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1.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21: 18-26, June 20, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396375

RESUMO

High dilutions (HD) of drugs used in homeopathy are mostly too dilute to contain original drug molecules. But evidences support their specific biological and therapeutic effects. The reason behind this is thought to be water structure characteristic of the original drug. Spectroscopic studies indicate that the specific water structure in HDs can be resolved into free water molecules, hydrogen bonding strength of water hydroxyl, number of hydrogen bonds and clathrate hydrate crystals (CHC). HDs are prepared in EtOH water solution by serial dilution and mechanical agitation, and are called potencies. The objective of the present study is to further confirm the presence of CHCs in the two potencies of three drugs. Electronic spectra of the HDs of the potencies indicate two broad peaks and marked difference in intensities of absorption. Furior Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the test potencies and their control show difference in intensity shift and contour shape of OH stretching and bending bands. All the experimental data indicate the presence of CHCs in varying amounts in the test potencies.


Assuntos
Medicamento Homeopático , Hidrato de Cloral , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Eletricidade Estática
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 26-26, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396705

RESUMO

Drugs at high dilution (HD) produce therapeutic effect on man, animals and plants. Experimental evidence shows that free water molecules and hydrogen bond strength of OH groups constitute the physical basis of HDs which are otherwise devoid of original drug molecules. HDs are produced in aqueous EtOH by serial dilution of a substance with mechanical agitation or succussion in each step, and are called potencies. Three potencies 6 cH, 12 cH and 30 cH of two drugs Anacardium orientale and Natrum muriaticum(NaCl) and their mother tincture (MT) are used in this study. Electronic spectra of these MTs and potencies, all in 90% EtOH, were taken in the wavelength region of 190 nm ­350 nm. The objective is to find out any additional physical-chemical entities in potencies besides the aforesaid two factors. It was reported earlier that charge transfer (CT) interaction accompanies potentization of drugs. This study focused on the CT interaction. The results indicate that spectral pattern and absorbance intensities of the test samples vary from each other. Natm 6cH (absorbance 0.30 at 196.53nm), 12cH (abs. 0.06 at 196.53nm) and 30cH (abs. 1.32 at 196.5nm). Anac 6cH (abs. 0.33 at 203nm), 12cH (abs. 0.61 at 208nm) and 30cH (abs. 0.09 at 200.67nm). The spectrum of each potency shows two peaks. The 2nd peak at higher wave length belongs to CT interaction. Anac 6cH suc, 7cH unsuc. Insersections at 197.14nm with abs. 0.05, and 290nm with abs. 0.01. Anac 12cH suc, 13cH unsuc. Intersections at 196.93nm with abs. 0.06, and 273nm with abs. 0.00. Anac 30cH suc, 31cH unsuc. Intersections at 194.42nm with abs. -0.05, 238.03nm with abs. -0.01, 252.15nm with abs. -0.002, and 261nm with abs. 0.004. Natm 6cH suc, 7cH unsuc. Intersection at 199.44nm with Abs -0.11. Natm 12cH suc, 13cH unsuc. Instersection at 200.48nm with abs. -0.11. Natm 30cH suc, 31cH unsuc. Intersection at 204.24nm with abs. -0.08. Potentization involves CT interaction in consecutive potencies. Water and EtOH do not form a homogeneous mixture and have aggregates of EtOHand water molecules. CT interactions occur in these individual aggregates and are mostly inter molecular within EtOH or water. These aggregates vary from each other in the test samples. The spectra of test samples were analysed for margin of error (MOE). The MOE is very small (0.001-0.002%), and for this reason the difference between the spectra is significant. Besides that the intersection between consecutive spectra vary in number and position. It is concluded that water and EtOH aggregates and their relative distribution constitute additional physical-chemical basis of potencies.


