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1.
Cureus ; 16(1): e51886, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327958

RESUMEN

Herba Epimedii, commonly known as yin yang huo, inyokaku, and horny goat weed, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine utilized for treating osteoporosis and enhancing libido. Studies conducted in vitro have demonstrated that Herba Epimedii interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This interaction poses a potential risk for drug-drug interactions, particularly with medications metabolized by CYP3A4, such as buprenorphine. This paper presents a case of a patient experiencing exacerbated opioid cravings following the initiation of Herba Epimedii. This is the first reported case supporting this interaction, emphasizing the necessity of screening for alternative medicines in patients undergoing medication-assisted treatments for opioid use disorder.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 129(3): 416-425, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37311975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Olive oil consumption may reduce breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether olive oil is beneficial for breast cancer prevention in populations outside of Mediterranean regions, namely in the U.S., where the average consumption of olive oil is low compared with Mediterranean populations. We examined whether olive oil intake was associated with breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts of U.S. women. METHODS: We used multivariable-adjusted time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for breast cancer among 71,330 (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2016) and 93,295 women (Nurses' Health Study II, 1991-2017) who were free of cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. RESULTS: During 3,744,068 person-years of follow-up, 9,638 women developed invasive breast cancer. The multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for breast cancer among women who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>1/2 tablespoon/d or >7 g/d) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil, was 1.01 (0.93, 1.09). Higher olive oil consumption was not associated with any subtype of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: We did not observe an association between higher olive oil intake and breast cancer risk in two large prospective cohorts of U.S. women, whose average olive oil consumption was low. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to further investigate whether different varieties of olive oil (e.g., virgin and extra virgin olive oil) may play a role in breast cancer risk.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Humanos , Femenino , Aceite de Oliva , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Aceites de Plantas
3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 30(2): 1099-1109, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305992

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be initiated at the earliest possible time. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and Intergroup evaluated the effect of perioperative fluorouracil (5-FU) on overall survival (OS) for colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase III trial randomized patients to receive continuous infusional 5-FU for 7 days starting within 24 h after curative resection (arm A) or no perioperative 5-FU (arm B). Patients with Dukes' B3 and C disease received adjuvant chemotherapy per standard of care. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival in patients with Dukes' B3 and C disease. The secondary objective was to determine whether a week of perioperative infusion would affect survival in patients with Dukes' B2 colon cancer with no additional chemotherapy. RESULTS: From August 1993 to May 2000, 859 patients were enrolled and 855 randomized (arm A: 427; arm B: 428). The trial was terminated early due to slow accrual. The median follow-up is 15.4 years (0.03-20.3 years). Among patients with Dukes' B3 and C disease, there was no statistically significant difference in OS [median 10.3 years (95% CI 8.4, 13.2) for perioperative chemotherapy and 9.3 years (95% CI 5.7, 12.3) for no perioperative therapy, one-sided log-rank p = 0.178, HR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.66, 1.16)] or disease-free survival (DFS). For patients with Dukes' B2 disease, there was also no significant difference in OS (median 16.1 versus 12.9 years) or DFS. There was no difference between treatment arms in operative complications. One week of continuous infusion of 5-FU was tolerable; 18% of arm A patients experienced grade 3 or greater toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Leucovorina , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/cirugía , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Estadificación de Neoplasias
4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(14): 3351-3361, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255154

RESUMEN

Published studies report inconsistent associations of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants to evaluate a hypothesis of inverse association of pre-diagnosis red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA levels with risk of NHL endpoints. We confirmed 583 NHL cases and matched 583 controls by cohort/sex, age, race and blood draw date/time. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL endpoints using logistic regression. RBC PUFA levels were not associated with all NHL risk; cis 20:2n-6 was associated with follicular lymphoma risk (OR [95% CI] per one standard deviation increase: 1.35 [1.03-1.77]), and the omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio was associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma risk (2.33 [1.23-4.43]). Overall, PUFA did not demonstrate a role in NHL etiology; the two unexpected positive associations lack clear biologic explanations.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Linfoma no Hodgkin , Humanos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Linfoma no Hodgkin/etiología , Membrana Celular , Factores de Riesgo
5.
J Nutr ; 152(3): 835-843, 2022 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865068

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some previous studies suggested that high supplemental vitamin C intake may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, although evidence is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risks using regularly updated assessments of intake over a long follow-up. METHODS: We prospectively followed 88,041 women aged 33 to 60 years from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and 93,372 women aged 26 to 45 years from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). A total of 11,258 incident invasive breast cancers among 181,413 women were diagnosed. Data on vitamin C intake were collected every 2-4 years via a validated FFQ and specific questions on dietary supplement use. Multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for incident invasive breast cancer were estimated with Cox models. RESULTS: During follow-up, 82% of participants ever used supplements containing vitamin C, including multivitamins. Cumulative total vitamin C intake (HR for quintiles 5 compared with 1 = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.91-1.03; Ptrend = 0.81), dietary vitamin C intake (HR for quintiles 5 compared with 1 = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.04; Ptrend = 0.57), and supplemental vitamin C intake (HR for quintiles 5 compared with 1 in users = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94-1.09; Ptrend = 0.77) were not associated with breast cancer risks. Results were unchanged when different exposure latencies were considered. The results did not differ by menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, or BMI. No differences were observed by estrogen receptor status of the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support any important association between total, dietary, or supplemental vitamin C intake and breast cancer risks.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Ácido Ascórbico , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/etiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Vitaminas
6.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 20(3): 2697, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36733509

