum 30 reduced the larval population in the studied mice by 68.14%, 84.10% and 81.20%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control group. Ethanol 30 achieved no significant reduction in the larval population compared to the untreated control group. The water content of the muscle tissue in the untreated control group and the Podophyllum-treated groups was significantly higher than in the Ethanol 30-, Cina 30- and Santoninum 30-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Podophyllum Theta, Cina 30 and Santoninum 30 were effective in the muscle phase of T. spiralis infection and significantly reduced the larval population in the treated mice. The potencies were more effective than the mother tincture, an effect which was not due to the medium ethanol. (2) The potencies significantly reduced the water content of the muscle tissue which might have affected the larvae. The effect of Podophyllum Theta might be due to the direct toxic effect of the drug on the larvae.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Homeopatia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Trichinella spiralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Larva , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trichinella spiralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754746

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11052

RESUMO

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...(AU)


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natrium Muriaticum/análise , Cantharis vesicatoria/análise , /análise , Água/análise , Estrutura Molecular
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 237-246, 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688233

RESUMO

Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1) control in sterile water, (2) in 50mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4) seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.


Introdução: A salinidade do solo afeta seriamente a produtividade das culturas no mundo todo. Num estudo recente, observamos que o medicamento homeopático Natrum muriaticum 200 Ch melhorou o crescimento de sementes de feijão-fradinho Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] em germinação. Objetivo: Nesse trabalho, testamos o medicamento homeopático Sepia succus, complementar de Nat-m, em plântulas de feijão-fradinho submetidas a estresse salino. Métodos: Plântulas de feijão-fradinho desenvolvidas sobre papel de filtro umedecido em placas de Petri foram divididas em 4 grupos: (1) controle em água estéril, (2) em solução de NaCl 50 mM, (3) sementes pré-tratadas com etanol a 90% diluído 1:100 em água e após transferido a solução de NaCl 50mM, e (4) sementes pré-tratadas com Sep 200 cH diluídas 1:100 em água e após transferidas a solução de NaCl 50 mM. Num segundo experimento, os grupos foram os mesmos, mas a diluição do etanol a 90% e de Sep 200 cH foi 1:1.000 ao invés de 1:00 para reduzir ainda mais o teor de etanol em ambos, medicamento e veículo a fim de minimizar ou abolir o efeito do álcool. Os dados foram analisados através de ANOVA seguida de teste t de Student. Resultados: As duas diluições de Sep 200 cH, 1:100 e 1:1.000, aumentaram significativamente o crescimento, teor de açúcar, clorofila, proteína e água das plântulas por comparação ao grupo submetido a estresse salino não tratado. O efeito da 1.000ª diluição de Sep 200 cH foi mais pronunciado que o da 100ª diluição. O veículo etanol a 90% em diluição 1:100 induziu alguns efeitos positivos nas plântulas, mas a diluição 1:1.000 não apresentou esses efeitos. Conclusões: Sep 200 cH reverteu o efeito de estresse salino nas plântulas de feijão-fradinho, sendo que a 1.000ª diluição foi mais efetiva que a 100ª. O efeito do álcool foi totalmente eliminado com a 1.000ª diluição do etanol a 90%. Portanto, a 1.000ª conservou o efeito do medicamento e eliminou o efeito do veículo.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sepia succus , Solos Salitrosos
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 237-246, 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10897

RESUMO

Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1) control in sterile water, (2) in 50mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4) seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect. (AU)