Assuntos
Espectrofotometria , Escalas de Preparação , Medicamento Homeopático
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(2/3): 16-23, June 4, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396355

RESUMO

The application of synthetic fertilizers reduces the natural fertility of the soil and contaminates groundwater. Some photosynthesis inhibitors at ultra-high dilution (UHD) increase photosynthesis, growth, and yield of crops. A weedicide Paraquat at UHD enhanced the growth and yield of potatoes in fields. The objective is to see whether the UHD of Paraquat is also effective on rice. This weedicide was serially diluted with distilled water and manually succussed in 30 steps following the preparation of homeopathic dilutions called potencies. In this way, the 30thpotency of Paraquat called Paraquat 30 cH was prepared and preserved in 90 % ethanol. Paraquat 30 cH was diluted with water 1:1000 (v/v) and sprayed on rice plants in a field measuring 0.3125 acres. The control plot of the same area was situated 300 meters away from the test plot. Three treatments were given at an interval of 7 days. The treated plot showed increased growth, chlorophyll content, and rice yield significantlycompared to control. The UHD of the weedicide produced precisely the opposite effect of the crude material on plants. The increased growth and yield of rice by Paraquat 30 cH may be due to the enhancement of photosynthesis of treated plants. The UHD of Paraquat increased the yield of rice by 19.35% over the control.


Assuntos
Paraquat/administração & dosagem , Oryza , Fertilizantes , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(4): 29-42, Dec. 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1396367

RESUMO

High dilutions (HDs) of drugs, used in Homeopathy, are prepared in aqueous EtOH (ethanol) through serial dilution accompanying mechanical agitation or succussion, and are called potencies. The potencies from the rank 12 onwards are too dilute to contain any original drug molecules. Do the potency ranks show any difference from each other? Do serial dilution and succussion contribute to the difference in potency ranks? This study aims to address these two questions. The throat swab of a Covid-19 patient was preserved and diluted with aqueous EtOH 90% to prepare the mother tincture (MT) and five different potencies of Covid named Covidinum. These potencies and their solvent media were analysed by electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. Charge transfer (CT) and proton transfer interactions occur during preparation of the potencies. The FT-IR spectra of all the test samples after normalization show difference from each other with respect to O-H stretching and bending (v2) bands. Serial dilution and succussion contribute to the observed difference in ranks and CT interactions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise Espectral
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 18(3/4): 19-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050037

RESUMO

Background: Mercuric chloride is known to inhibit the activity of enzymes. It is used in homeopathy at ultra low concentration (ULC) and is known as Mercurius corrosivus (Merc cor). ULCs of Merc cor are reported to promote enzyme activity. Objective: To see whether the mother tincture (θ) of Merc cor and its ULCs interact with an enzyme invertase at its binding sites and influence enzyme's action on its substrate sucrose. Methods: Merc cor θ (0.15 M HgCl2) was diluted with deionized and distilled (DD) water 1:100 and succussed 10 times to prepare Merc cor 1 cH or 1st potency. This potency was further diluted and succussed in 200 and 1000 steps to prepare 200cH and 1000cH potencies, respectively. Merc cor 200 cH and 1000cH were prepared in 90% ethanol. The two potencies and blank 90% EtOH were diluted with DD water 1:1000 to minimize ethanol content to a negligible amount 0.09%. The control was DD water (0.99g/M). The drugs, EtOH and water control were mixed separately with 0.037 mM invertase in DD water. Using an isothermal calorimetry (ITC) instrument the substrate sucrose (65mM) was injected at 2 µl every 2 min into 300 µl invertase solution 20 times at 25 0C. Molecular modeling study was done to predict possible binding sites and nature of binding between the enzyme and HgCl2, and between the enzyme and water. Potencies after dilution are virtually water. Fluorescence spectra of invertase (4µM) mixed with drug/control solutions were also obtained to see the effect of drugs on protein folding. Results: Thermodynamic parameters like binding constant (K), change in enthalpy(ΔH), entropy(ΔS) and Gibbs free energy(ΔG) showed marked variation in treatment effects on the enzyme. Molecular modeling study also shows variation in binding between invertase and HgCl2, and between invertase and water. Fluorescence spectra show variation in quenching related to different treatments. Conclusion: Merc cor mother tincture and its potencies interact at different binding sites of invertase and modify the enzyme's action on sucrose. So, potencies act as modulators of ligand, sucrose. Drug solutions induce conformational changes in the enzyme. (au)


Assuntos
Sacarose , Sítios de Ligação , Modelos Moleculares , Baixas Potências , beta-Frutofuranosidase , Homeopatia , Cloreto de Mercúrio
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 17(3/4): 9-19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1049913

