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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1649-1660, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799106

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous injections of 15 mg/mL Cu, 5 mg/mL Se, 60 mg/mL Zn, and 10 mg/mL Mn on health, performance, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function, circulating glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and inflammation of dairy cows undergoing the transition period in high temperature-humidity index. A total of 923 multiparous cows from 2 commercial dairy farms were randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups as follows: control and injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS). Cows in the ITMS group received 7 mL of subcutaneous injections at dry-off (208 ± 3 d of gestation), 260 ± 3 d of gestation, and at 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM). Data regarding health traits, reproductive performance, milk yield, and survivability were extracted from farm database software, and animals were followed-up until 300 DIM. For a subset of 142 cows from one herd, blood samples were collected at enrollment, and at 3 ± 1, 7 ± 1, 10 ± 1, and 35 ± 3 DIM to evaluate hematology, PMNL function, GPx and SOD concentrations, and circulating haptoglobin. Logistic regression was used to assess health and pregnancy per artificial insemination at first service. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate hazard of pregnancy and culling. Mixed linear regression models accounting for repeated measures were used to assess all continuous variables collected over time. Parity, twinning, and previous gestation length were considered as potential confounders. Farm was included as a random effect. The ITMS cows tended to have lower incidence of metritis and stillbirth compared with control group. However, ITMS treatment did not influence the incidence of other diseases (e.g., mastitis, retained placenta), milk yield, reproductive performance, culling, and leukocyte count. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, PMNL phagocytosis, and oxidative burst as well as intensity of the oxidative burst were greater for ITMS-treated cows in comparison to control cows. The ITMS cows had decreased expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin on PMNL surface. The serum concentration of GPx and SOD were not affected by ITMS treatment. In conclusion, ITMS tended to reduce the incidence of metritis and stillbirth parturition, improved PMNL function, and improved the inflammatory status of dairy cows undergoing the transition period in high temperature-humidity index conditions. However, these findings did not translate into improved milk yield, reproductive performance, and survivability.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Oligoelementos , Animales , Antioxidantes , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Lactancia , Leche , Neutrófilos , Paridad , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9340-9354, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985772

RESUMEN

Calves born to multiparous Holstein cows fed during the last 30 d of pregnancy 2 different cobalt sources [cobalt glucoheptonate (CoPro) or cobalt pectin (CoPectin)], folic acid (FOA), and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) were used to study neonatal immune responses after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Groups were (n = 12 calves/group) CoPro, FOA+CoPro, FOA+CoPectin, and FOA+CoPectin+RPM. Calves were weighed at birth and blood collected at birth (before colostrum), 21 d of age, and 42 d of age (at weaning). Growth performance was recorded once a week during the first 6 wk of age. Energy metabolism, inflammation, and antioxidant status were assessed at birth through various plasma biomarkers. Whole blood was challenged with 3 µg/mL of LPS or used for phagocytosis and oxidative burst assays. Target genes evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR in whole blood samples were associated with immune response, antioxidant function, and 1-carbon metabolism. The response in mRNA abundance in LPS challenged versus nonchallenged samples was assessed via Δ = LPS challenged - LPS nonchallenged samples. Phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst activity were measured in neutrophils and monocytes, with data reported as ratio (percentage) of CD14 to CH138A-positive cells. Data including all time points were subjected to ANOVA using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc.), with Treatment, Sex, Age, and Treatment × Age as fixed effects. A 1-way ANOVA was used to determine differences at birth, with Treatment and Sex as fixed effects. Calf birth body weight and other growth parameters did not differ between groups. At birth, plasma haptoglobin concentration was lower in FOA+CoPro compared with CoPro calves. We detected no effect for other plasma biomarkers or immune function due to maternal treatments at birth. Compared with CoPro, in response to LPS challenge, whole blood from FOA+CoPectin and FOA+CoPectin+RPM calves had greater mRNA abundance of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). No effect for other genes was detectable. Regardless of maternal treatments, sex-specific responses were observed due to greater plasma concentrations of haptoglobin, paraoxonase, total reactive oxygen metabolites, nitrite, and ß-carotene in female versus male calves at birth. In contrast, whole blood from male calves had greater mRNA abundance of IRAK1, CADM1, and ITGAM in response to LPS challenge at birth. The longitudinal analysis of d 0, 21, and 42 data revealed greater bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) mRNA abundance in whole blood from FOA+CoPectin versus FOA+CoPro calves, coupled with greater abundance in FOA+CoPro compared with CoPro calves. Regardless of maternal treatments, most genes related to cytokines and cytokine receptors (IL1B, IL10, TNF, IRAK1, CXCR1), toll-like receptor pathway (TLR4, NFKB1), adhesion and migration (ICAM1, ITGAM), antimicrobial function (MPO), and antioxidant function (GPX1) were downregulated over time. Phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst activity in both neutrophils and monocytes did not differ due to maternal treatment. Regardless of maternal treatments, we observed an increase in the percentage of neutrophils capable of phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity over time. Overall, these preliminary assessments suggested that maternal supplementation with FOA and Co combined with RPM had effects on a few plasma biomarkers of inflammation at birth and molecular responses associated with inflammatory mechanisms during the neonatal period.