Introdução: A salinidade do solo afeta seriamente a produtividade das culturas no mundo todo. Num estudo recente, observamos que o medicamento homeopático Natrum muriaticum 200 Ch melhorou o crescimento de sementes de feijão-fradinho Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] em germinação. Objetivo: Nesse trabalho, testamos o medicamento homeopático Sepia succus, complementar de Nat-m, em plântulas de feijão-fradinho submetidas a estresse salino. Métodos: Plântulas de feijão-fradinho desenvolvidas sobre papel de filtro umedecido em placas de Petri foram divididas em 4 grupos: (1) controle em água estéril, (2) em solução de NaCl 50 mM, (3) sementes pré-tratadas com etanol a 90% diluído 1:100 em água e após transferido a solução de NaCl 50mM, e (4) sementes pré-tratadas com Sep 200 cH diluídas 1:100 em água e após transferidas a solução de NaCl 50 mM. Num segundo experimento, os grupos foram os mesmos, mas a diluição do etanol a 90% e de Sep 200 cH foi 1:1.000 ao invés de 1:00 para reduzir ainda mais o teor de etanol em ambos, medicamento e veículo a fim de minimizar ou abolir o efeito do álcool. Os dados foram analisados através de ANOVA seguida de teste t de Student. Resultados: As duas diluições de Sep 200 cH, 1:100 e 1:1.000, aumentaram significativamente o crescimento, teor de açúcar, clorofila, proteína e água das plântulas por comparação ao grupo submetido a estresse salino não tratado. O efeito da 1.000ª diluição de Sep 200 cH foi mais pronunciado que o da 100ª diluição. O veículo etanol a 90% em diluição 1:100 induziu alguns efeitos positivos nas plântulas, mas a diluição 1:1.000 não apresentou esses efeitos. Conclusões: Sep 200 cH reverteu o efeito de estresse salino nas plântulas de feijão-fradinho, sendo que a 1.000ª diluição foi mais efetiva que a 100ª. O efeito do álcool foi totalmente eliminado com a 1.000ª diluição do etanol a 90%. Portanto, a 1.000ª conservou o efeito do medicamento e eliminou o efeito do veículo. (AU)


Assuntos
Agricultura , Solos Salitrosos , Sepia succus , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10895

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.(AU)


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Etanol , Altas Potências
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 216-223, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688231

RESUMO

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment), and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group); a third batch of toads (control) were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR). The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads ... Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.


Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos homeopáticos às mães de lactentes é uma prática habitual, sob o pressuposto de que a droga é transmitida pelo leite materno. No caso do tratamento convencional, moléculas da droga são efetivamente transmitidas de mãe para filho. Porém, tradicionalmente se considera que altas diluições (AD) acima da 12 cH, ou seja, acima do número de Avogadro, não conservam qualquer molécula da substância original. Nesse caso, será que a medicação tomada pela mãe alcança realmente a criança? Para responder essa questão, desenvolvemos um modelo animal e demonstramos a transferência dos efeitos de AD entre 2 grupos de animais. Objetivos: Demonstrar a transferência dos efeitos de AD num modelo animal, num período de tempo mais breve. Métodos: Dois lotes de sapos foram respectivamente colocados durante 30 minutos em 2 béqueres, um contendo Nux vomica 200 cH diluído 1:500 em água destilada (tratamento direto) e o outro, a mesma quantidade de água destilada (grupo conectado) conectados através de fio de algodão molhado com água e coberto por um tubo de polietileno; um terceiro grupo de sapos (controle) foi colocado num béquer com solução de etanol 90% em água destilada. Os animais foram após transferidos para 3 béqueres, respectivamente, contendo etanol a 209 mM. A cada 10 minutos, os sapos imóveis eram removidos dos béqueres e colocados em posição supina. Aqueles que não recuperaram a posição ereta em até 60 segundos foram considerados como tendo perdido o reflexo de endireitamento (RE). O experimento foi replicado com sapos adultos. Resultados: A percentagem de sapos que perderam o RR aumentou com o tempo de exposição ao álcool, nos 3 grupos... Conclusão: Nux-v 200 cH inibiu o efeito hipnótico do álcool nos sapos, e este efeito foi transmitido pela água capilar no fio de algodão, dando suporte à hipótese de que o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos é transferido da mãe para o filho.


Assuntos
Animais , Altas Potências , Etanol , Reflexo de Endireitamento
10.
Br. homoeopath. j ; 76(3): 122-5, jul. 1987. tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-1209

RESUMO

Agaricus m., administered orally to rats subjected to restraint to induce catalepsy, enhanced the cataleptic state. The higher the potency the longer its duration of peak action and the longer did it take to reach the peak effect. The action of atropine sulphate which diminishes catalepsy, was suppressed by Agaricus m. The degree of suppression increased with the increase in potency of Agaricus m. Since restraint-induced catalepsy is mediated by cholinergic-dopaminergic interactions in the brain, Agaricus m. is thought to produce its effect by influencing those systems. The work provides a scientific proof for the action of potentized homoeopathic drugs and for the principle of the minimum dose. Further, it introduces an animal model for testing homoeopathic drugs


Assuntos
Ratos , Animais , Catalepsia , Pesquisa Homeopática Básica , Agaricus muscarius
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