RESUMO

Background Thermal stress during early imbibitional phase of germination causes disruption of redox-homeostasis by increasing accumulation of ROS Reactive Oxygen species (assessed in terms of hydrogen peroxide) and significant reduction of antioxidative defense (assessed in terms of catalase and peroxidase) in germinating tissues of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata). It also induces oxidative damage to newly assembled membrane system by aggravating membrane lipid peroxidation [measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)]. Cantharis is a homeopathic remedy used for treating burn injuries in humans. The objective is to see whether potentized Cantharis could ameliorate heat stress in germinating seeds of cowpea. Methodology Seeds, imbibed in water overnight, were divided into four groups (n=50/group): Control I (Water 200c), Control II (Ethanol 200c), treated with Cantharis 200c and untreated and unstressed. Water soaked seeds were dipped in control/drug solution for 5 min and then washed. Control II and Cantharis 200c were diluted with water 1:1000 to minimize the ethanol effect. Except the fourth group, all other groups were subjected to heat stress (450C for 8 hours). All the groups were allowed to germinate for 5 days in germination chamber at 25 ± 20C. Groups 1 and 2 (Control I and II) served as systematic negative controls throughout the experiment. Ten independent replications were performed for each group in parallel. All experiments were randomized and blinded. Results The systematic negative controls (I, II) did not produce any significant effect. The results in terms of germination, growth, soluble sugar, protein, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and loss of membrane permeability clearly exhibit that Cantharis 200c could mitigate heat stress significantly (p<0.05) as compared to the controls I, II. Final germination percentage after 120 hrs was found to be 60%, 48%, 86%, 88%, for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively. Total chlorophyll (Chl-a + Chl-b), carotenoids and total chl/carotenoid ratio were found to be highest in groups 3 and 4. Assessment of membrane lipid peroxidation in terms of TBARS and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2) showed minimum concentration in group 3 and 4. Conclusion Cantharis 200c can counteract the deleterious effects of heat stress on juvenile tissues and membranes and can be used effectively to counter heat stress in tropical countries especially during summer. (AU)


Assuntos
Sementes , Altas Potências , Cantharis vesicatoria , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Germinação , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Fabaceae
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 17(3/4): 2-8, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: biblio-1049912

RESUMO

Introduction: Alcohol intoxication affects aquaporins in the glial cells of brain resulting in oedema. Nux vomica, a homeopathic drug of plant origin, is known to counteract alcohol effect. The objective of this present study is to find out the level of free water molecules in the brain of a teleost fish under ethanol intoxication. The second objective is to determine whether Nux vomica could restore the level of free water in the alcohol treated fish. Materials and methods: One group of fish was exposed to 456 mM ethanol for 30 min, another exposed first to a solution of Nux vomica 200c for 20 min and then to 456 mM ethanol for 30 min. The third group served as an untreated control. The mid brain of each fish was kept in an aluminium sample pan and its free water level was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: All alcohol treated fish showed significant reduction in the level of free water molecules as compared to the untreated control. Treatment with Nux vomica increased the level of free water in the brain significantly as compared to the untreated alcoholic group. Conclusion: Alcohol intoxication reduces free water molecules in the fish brain. Nux vom might have acted on aquaporins in the glial cells thereby increasing the level of free water in the brain. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Encéfalo , Intoxicação Alcoólica/terapia , Aquaporina 4
8.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. RESULTS: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. CONCLUSION: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur.


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(1): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11963

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The present study aims at deciphering the nature of the water structure of two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Natrum mur in three UHD 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH were selected for the study. Raman spectra of the drugs and their medium (90% ethanol) were obtained in the wave number region of 2600-3800 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) was calculated for each UHD as well as the control. Results: Raman spectra shows differences in intensities in different UHDs and their control in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDs of each drug show an inverse relationship with respect to the R1 values. However, for R2 the relationship of UHD for each drug is positive. Conclusion: R1 provides information about the relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 suggests the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak hydrogen bonds. Judged from R1 values the lower is the rank of UHD, the stronger is the H-bond of the OH groups. In the light of R2 values, the higher is the UHD rank the more abundant is the free OH groups. So, hydrogen bond strength and free OH groups together make an effective UHD rank relating to Sulphur and Natrum mur. (AU)


Assuntos
Sulphur , Natrium Muriaticum , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman
10.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. METHOD: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. RESULTS: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 81002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. CONCLUSION: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
11.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 15(2): 2-9, 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11965

RESUMO

Objective: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. Results: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 8<202>1002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. Conclusion: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.(AU)


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica , Homeopatia , Análise Espectral Raman , Sepia , Altas Potências , Ligação de Hidrogênio
12.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(1): 4-11, 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11057