Asunto(s)
Metionina , Rumen , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Bovinos , Cobalto , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Ácido Fólico , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Embarazo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(12): 11876-11888, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069401

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize Ca levels and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function in primiparous and multiparous animals following oral Ca bolus supplementation, and (2) to determine differential responses of boluses containing a lower dose of Ca than traditionally used in primiparous animals on Ca levels and PMN function. Jersey × Holstein crossbred animals (n = 104) were enrolled within 24 h of parturition. All animals were blocked by time relative to calving and randomly assigned to treatment. The Ca boluses were composed of a mixture of Ca chloride, Ca sulfate, and Ca propionate. For objective 1, animals were assigned to control (CON; no Ca supplementation), or a series of 2 Ca boluses given 24 h apart for a total of 50 g of Ca. Objective 2 treatments included control (CON; no Ca supplementation), a series of 2 Ca boluses given 24 h apart containing 50 g of Ca, or a series of 2 Ca boluses given 24 h apart containing 25 g of Ca. Blood samples were collected on d 1 (<24 h), 2, 3, 5, and 7 relative to parturition. Total serum Ca, serum haptoglobin, PMN intracellular Ca, PMN intracellular Ca after stimulation with an environmental Escherichia coli, PMN L-selectin surface expression, and PMN phagocytic and oxidative burst activities were analyzed. For objective 1 a tendency was detected for a treatment difference on basal intracellular PMN Ca and a treatment difference on E. coli-stimulated intracellular PMN Ca. We detected a parity × DIM effect for PMN oxidative burst intensity. However, no other interactions or parity effects on other functional PMN variables were detectable. In primiparous animals, we found a treatment difference for E. coli-stimulated intracellular PMN Ca among animals given 50 g of Ca but no treatment difference on basal intracellular PMN Ca. The 50 g of Ca treatment increased both PMN phagocytosis and oxidative burst intensities. Supplementing animals with 50 g of oral Ca increased intracellular PMN Ca and influenced PMN function.


Asunto(s)
Calcio/administración & dosificación , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Administración Oral , Animales , Calcio/sangre , Escherichia coli/fisiología , Femenino , Espacio Intracelular/metabolismo , Lactancia , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Paridad , Parto , Embarazo , Estallido Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7351-7363, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475670

RESUMEN

The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of supplementing a blend of probiotic bacteria (Provida Calf, MB Nutritional Sciences, Lubbock, TX) on the pathophysiological response to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in neonatal Jersey calves. Twenty-four Jersey bull calves within 24 h of birth were acquired from a local calf ranch, blocked by total serum protein and initial body weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 8). Calves were assigned to either (1) Control (CON); base milk replacer, (2) Control + Salmonella Typhimurium (CON+ST); base milk replacer and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7; or (3) Provida Calf probiotics + Salmonella Typhimurium (PRO+ST); same milk replacer supplemented with a proprietary blend of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecium strains and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7. The PRO+ST calves were supplemented for the first 3 d with 2 × 1010 cfu/d and then with 2 × 109 cfu/d for the remainder of the study. The CON+ST and PRO+ST calves were each challenged with approximately 5 × 106 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC# 14028), which was a mild challenge that did not cause scours in the calves. Peripheral blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21 and analyzed for hematology; serum was collected and analyzed for haptoglobin, glucose, and urea N. Rectal temperatures were collected daily from d 6 to 21, when all calves were killed, so that persistent colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and histomorphology of both the duodenum and ileum could be determined. Serum haptoglobin and urea N concentrations were increased among CON+ST on d 10. In contrast, the peak rectal temperature on d 10 in PRO+ST calves was 40.4°C, which was greater than that for CON and CON-ST (38.9°C and 39.7°C, respectively). The neutrophil percentage in peripheral circulation in PRO+ST calves was 55.4%, which was greater than that for CON and CON+ST (34.8 and 41.8%, respectively). Seven of the 8 PRO+ST calves had elevated neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7, whereas 4 of the 8 CON+ST calves had reduced neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7. Villus height-to-crypt depth ratios in the duodenum were greater among CON and PRO+ST calves, being 1.38, 0.84, and 1.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively. In the ileum, the PRO+ST calves had greater villus height-to-crypt depth ratios than both the CON and CON+ST calves (1.64, 1.53, and 2.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively). These data indicate that supplementing neonatal calves with the blend of probiotic bacteria used in the current study can influence the pathophysiological response to a mild enteric Salmonella Typhimurium challenge.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Probióticos , Salmonelosis Animal/prevención & control , Salmonella typhimurium , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Masculino , Leche , Neutrófilos
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10599-10605, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447163

