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Animal ; 13(1): 144-152, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921343


Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products have been used to improve the performance of nursery pigs. However, research on the influence of this supplement on health is lacking. This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kg) were individually housed in stainless steel pens with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival, assigned to one of three groups (n=10/treatment), and fed for 18 days: (1) Control, fed a non-medicated starter diet; (2) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 1 kg/metric ton (SGX1) and (3) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 2 kg/metric ton (SGX2). On day 7 pigs were anesthetized for insertion of an i.p. temperature device, and similarly on day 14 for insertion of a jugular catheter. Pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25 µg/kg BW) on day 15. Blood samples were collected at 0.5 h (serum) and 1 h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS administration at 0 h. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 7, 14 and 18. The supplemented pigs had increased BW and average daily gain before the challenge. In response to LPS, there was a greater increase in i.p. temperature in Control pigs compared with supplemented pigs. In addition, cortisol was reduced in SGX2 pigs while cortisol was elevated in SGX1 pigs at several time points post-challenge. White blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were decreased in SGX1 and SGX2 compared with Control pigs. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine response varied by treatment and dose of treatment. Specifically, serum TNF-α was greatest in SGX2, intermediate in Control, and least in SGX1 pigs, while the magnitude and temporal pattern of IFN-γ in SGX2 pigs was delayed and reduced. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were reduced in both SGX treatment groups compared with Control pigs. These data demonstrate that different supplementation feed inclusion rates produced differential responses, and that feeding SynGenX to weaned pigs attenuated the APR to an LPS challenge.

Reacción de Fase Aguda/veterinaria , Lactobacillus acidophilus/química , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Reacción de Fase Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Reacción de Fase Aguda/inmunología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Fermentación , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Estrés Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología
J Anim Sci ; 95(1): 279-290, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177370


Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen). After 4 wk of dietary acclimation, half of the pigs in each dietary group (1 room/dietary treatment) were exposed to repeated heat stress conditions (RHS; daily cycles of 19 h at 25°C and 5 h at 40°C, repeated for 9 d), and the remaining pigs were housed at constant thermal neutral temperature (25°C, [NHS]). Pigs subjected to RHS had elevated skin surface temperature ( < 0.05; average 41.7°C) and respiration rate ( < 0.05; 199 breaths per minute (bpm) during HS, and overall reduced ( < 0.05) BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F regardless of dietary treatment. Independent of diet, RHS pigs had significantly shorter ( < 0.05) jejunum villi on d 3 and d 9 compared to NHS pigs. Heat stress resulted in decreased villus height to crypt depth ratio (V:C) in pigs fed with control diet with no added feed additive (NON) and CBX diets at d 3, whereas the pigs fed diets containing XPC or SGX showed no decrease. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cellular stress (, , , ), tight junction integrity (, , ), and immune response (, , and ) were measured in the ileum mucosa. Pigs in all dietary treatments subjected to RHS had significantly higher ( < 0.05) transcript levels of and , and an upward trend ( < 0.07) of mRNA expression. RHS pigs had higher ( < 0.05) transcript levels of and in NON diet, in XPC and CBX diets, and in SGX diet compared to the respective diet-matched pigs in the NHS conditions. Neither RHS nor diet affected peripheral natural killer () cell numbers or NK cell lytic activity. In conclusion, pigs subjected to RHS had decreased performance, and supplementation with fermentation products in the feed (XPC and SGX) protected pigs from injury to the jejunum mucosa.

Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Porcinos/fisiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Fermentación , Calor/efectos adversos , Íleon/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Distribución Aleatoria , Estrés Fisiológico , Porcinos/inmunología , Destete
J Anim Sci ; 95(1): 248-256, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177374


Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding supplemental -Arg during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and preweaning performance. In Exp. 1, 97 gilts and sows were allotted (gestation d 93) to receive a control diet (CON; 19.8 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Arg/d) or the CON + 1.0% -Arg (ARG; 46.6 g SID Arg/d). Gilts and sows were weighed on gestation d 93 and 110, 48 h after farrowing, and at weaning. Data, including number born alive, number weaned, individual birth and weaning weight, and placenta weight, were recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 93 and 110 and analyzed for plasma IGF-1, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen concentration. In a second experiment, 383 sows in a commercial research farm were allotted to receive CON or ARG. An -Arg premix was provided daily by top dress beginning at gestation d 81 (±0.1 d) and fed for an average of 35 d (±0.2 d). Sows received 2.73 kg feed/d with CON sows provided 17 g SID Arg/d and ARG sows receiving a total of 44 g SID Arg/d. Litter birth weight was recorded and average birth weight was computed. In a subset of 82 sows, individual birth weights were recorded. In Exp. 1, there was a tendency for greater late pregnancy maternal BW gain ( = 0.06) in ARG compared with CON. A tendency for a parity × treatment interaction was observed for late pregnancy BW gain, with first litter sows fed ARG gaining the most, gilts fed ARG intermediate, and all other treatments gaining the least ( = 0.10). No differences between treatment groups were observed for maternal plasma IGF-1, insulin, and urea nitrogen and in progeny performance to weaning ( > 0.28). In Exp. 2, piglet birth weight was more effectively tested because of the large number of multiparous sows involved. There was a tendency for individual birth weight to decline in ARG compared with CON ( < 0.08), but birth weight distribution between <0.80 and >2.8 kg was similar. No other differences were observed ( > 0.18). In conclusion, late pregnancy supplementation with -Arg had no effect on number of pigs born alive, piglet birth weight, or lactation performance.

Arginina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Porcinos/fisiología , Animales , Peso al Nacer/efectos de los fármacos , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Femenino , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Tamaño de la Camada/efectos de los fármacos , Paridad/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Destete