RESUMO

Objective: In a series of experiments we showed that treatment of a plant or animal with a dilutedand agitated substance might affect other plants or animals connected to the former by the capillarywater in cotton threads. The aim of the present study was to establish whether drug effect could betransferred in a cell-free medium.Design: Two test tubes, each containing 1 ml of 1% starch solution and 1 ml of á-amylase, wereconnected by means wet cotton threads encased in a polythene tube. One of the tubes alsocontained Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c) 30 cH and the other ethanol solution (control). After 15min, the enzyme activity was stopped with DNSA, and the breakdown product of starch, maltose,was estimated. A third, separate tube contained all the tested materials except for Merc-c and thecontrol solution. In a second experiment two tubes, one containing 1,200 ppm and the other 200ppm of maltose, were similarly connected over 15 min. Both experiments were repeated 20 times.Results: In the first experiment, the amount of maltose was similar in both connected tubes, but itwas significantly lower in the unconnected tube. In the second experiment, maltose concentrationin both tubes remained unchanged.Conclusion: The information of Merc-c 30 cH was effectively transferred through capillary waterbetween two tubes in cell-free medium. This effect was not due to physical transfer of either solventor solutes. Water seems to the most probable carrier of information in diluted and agitatedsolutions.(AU)


Assuntos
Maltose , Amido , Água , Mercurius Corrosivus/análise , Altas Potências , alfa-Amilases , Técnicas In Vitro , Homeopatia , Etanol
13.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(1): 4-11, 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-757858

RESUMO

In a series of experiments we showed that treatment of a plant or animal with a dilutedand agitated substance might affect other plants or animals connected to the former by the capillarywater in cotton threads. The aim of the present study was to establish whether drug effect could betransferred in a cell-free medium.Design: Two test tubes, each containing 1 ml of 1% starch solution and 1 ml of á-amylase, wereconnected by means wet cotton threads encased in a polythene tube. One of the tubes alsocontained Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c) 30 cH and the other ethanol solution (control). After 15min, the enzyme activity was stopped with DNSA, and the breakdown product of starch, maltose,was estimated. A third, separate tube contained all the tested materials except for Merc-c and thecontrol solution. In a second experiment two tubes, one containing 1,200 ppm and the other 200ppm of maltose, were similarly connected over 15 min. Both experiments were repeated 20 times.Results: In the first experiment, the amount of maltose was similar in both connected tubes, but itwas significantly lower in the unconnected tube. In the second experiment, maltose concentrationin both tubes remained unchanged.Conclusion: The information of Merc-c 30 cH was effectively transferred through capillary waterbetween two tubes in cell-free medium. This effect was not due to physical transfer of either solventor solutes. Water seems to the most probable carrier of information in diluted and agitatedsolutions...


Assuntos
Humanos , Altas Potências , Amido , Homeopatia , Maltose , Mercurius Corrosivus/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , alfa-Amilases , Água , Etanol
14.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 8-15, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-783318

RESUMO

Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) we have demonstrated that homeopathic potencies of Natrum mur, Cantharis, Nux vomica and Sulphur show differences with respect to the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. The purpose of the present study is to confirm this phenomenon in three potencies of two more drugs Calcarea carb and Silicea. Design: The potencies used for each of the two drugs were 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH. The control was 90% ethanol as also the potentized drugs. The control, as well as the potencies, were diluted with distilled water to reduce the level of ethanol to 0.03 molar fraction in each of them. FTIR spectra of all the potentized drugs, control and sterile distilled water (reference water) were taken in the wave number region of 4000-2800 cm-1. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) of OH band was measured for each spectrum. The width was divided into two in the middle. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution - absorbance of reference water) for each potency and the control was obtained after normalization of the spectrum at 3410 cm-1. One difference spectrum so obtained for a potency was subtracted from another to find out if there is a difference between two different potencies. Results: The half width half maximum (hwhm) in both the high and low-frequency sides of the OH band is far less narrow in potencies than in the control as compared to that in water. The difference spectra for different potencies show different levels of fall in intensity at the wave number region of dip at 3630 cm-1...