RESUMEN

The supply of methionine (Met) in late pregnancy can alter mRNA abundance of genes associated with metabolism and immune response in liver and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of the neonatal calf. Whether prenatal supply of Met elicits postnatal effects on systemic inflammation and innate immune response of the calf is not well known. We investigated whether enhancing the maternal supply of Met via feeding ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met (RPM) was associated with differences in calf innate immune response mRNA abundance in PMN and systemic indicators of inflammation during the first 50 d of life. Calves (n = 14 per maternal diet) born to cows fed RPM at 0.09% of diet dry matter per day (MET) for the last 28 ± 2 d before calving or fed a control diet with no added Met (CON) were used. Blood for biomarker analysis and isolation of PMN for innate immune function assays and mRNA abundance was harvested at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 7, 21 and 50 d of age. Whole blood was challenged with enteropathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli 0118:H8) and phagocytosis and oxidative burst of neutrophils and monocytes were quantified via flow cytometry. Although concentration of haptoglobin and activity of myeloperoxidase among calves from both maternal groups increased markedly between 0 and 7 d of age followed by a decrease to baseline at d 21 the responses were lower in MET compared with CON calves. Nitric oxide concentration decreased markedly between 0 and 7 d regardless of maternal group but MET calves tended to have lower overall concentrations during the study. In vitro phagocytosis in stimulated neutrophils increased markedly over time in both CON and MET calves but responses were overall greater in MET calves. Oxidative burst in both neutrophils and monocytes increased over time regardless of maternal treatment. The mRNA abundance of lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) in PMN was overall greater in MET calves. Overall data suggest that increasing the maternal supply of Met during late pregnancy could affect the neonatal calf inflammatory status and innate immune response. Although changes in mRNA abundance could play a role in coordinating the immune response the exact mechanisms merit further study.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos , Metionina/farmacología , Neutrófilos/inmunología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos/inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Inflamación/prevención & control , Inflamación/veterinaria , Recuento de Leucocitos , Hígado/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Fagocitosis , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones del Embarazo/veterinaria , Rumen/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(1): 480-490, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103714

RESUMEN

The periparturient period is the most critical phase in the productive cycle of dairy cows and is characterized by impairment of the immune system. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM) starting at d -28 from expected parturition through 60 d in milk on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and liver function as well as leukocyte function. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or the control plus ethyl-cellulose RPM (Mepron, Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH). Mepron was supplied from -28 to 60 d in milk at a rate of 0.09% and 0.10% dry matter during the prepartum and postpartum period. That rate ensured that the ratio of Lys to Met in the metabolizable protein was close to 2.8:1. Blood samples from 15 clinically healthy cows per treatment were collected at d -30, -14, 1, 7, 21, 30, and 60 and analyzed for biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Neutrophil and monocyte function in whole blood was measured in vitro at -14, 1, 7, 21, and 30 d in milk. The statistical model included the random effect of block and fixed effect of treatment, time, and its interaction. Compared with control, ethyl-cellulose RPM increased plasma cholesterol and paraoxonase after parturition. Among the inflammation biomarkers measured, ethyl-cellulose RPM led to greater albumin (negative acute-phase protein) and lower haptoglobin than control cows. Although concentration of IL-1ß was not affected by treatments, greater IL-6 concentration was detected in response to ethyl-cellulose RPM. Cows supplemented with ethyl-cellulose RPM had greater plasma concentration of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, ß-carotene, tocopherol, and total and reduced glutathione, whereas reactive oxygen metabolites were lower compared with control cows. Compared with control, ethyl-cellulose RPM enhanced neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Overall, the results indicate that ethyl-cellulose RPM supply to obtain a Lys-to-Met ratio of 2.8:1 in the metabolizable protein during the periparturient period and early lactation is an effective approach to help mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation as well as enhance liver and neutrophil function in dairy cows.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inflamación/veterinaria , Metionina/farmacología , Leche/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Biomarcadores/análisis , Bovinos , Celulosa/análogos & derivados , Celulosa/farmacología , Femenino , Inflamación/prevención & control , Lactancia , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Modelos Estadísticos , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Periodo Periparto , Embarazo , Rumen/metabolismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(11): 9027-9039, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614833