Assuntos
Altas Potências , Calcarea Carbonica/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Mecanismo de Ação do Medicamento Homeopático , Silicea Terra/farmacologia
15.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 14(4): 8-15, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11147

RESUMO

Objective: Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) we have demonstrated that homeopathic potencies of Natrum mur, Cantharis, Nux vomica and Sulphur show differences with respect to the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. The purpose of the present study is to confirm this phenomenon in three potencies of two more drugs Calcarea carb and Silicea. Design: The potencies used for each of the two drugs were 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH. The control was 90% ethanol as also the potentized drugs. The control, as well as the potencies, were diluted with distilled water to reduce the level of ethanol to 0.03 molar fraction in each of them. FTIR spectra of all the potentized drugs, control and sterile distilled water (reference water) were taken in the wave number region of 4000-2800 cm-1. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) of OH band was measured for each spectrum. The width was divided into two in the middle. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution - absorbance of reference water) for each potency and the control was obtained after normalization of the spectrum at 3410 cm-1. One difference spectrum so obtained for a potency was subtracted from another to find out if there is a difference between two different potencies. Results: The half width half maximum (hwhm) in both the high and low-frequency sides of the OH band is far less narrow in potencies than in the control as compared to that in water. The difference spectra for different potencies show different levels of fall in intensity at the wave number region of dip at 3630 cm-1. The level of dip at 3630 cm-1 and subsequent rise in intensity in the lower frequency region represent the quantity of free water molecules and strong alcoholic OH bond around 3250 cm-1, respectively. The results of subtraction between two different potencies are not zero but have marked positive or negative values. Conclusion (i) Potencies have stronger intermolecular interactions and a higher number of chemical environments than the control, as revealed by the data on hwhm. (ii) The three potencies of each of the two drugs show distinct variation in the number of free water molecules and strength of hydrogen bonding. (iii) There exists both inter-drug and inter-potency variation as revealed by the difference spectra and results of subtraction between two difference spectra.(AU)


Assuntos
Calcarea Carbonica/farmacologia , Silicea Terra/farmacologia , Altas Potências , Mecanismo de Ação do Medicamento Homeopático , Ligação de Hidrogênio
16.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-11039

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Anuros , Sulphur , Sepia succus , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento
17.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 157-164, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-754742

RESUMO

In homeopathy some drugs are known to act as complementary, antidotal or inimical to a particular drug. Practitioners can follow this rule when they apply one drug following another. Potentized Nux vomica can reduce acute hypnotic effect of alcohol on toads. Sulphur and Sepia are reported to be complementary to Nux-vom, while Coffea cruda and Zincum met are antidotal and inimical to Nux, respectively [...] Methods: Five batches of toads, each comprising 20 individuals, were treated by partial immersion in a drug diluted with distilled water 1:500 for 20 min. The control consisted of 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500. The drugs were Nux vom 200 CH, Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH. Toads of each batch were separately exposed to 260mM ethanol solution and tested every 10 min to see if they had lost their righting reflex (RR)[...] Results: Toads treated with the five drugs took significantly longer time (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) to lose RR than those treated with the control. The time taken to lose RR was significantly longer (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA) with Sulphur 200 CH, Sepia 200 CH, Coffea 200 CH and Zincum 200 CH than with Nux vom 200 CH alone. The situation was same when Nux treatment was followed by each of the four drugs. Of the five drugs Coffea showed the strongest anti-hypnotic effect. Conclusion: 1. Drugs complementary, antidotal and inimical to Nux vom showed the same anti-alcoholic effect as Nux in terms of increased tolerance to alcohol anesthesia. 2. The anti-alcoholic effect of Nux vom was markedly superseded by the above four drugs. 3. Of all the drugs tested Coffea showed the strongest anti-alcoholic effect. 4. It appears that the above four drugs produced their individual dominant effect cancelling the individual effect of Nux vom.


Assuntos
Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Anuros , Coffea Cruda , Reflexo de Endireitamento , Sepia succus , Sulphur
18.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 12(43): 44-51, 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Homeopathic potencies have been reported to produce alteration of contraction in isolated rat ileum in an organ bath. Potentized homeopathic drugs like Lycopus V and Aurum met are used for the treatment of hypertension. AIM The purpose of this study is to see whether Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH could produce relaxation of isolated rat aorta in the organ bath. METHODS The aorta of rats were dissected out, placed in Krebs-Henseleit solution, cleared of connective tissue and endothelium and cut into 2-2.5 mm long rings. The rings were fixed in organ baths with the upper end connected by a string to an isometric transducer which was finally attached through a data acquisitation equipment to a computer. Aurum met 30 CH Lycopus V 30 CH, and their medium 90% ethanol were added separately to the bathing fluid containing the aorta rings which were precontracted with noradrenalin (NA). RESULTS Both the drugs produced significant relaxation of the aorta (p<0.001) precontracted with NA (10-7 M). The control did not show any marked effect on the NA induced contraction of aorta. CONCLUSION A potentised drug is thought to be specifically structured water which can transform the water structure in the bathing fluid and the isolated tissue immersed in the fluid into its own form. This in turn produces the observed relaxation. Both Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH are effective in reducing NA induced contraction of rat aorta. Drugs can directly act on the isolated rat aorta without any system of influence. KEY WORDS High dilution drug, isolated aorta, hypertension, noradrenalin. (AU)