RESUMEN

Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n=93) <1 wk old were stratified by arrival body weight (BW) and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of one-time administration of fluid support [either control electrolyte solution (E) or the serum protein-containing arrival formula (AF)] and 14d of either no supplementation (NG) or supplementation with Gammulin (G; APC Inc., Ankeny, IA), which contains serum proteins and FOS in addition to other solids, minerals, and vitamins. Upon arrival at the research facility, calves were orally administered either AF or E. At the next feeding, half of the calves from each fluid support treatment received either milk replacer (20% crude protein, 20% fat) or the same milk replacer supplemented with G (50g/d during the first 14d). Starter and water were freely available. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Calf health was assessed by daily assignment of fecal and respiratory scores. Stature measures and BW were determined weekly. Blood samples were obtained at d 0 (before treatments), 2, 7, 14, and 28. Calves were weaned at d 42 and remained in the experiment until d 56. After 2 wk of treatments, calves previously fed AF had greater body length (66.6 vs. 66.0cm), intakes of dry matter (38.7 vs. 23.5g/d) and crude protein (9.2 vs. 5.6g/d) from starter, and cortisol concentration in blood (17.0 vs. 13.9 ng/mL) than calves fed E. Supplementation with G resulted in greater BW gain during the first 2 wk, increased intakes of dry matter and CP, and decreased respiratory scores. For the 8-wk experiment, G supplementation resulted in lower mean fecal score (1.6 vs. 1.8) and fewer antibiotic treatments per calf (1.5 vs. 2.5) than NG. Survival was greater in G than in NG calves (98 vs. 84%). Despite the marked reduction in morbidity and mortality, blood indicators of acute-phase response, urea N, and total protein were not affected by AF or G in transported cold-stressed male calves.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Proteínas Sanguíneas/administración & dosificación , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentos Formulados/análisis , Estrés Fisiológico , Reacción de Fase Aguda/sangre , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Biomarcadores/sangre , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Heces/química , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Micronutrientes/análisis , Nitrógeno/orina , Oligosacáridos/administración & dosificación
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(11): 8956-8969, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592438

RESUMEN

The immunometabolic status of peripartal cows is altered due to changes in liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nutritional management during this physiological state can affect the biological components of immunometabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure concentrations of biomarkers in plasma, liver tissue, and milk, and also polymorphonuclear leukocyte function to assess the immunometabolic status of cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine (Met) or choline (CHOL). Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with 2×2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc., New Hampton, NY) level (with or without). Treatments (12 cows each) were control (CON), no Met or CHOL; CON and Met (SMA); CON and CHOL (REA); and CON and Met and CHOL (MIX). From -50 to -21d before expected calving, all cows received the same diet [1.40Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg of DM] with no Met or CHOL. From -21d to calving, cows received the same close-up diet (1.52Mcal of NEL/kg of DM) and were assigned randomly to each treatment. From calving to 30d, cows were on the same postpartal diet (1.71Mcal of NEL/kg of DM) and continued to receive the same treatments until 30d. The Met supplementation was adjusted daily at 0.08% DM of diet, and CHOL was supplemented at 60g/cow per day. Liver (-10, 7, 21, and 30d) and blood (-10, 4, 8, 20, and 30d) samples were harvested for biomarker analyses. Neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst were assessed at d 1, 4, 14, and 28d. The Met-supplemented cows tended to have greater plasma paraoxonase. Greater plasma albumin and IL-6 as well as a tendency for lower haptoglobin were detected in Met- but not CHOL-supplemented cows. Similarly, cows fed Met compared with CHOL had greater concentrations of total and reduced glutathione (a potent intracellular antioxidant) in liver tissue. Upon a pathogen challenge in vitro, blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst activity were greater in Met-supplemented cows. Overall, liver and blood biomarker analyses revealed favorable changes in liver function, inflammation status, and immune response in Met-supplemented cows.


Asunto(s)
Colina/farmacología , Metionina/farmacología , Periodo Periparto/efectos de los fármacos , Rumen/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Arildialquilfosfatasa/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Bovinos , Colina/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Glutatión/sangre , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/veterinaria , Interleucina-6/sangre , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Metionina/sangre , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Periodo Periparto/sangre , Rumen/metabolismo , Albúmina Sérica/metabolismo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(1): 602-17, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465551

RESUMEN

The study was designed to evaluate the effects of altering the ratio between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA) in the diet and the intake of these FA by lactating dairy cows on lactation performance and inflammatory acute phase responses to a challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Multiparous Holstein cows (n=45) were blocked based on milk yield from d 6 to d 10 postpartum and, within each block, assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments at 14d postpartum; treatments lasted for 90d. Diets were supplemented with a mixture of Ca salts of fish, safflower, and palm oils to create 3 different ratios of n-6 to n-3 FA; namely, 3.9, 4.9, or 5.9 parts of n-6 to 1 part of n-3 FA (R4, R5, and R6, respectively). During the first 5 wk of the study, blood was sampled weekly and analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. On d 75 postpartum, cows received an infusion of 10µg of LPS into one quarter of the mammary gland to evaluate inflammatory acute phase responses. Altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 FA was reflected in changes in the FA composition of plasma and milk fat. Reducing the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA from R6 to R4 increased dry matter intake (24.7, 24.6, and 26.1±0.5kg/d for R6, R5, and R4, respectively), with concurrent increases in yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (43.4, 45.4, and 48.0±0.8kg/d), milk fat (1.53, 1.60, and 1.71±0.03kg/d), milk true protein (1.24, 1.28, and 1.32±0.02kg/d), and milk lactose (2.12, 2.19, and 2.29±0.04kg/d). After the LPS challenge, concentrations of IL-6 in plasma increased as the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA increased (112.5, 353.4, and 365.1±86.6pg/mL for R4, R5, and R6, respectively). Elevations of body temperature and somatic cell count were greater for cows fed R5 compared with those fed R4 or R6 (41.3, 40.8, and 40.8±0.2°C; 4.33, 3.68, and 3.58±0.25×10(6)/mL, for R5, R4, and R6, respectively). Haptoglobin concentration was greatest at 24h after LPS challenge for cows fed R6. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst by neutrophils collected from circulation were unaffected by dietary treatment in the first 48h after intramammary LPS infusion. In conclusion, supplying the same quantity of FA in the diet of early lactation dairy cows but altering the ratio of the polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 to n-3 families influenced lactation performance and inflammatory responses to an LPS challenge.


Asunto(s)
Reacción de Fase Aguda/inmunología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Bovinos/inmunología , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Omega-6/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Femenino , Lactancia , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/inmunología
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(6): 3573-87, 2013 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23587395

RESUMEN

A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of metabolism in the calf at birth and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils after colostrum feeding. It might be feasible to design nutrient supplements to fortify colostrum in a way that metabolic and immunologic capabilities of the calf are improved.


Asunto(s)
Animales Recién Nacidos/inmunología , Bovinos/inmunología , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Intercambio Materno-Fetal , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/genética , Biomarcadores/análisis , Bovinos/genética , Calostro , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Expresión Génica/inmunología , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/inmunología , Inflamación/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Fagocitosis , Embarazo
11.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 151(3-4): 285-93, 2013 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23270586

RESUMEN

The objectives of the current research were to determine the physiological effects and responses of many leukocytes following surgical castration and/(or) physical dehorning and the influence of anesthetics and analgesics in 3-month-old calves. Eighty 3-month-old Holstein bull calves were completely randomized to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with castration, dehorning, and anesthetic/analgesic as the main effects. Peripheral blood samples were collected just before (0) and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 24, and 72 h after the respective procedure(s) and analyzed for total leukocyte and differential counts, as well as plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations. Blood from the 0, 0.5 and 24h collections were analyzed for many ex vivo leukocyte responses. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with the fixed effects of treatment, time, and the interaction of treatment × time. Pre-planned contrasts were performed to determine the effect of (1) management procedure (castration and/(or) dehorning), (2) anesthetic/analgesic, and (3) were the management procedures additive. There were treatment × time interactions (P<0.05) on plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations as well as for total leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations in blood. Castration and dehorning increased cortisol concentrations and the effect of the procedures was additive (P<0.02). Dehorning alone elicited a greater (P<0.05) cortisol response than castration alone. In contrast, the leukocytosis and neutrophilia was greater (P<0.01) among castrated calves. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations at 24h after castration were elevated (P<0.01) in calves that were castrated. Both castration and dehorning suppressed (P=0.04) many leukocyte responses including the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when whole blood cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, surface expression of L-selectin on peripheral blood neutrophils, and the oxidative burst intensity of peripheral blood neutrophils when co-cultured with an Escherichia coli. The effects of castration and dehorning on blood leukocyte counts or any of the leukocyte responses were not additive (P>0.23). Castration and dehorning effects of plasma haptoglobin concentrations tended (P=0.10) to be additive at 72 h after the procedure(s). Prior administration of local anesthetic and a systemic analgesic attenuated (P<0.001) the cortisol response and prevented (P=0.03) the observed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and leukocyte suppression. These data suggest that calves should be castrated and dehorned on the same day rather than spreading them out across two days and calves should be administered pain relief prior to performing either procedure.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia Local/veterinaria , Cuernos/cirugía , Leucocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos/fisiología , Orquiectomía/veterinaria , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos Locales/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Bovinos , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Recuento de Leucocitos , Lidocaína/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Neutrófilos/fisiología , Orquiectomía/efectos adversos , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 94(12): 5913-25, 2011 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22118082