Introdução e objetivo: Segundo alguns estudos, diluições homeopáticas alteram a contratilidade de íleo isolado de rato, em banho de órgãos. Os medicamentos homeopáticos como Aurum metallicum Lycopus virginicus são usados no tratamento da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se Lycps 30 cH e Aur 30 cH podem induzir o relaxamento da aorta isolada de ratos, em banho de órgãos. Métodos: A aorta foi dissecada e, livre de tecido conjuntivo e endotelio, foi colocada em solução de Krebs-Henseleit, sendo seccionada em anéis de 2 a 2,5 cm de comprimento. Os anéis foram fixados em banho de órgãos, a extremidade superior ligada por um cabo a um transdutor isométrico, por sua vez ligado a dispositivos de registro de dados em um computador. Aur 30 cH, Lycps 30 cH e etanol 90%, foram adicionados separadamente ao líquido do banho contendo os anéis de aorta previamente contraídas pela noradrenalina (NA) ou norpinefrina (NE). Resultados: Os dois medicamentos testados induziram relaxamento significativo (p <0,001), do preparada de aorta contraída por NA (10-7 M), enquanto que a solução de controle não produziu efeitos significativos. Conclusão: Ambas as drogas foram usadas em diluições homeopáticas demasiado elevadas para admitir a presença de moléculas da substância original. Assim, o mecanismo farmacológico tradicional envolvendo as moléculas da droga e receptores no músculo liso da aorta deve ser descartado. Embora reconhecidamente diferente, o mecanismo envolvido permanece desconhecido. Lycps 30 e Aur 30 CH mostraram-se eficazes na redução da contratilidade da aorta de ratos, induzida por NA. As drogas podem agir diretamente na aorta isolada de ratos sem influência sistêmica. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Altas Potências , Aorta , Hipertensão , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Aurum Metallicum , Lycopus
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 12(43): 44-51, 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Homeopathic potencies have been reported to produce alteration of contraction in isolated rat ileum in an organ bath. Potentized homeopathic drugs like Lycopus V and Aurum met are used for the treatment of hypertension. AIM The purpose of this study is to see whether Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH could produce relaxation of isolated rat aorta in the organ bath. METHODS The aorta of rats were dissected out, placed in Krebs-Henseleit solution, cleared of connective tissue and endothelium and cut into 2-2.5 mm long rings. The rings were fixed in organ baths with the upper end connected by a string to an isometric transducer which was finally attached through a data acquisitation equipment to a computer. Aurum met 30 CH Lycopus V 30 CH, and their medium 90% ethanol were added separately to the bathing fluid containing the aorta rings which were precontracted with noradrenalin (NA). RESULTS Both the drugs produced significant relaxation of the aorta (p<0.001) precontracted with NA (10-7 M). The control did not show any marked effect on the NA induced contraction of aorta. CONCLUSION A potentised drug is thought to be specifically structured water which can transform the water structure in the bathing fluid and the isolated tissue immersed in the fluid into its own form. This in turn produces the observed relaxation. Both Lycopus V 30 CH and Aurum met 30 CH are effective in reducing NA induced contraction of rat aorta. Drugs can directly act on the isolated rat aorta without any system of influence. KEY WORDS High dilution drug, isolated aorta, hypertension, noradrenalin.