RESUMEN

Objectives were to determine adipose tissue mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ co-regulators, target enzymes and transcription regulators, inflammation-related genes, and adipokines in response to dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). From -21 through 10 d relative to parturition cows were fed no supplemental LCFA (control), saturated LCFA (SFAT; mainly 16:0 and 18:0), or fish oil (FO). Lipid was fed at 250 g/d prepartum or approximately 1.5 to 1.9% of the previous day's dry matter intake postpartum. Transcript profiling of 35 genes via quantitative PCR was conducted on biopsies (n=5 cows/diet) collected at -14 and 11 d from parturition. Despite lower dry matter intake with FO, pre- and postpartal blood nonesterified fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and liver triacylglycerol were unaffected by treatment but increased after calving regardless of diet. Prepartal expression of adipogenic/lipogenic transcription regulators [CEBPA, CEBPB, RXRA, KLF5, and MLXIPL (formerly ChREBP)] and co-regulators (CARM1, EP300, NCOA1, MED1, NCOR2, and NRIP1) was upregulated by FO and SFAT versus control, whereas most enzymes involved in lipogenesis/triacylglycerol synthesis (FASN, SCD, DGAT2, and LPIN1) had greater expression only with FO. Expression of most adipogenic/lipogenic genes decreased after parturition, but feeding SFAT led to sustained upregulation of CEBPA, CEBPB, RXRA, several PPAR-co-activators, and DGAT2 and SCD, suggesting maintenance of a pro-adipogenic/pro-lipogenic state with SFAT. The co-activator CREBBP was greater in cows fed lipid and did not decrease after parturition, suggesting ligand activation of PPARγ. The greater peripartal expression of NFKB1 and TBK1 due to dietary lipid was suggestive of a local inflammatory response. At amounts fed prepartum, both FO and SFAT were effective in upregulating the adipose tissue PPARγ-gene network. In contrast, only SFAT led to sustaining that response. Overall, the observed expression patterns are suggestive of an adipogenic regulatory mechanism particularly responsive to SFAT.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Grasas de la Dieta/farmacología , PPAR gamma/análisis , Grasa Subcutánea/química , Adipoquinas/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Ácidos Grasos/farmacología , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/química , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Embarazo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Grasa Subcutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Grasa Subcutánea/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/análisis
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 141(1-2): 76-83, 2011 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21420179

RESUMEN

Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli O111:H8 challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify any biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli O111:H8. The challenge doses included 0, 1.5 x 105, 1.5 x 106, 1.5 x 107, 1.5 x 108, and 1.5 x 109 colony-forming units (CFU) given intravenously as a bolus in 5 mL of sterile isotonic saline. Peripheral blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h relative to the challenge for biochemical, total leukocyte count, and differential analyses. Rectal temperatures were collected via indwelling rectal temperature probes at 5-min intervals, and hourly averages calculated from 2 d prior to the challenge till 2 d after the challenge. All calves survived the 48 h observation period following the challenge. Calves given 1.5 x 108 and 1.5 x 109 CFU displayed sickness behaviors (P < 0.01) beginning 0.5 h after the challenge and returned to that of the control calves by 6 and 32 h for calves challenged with 1.5 x 108 and 1.5 x 109 CFU, respectively. There were treatment x time interactions (P < 0.01) on total leukocyte counts and plasma glucose and zinc concentrations. Calves administered 1.5 x 108 and 1.5 x 109 CFU had leucopenia beginning 2 h after the challenge and returning to counts similar to the control calves within 24 h. Additionally, those calves were hypoglycemic from 4 to 12h after the challenge with the degree of hypoglycemia inversely related to the dose of the E. coli. All calves challenged with E. coli had decreased plasma zinc concentrations, and the magnitude was inversely proportional to the challenge dose. There were treatment x time interactions (P < 0.001) on rectal temperatures following the challenge. All calves challenged with E. coli developed a febrile response, but the intensity and duration of the response were dependent on the challenge dose. These data indicate that calves intravenously challenged with 1.5 x 108 and 1.5 x 109 CFU of the E. coli O111:H8 showed immediate clinical and biochemical signs indicative of septicemia. However, calves administered 1.5 x 107 or less of the E. coli had febrile responses, but did not develop septicemia. Blood glucose and zinc concentrations may be dose responsive indicators that could potentially differentiate between a septicemic versus non-septicemic calf.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/fisiopatología , Calostro/inmunología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Sepsis/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Calostro/fisiología , Citocinas/inmunología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/inmunología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/fisiopatología , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Recuento de Leucocitos/veterinaria , Leucocitos/inmunología , Sepsis/inmunología , Sepsis/microbiología , Sepsis/fisiopatología
14.
J Anim Sci ; 89(1): 52-8, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20852076

RESUMEN

The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent mortality to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned piglets (26.1 ± 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: with (Scb; n = 15) and without (control; n = 15) the in-feed inclusion of Scb (200 g/t) for 16 d. On d 16, all piglets were dosed via indwelling jugular catheters with LPS (25 µg/kg of BW) at 0 h. Serial blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -1 to 6 h and then at 24 h. Differential blood cell populations were enumerated hourly from 0 to 6 h and at 24 h. Serum cortisol, IL-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) concentrations were determined via porcine-specific ELISA at all time points. In Scb-treated piglets, cumulative ADG increased (P < 0.05) by 39.9% and LPS-induced piglet mortality was reduced 20% compared with control piglets. White blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were increased (P < 0.05) in Scb-treated animals before LPS dosing compared with control piglets before being equally suppressed (P < 0.05) from baseline in both treatments after LPS dosing with a return to baseline by 24 h. Suppression of circulating cortisol concentrations (P < 0.05) was observed in Scb-treated piglets from -1 h to 1 h relative to LPS dosing compared with control animals before both peaked equally and subsequently returned to baseline. Peak production (P < 0.05) of IL-1ß and IL-6 was less in Scb-treated piglets after LPS administration compared with controls before both equally returned to baseline. Peak TNF-α production in Scb-treated animals was accelerated 0.5 h and was greater (P < 0.05) than peak production in control piglets, after which both equally returned to baseline. The peak production of IFN-γ was greater and had increased (P < 0.05) amplitude persistence for 3 h in Scb-treated animals compared with control piglets before both equally returned to baseline. These results highlight the previously unidentified effects of Scb administration on immune and cortisol responses and the subsequent impact on growth and endotoxin-induced mortality in weaned piglets.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inducido químicamente , Administración Oral , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Masculino , Probióticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/clasificación , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 93(9): 4280-91, 2010 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20723701

RESUMEN

Objectives were to determine effects of feeding pomegranate extract (POMx) rich in polyphenols on performance, health, nutrient digestion, and immunocompetence of calves in the first 70 d of age. Holstein calves (n=67), at 2+/-1 d of age (d 0=birth day) were randomly assigned to 0 (control), 5 (POMx5), or 10 g/d (POMx10) of pomegranate extract containing 16.9% gallic acid equivalent (GAE) to result in intakes of 0, 850 and 1,700 mg of GAE/d or an average of approximately 0, 15, and 30 mg of GAE/kg of body weight (BW) per day. All calves received colostrum during the first 24 h, pasteurized milk thereafter until 61 d of age, and grain was fed ad libitum for the first 70 d of age. Calves were housed in individual hutches, and grain intake, attitude and fecal scores, incidence and duration of health disorders, and treatments for health problems were evaluated daily. Body weight was measured on 2 consecutive days at 2, 30, and 70 d of age and averaged for each measurement. Concentrations of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate were measured in plasma. Nutrient digestion was measured using total fecal collection during a 3-d period. Neutrophil phagocytic and killing activities and antibody response to immunization with ovalbumin were measured. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured and cytokine production measured. Feeding POMx had no effect on intake or BW gain in the first 30 d of age, but after 30 d of age, both grain dry matter intake and BW gain decreased with increasing addition of POMx, which resulted in calves that were 1.8 and 4.3 kg lighter at 70 d of age for POMx5 and POMx10, respectively, compared with controls. Feeding POMx did not influence dry matter, organic matter, or starch digestibility, but it reduced crude protein and fat digestion. Plasma concentrations of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate were similar among treatments throughout the first 70 d of age. Measures of calf health such as fecal and attitude scores, risk of fever, and rectal temperature were not altered by treatments. Similarly, neutrophil phagocytic and killing activities did not differ among treatments. On the contrary, feeding POMx increased synthesis of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and improved total immunoglobulin G responses to ovalbumin vaccination. These results suggest that feeding POMx top-dressed onto the grain suppresses intake of grain and digestibility of fat and protein, likely because of the high tannin content. Nevertheless, polyphenols from POMx enhanced mitogen-induced cytokine production and response to vaccination, which might benefit immune competence of calves and potentially health. Additional studies are warranted to minimize the effect of POMx on intake and digestibility and to better understand the mechanisms by which polyphenols improve immune response of calves.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Flavonoides/farmacología , Frutas , Lythraceae , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangre , Animales , Formación de Anticuerpos/efectos de los fármacos , Formación de Anticuerpos/fisiología , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/inmunología , Citocinas/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/fisiología , Estado Nutricional/efectos de los fármacos , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Polifenoles , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 92(2): 657-69, 2009 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19164678