Introdução e objetivo: Segundo alguns estudos, diluições homeopáticas alteram a contratilidade de íleo isolado de rato, em banho de órgãos. Os medicamentos homeopáticos como Aurum metallicum Lycopus virginicus são usados no tratamento da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se Lycps 30 cH e Aur 30 cH podem induzir o relaxamento da aorta isolada de ratos, em banho de órgãos. Métodos: A aorta foi dissecada e, livre de tecido conjuntivo e endotelio, foi colocada em solução de Krebs-Henseleit, sendo seccionada em anéis de 2 a 2,5 cm de comprimento. Os anéis foram fixados em banho de órgãos, a extremidade superior ligada por um cabo a um transdutor isométrico, por sua vez ligado a dispositivos de registro de dados em um computador. Aur 30 cH, Lycps 30 cH e etanol 90%, foram adicionados separadamente ao líquido do banho contendo os anéis de aorta previamente contraídas pela noradrenalina (NA) ou norpinefrina (NE). Resultados: Os dois medicamentos testados induziram relaxamento significativo (p <0,001), do preparada de aorta contraída por NA (10-7 M), enquanto que a solução de controle não produziu efeitos significativos. Conclusão: Ambas as drogas foram usadas em diluições homeopáticas demasiado elevadas para admitir a presença de moléculas da substância original. Assim, o mecanismo farmacológico tradicional envolvendo as moléculas da droga e receptores no músculo liso da aorta deve ser descartado. Embora reconhecidamente diferente, o mecanismo envolvido permanece desconhecido. Lycps 30 e Aur 30 CH mostraram-se eficazes na redução da contratilidade da aorta de ratos, induzida por NA. As drogas podem agir diretamente na aorta isolada de ratos sem influência sistêmica.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Altas Potências , Aorta , Aurum Metallicum , Hipertensão , Lycopus , Norepinefrina/farmacologia
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(39)June 22, 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | HomeoIndex (homeopatia) | ID: hom-10776

RESUMO

Adhatoda vasica Nees plants were grown in 50 earthen pots, which were divided into 5 batches A, B, C, D, and E. Of these A, B and C, D were arranged into two separate parallel pairs. One leaf of each plant of an adjacent pair was immersed in sterile tap water in a beaker. Adjacent beakers in each pair A B or C D were connected by polythene tubes containing wet cotton threads. One leaf of each plant of A was given heat shock by immersing a leaf in hot water for 5 min. One leaf of each plant of C was treated with Cantharis vesicatoria 200c. Batch E served as the unstressed and untreated control. One hour after heat shock or drug treatment all the leaves were harvested and their proteins were extracted by chilled protein extraction buffer. Proteins were separated by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). Protein profiles of A, B and C, D showed marked similarity with respect to expression and repression of some proteins. It is concluded that the effect of heat shock and drug treatment is transmitted through water in the capillaries of cotton threads connecting the pairs of plants. It is assumed that heat shock or drug treatment altered locally the water structure in the leaves which was propagated through global network of water structure over the protein network in the whole plants, and from there to the interfacial water in the beakers and cotton threads. A homeopathic potency is thought to be specifically structured water which influences the water structure in the treated organism(AU)


Plantas Adhatoda vasica Nees foram cultivadas em 50 vasos de argila e divididos em 5 lotes A, B, C, D e E. Os lotes A, B e C, D foram arranjados em dois pares paralelos separados. Uma folha de cada planta dos pares adjacentes foi submergida num béquer com água corrente estéril. Os béqueres de cada par, A, B e C, D foram interconectados através de tubos de polietileno contendo fio de algodão umedecido. Uma folha de cada planta no lote A recebeu choque térmico através de imersão em água quente por 5 minutos. Uma folha de cada planta no lote C foi tratada com Cantharis vesicatoria 200c. O lote E foi utilizado como controle não submetido nem a estresse nem a medicação. Uma hora depois da aplicação de choque térmico ou tratamento medicamentoso, todas as folhas foram coletadas e suas proteínas foram extraídas através de tampão de extração de proteínas frio. As proteínas foram separadas através de cromatografia líquida rápida de proteínas (CLRP). Os perfis proteicos dos lotes A, B, C e D mostraram similaridade considerável quanto à expressão e repressão de algumas proteínas. Conclui-se que o efeito do choque térmico e do tratamento medicamentoso foi transmitido através da água nos capilares de fio de algodão conectando pares de plantas. Assume-se que o choque térmico e o tratamento medicamentoso alteraram localmente a estrutura da água nas folhas, que se propagou através da rede global da estrutura da água até a rede proteica nas plantas inteiras e dali para a água interfacial nos béqueres e fios de algodão. Considera-se que uma potência homeopática é água especificamente estruturada que influencia a estrutura da água no organismo tratado.(AU)


Assuntos
Cantharis vesicatoria , Tratamento Térmico , Agricultura Orgânica
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