RESUMEN

The objectives were to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma metabolite, hepatic fatty acid composition, and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 42) were completely randomized to 1 of 3 treatments at 3 wk prepartum. Treatments were no supplemental lipid or supplemental lipid from either Energy Booster (Milk Specialties Co., Dundee, IL) or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d postpartum. Treatments were fed as a bolus before the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid fed during the prepartum period was 250 g, whereas approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake was supplemented postpartum. Blood was collected 3 times weekly for determination of plasma metabolites. Liver biopsies were performed at 21 and 10 d before expected date of parturition and 1 and 14 d after parturition to determine fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and loss of body weight or body condition score were not affected by supplementing the diet with lipid or by the source of lipid. Supplemental lipid tended to increase plasma glucose and decrease nonesterified fatty acids during the postpartum period. Furthermore, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate was reduced during the postpartum period in the lipid-supplemented treatments. However, source of supplemental lipid had no influence on any blood metabolite. Supplemental fish oil altered the fatty acid composition of liver phospholipids and triacylglycerols, decreasing total saturated fatty acids and increasing total n-3 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (>20 carbon fatty acids). Despite the altered fatty acid composition, hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations were unaffected by supplemental fish oil. Furthermore, the improved metabolic profile following lipid supplementation did not decrease hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Aceites de Pescado/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Periodo Posparto , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Animales , Constitución Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Grasas de la Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Tiempo
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 91(9): 3478-87, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18765607

RESUMEN

Fifty-one Jersey bull calves (5 +/- 1 d old) were assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacers to determine the effects of increasing doses of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil on the acute phase response after an endotoxin challenge. All calves were fed a 22.5% crude protein and 18% lipid milk replacer (Calva Products, Acampo, CA) supplemented with an additional 2% fatty acids. Treatments differed only in the supplemental lipid source and included a 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, a 1:1 blend of fish oil (Omega Proteins, Houston, TX) and the 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, and fish oil only. On d 23, each calf was injected subcutaneously with 4 microg/kg of body weight of Salmonella Typhimurium endotoxin. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 72 h post endotoxin challenge. Endotoxin caused a dramatic rise in respiratory rate; feeding fish oil significantly attenuated the increase. Heart rate and rectal temperature were not affected by treatment. Feeding fish oil attenuated the change in serum iron concentration over time. Endotoxin caused severe hypoglycemia, reaching a nadir at 4 h. Calves supplemented with fish oil had reduced concentrations of serum glucose for 8 to 24 h. Furthermore, calves supplemented with fish oil alone had reduced serum insulin at 12, 28, and 24 h. In contrast, endotoxin caused an acute increase in blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids; there were significant linear effects of fish oil on both blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids. Serum triglycerides were elevated beginning at 12 h after the endotoxin challenge and returned to baseline values within 72 h. Fish oil suppressed the rise in triglycerides during this period, and the effect was linear with increasing fish oil. Serum concentrations of leptin decreased after the endotoxin challenge; however, the treatment did not influence the response. There was no treatment effect on serum aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activity. Adding fish oil to milk replacer attenuated many aspects of the acute phase response, and the effect was linear in the range of 5 to 10% of the lipid replaced as fatty acids from fish oil. Adding fish oil might provide a better balance between a necessary versus an excessive acute phase response.


Asunto(s)
Reacción de Fase Aguda/veterinaria , Bovinos/inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Sustitutos de la Leche , Reacción de Fase Aguda/dietoterapia , Reacción de Fase Aguda/inmunología , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Lipopolisacáridos/inmunología , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Tiempo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 91(9): 3488-500, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18765608

RESUMEN

Fifty-one Jersey bull calves (5 +/- 1 d old) were assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacers to determine the effects of increasing doses of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil on immunocompetence and health. All calves were fed a 22.5% crude protein and 18% lipid industry standard milk replacer supplemented with an additional 2% fatty acids. The 3 treatments differed only in the supplemental lipid source and included a 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils; a 1:1 blend of fish oil and the 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils; and fish oil only. All treatments were supplemented with 150 mg of vitamin E/kg of milk replacer. Body weight, height at withers, and length between withers and pins were measured weekly. Fecal and respiratory scores were recorded multiple times daily, and peripheral blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 42 for hematologic and metabolic analyses. Immunocompetence of calves was evaluated in vitro by the ability of neutrophils and monocytes to phagocytose Escherichia coli and produce an oxidative burst and in vivo as the change in ear thickness after an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin-P, and the primary and secondary humoral responses to ovalbumin. Production and health parameters were unaffected by treatments. There were no significant treatment or treatment x time effects on phagocytosis; however, there was a significant quadratic response for the percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst. Fish oil did not affect the change in ear thickness in response to phytohemagglutinin-P. There was also no treatment effect on the primary IgG humoral response to ovalbumin, but there was a significant quadratic treatment effect on the secondary IgG response. Adding fish oil to milk replacer altered various immune responses, and the effect was dose-dependent; however, neither production performance nor indices of health were altered when fish oil replaced 5 to 10% of the fatty acids in milk replacer.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Estado de Salud , Inmunocompetencia/fisiología , Sustitutos de la Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Formación de Anticuerpos/inmunología , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dermatitis por Contacto , Dieta/veterinaria , Heces , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Inmunocompetencia/inmunología , Masculino , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Fagocitosis/inmunología , Distribución Aleatoria , Estallido Respiratorio/inmunología , Factores de Tiempo , Aumento de Peso
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