RESUMEN

Background: The people who use complementary medicines (CMs) believe that these medicines are safe and harmless. They could easily access CMs like herbal or traditional medicines in community pharmacies. Therefore, community pharmacists are important professionals in advising the safe choices of CMs and providing evidence-based information for customers to decrease adverse effects of CMs. Objectives: To systematically review knowledge, attitude, and practices of community pharmacists about CMs, and the factors associated with CM practices of dispensing, recommending and counseling patients, and answering the patients' queries. Method: An electronic search was performed with four databases: PubMed, Scopus, SpringerLink and ScienceDirect, from 1990 to 19th May 2022. The inclusion criteria were studies 1) about knowledge, attitude, and/or practices of community pharmacists about CMs, 2) written in English, 3) conducted with quantitative methods, and 4) able to retrieve full text. Results: Twenty-three studies were included in this systematic review. Some studies showed that less than half of the pharmacists asked or counselled about CMs to their patients and answered the patients' queries about CMs. Only 20% of the pharmacists did report CM side-effects. Training or education about CMs was a common factor associated with the CM practice of dispensing, recommending, counseling, and answering the patients' queries about CMs. CMs recommended most by community pharmacists were vitamins & minerals, food or dietary supplements, fish oil and probiotics. The most common dispensed CMs were vitamins & minerals, herbs, food or dietary supplements, fish oil and essential oils. Lacks of reliable information sources and scientific evidence were common barriers for the CM practices. Being less expensive than conventional medicines motivated the pharmacists to recommend and discuss about CMs. The community pharmacists that participated in included studies suggested strengthening CM trainings and highlight the pharmacist role in CM therapy. Conclusion: A high percentage of community pharmacists did dispense CMs to their patients, while a low percentage of the pharmacists did report CM side effects. Pharmacists were most comfortable recommending and responding the patients' CM queries. Training or education about CMs associated with CM dispensing, recommending, discussing, and answering the patients' queries about CMs was recommended.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638423

RESUMEN

Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, reduces liver fibrosis, injury and tumour burden in mice fed a hepatocarcinogenic diet, suggesting it has potential as a cancer therapeutic. We investigated the effect of MVC on liver progenitor cells (LPCs) and macrophages as both have a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Mice were fed the hepatocarcinogenic choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE) ± MVC, and immunohistochemistry, RNA and protein expression were used to determine LPC and macrophage abundance, migration and related molecular mechanisms. MVC reduced LPC numbers in CDE mice by 54%, with a smaller reduction seen in macrophages. Transcript and protein abundance of LPC-associated markers correlated with this reduction. The CDE diet activated phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3 and was inhibited by MVC. LPCs did not express Ccr5 in our model; in contrast, macrophages expressed high levels of this receptor, suggesting the effect of MVC is mediated by targeting macrophages. MVC reduced CD45+ cells and macrophage migration in liver and blocked the CDE-induced transition of liver macrophages from an M1- to M2-tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) phenotype. These findings suggest MVC has potential as a re-purposed therapeutic agent for treating chronic liver diseases where M2-TAM and LPC numbers are increased, and the incidence of HCC is enhanced.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 124(11): 1873-1881, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We examined the role of post-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption in relation to breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among women with breast cancer in prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We identified 8900 women with stage I-III breast cancer from 1980 through 2010 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and from 1991 through 2011 in the NHSII. Post-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire every 4 years after diagnosis. RESULTS: During up to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 1054 breast cancer-specific deaths and 2501 total deaths. Higher post-diagnostic coffee consumption was associated with a lower breast cancer-specific mortality: compared with non-drinkers, >3 cups/day of coffee was associated with a 25% lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.96; Ptrend = 0.002). We also observed a lower all-cause mortality with coffee consumption: compared with non-drinkers, >2 to 3 cups/day was associated with a 24% lower risk (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.66-0.87) and >3 cups/day was associated with a 26% lower risk (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.63-0.87, Ptrend < 0.0001). Post-diagnostic tea consumption was associated with a lower all-cause mortality: compared with non-drinkers, >3 cups/day was associated with a 26% lower risk (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95; Ptrend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among breast cancer survivors, higher post-diagnostic coffee consumption was associated with better breast cancer and overall survival. Higher post-diagnostic tea consumption may be related to better overall survival.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Café , Conducta de Ingestión de Líquido/fisiología , , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Causas de Muerte , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Supervivencia
9.
Eur J Neurosci ; 53(6): 1839-1854, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289193

RESUMEN

Human mismatch negativity (MMN) is modelled in rodents and other non-human species to examine its underlying neurological mechanisms, primarily described in terms of deviance-detection and adaptation. Using the mouse model, we aim to elucidate subtle dependencies between the mismatch response (MMR) and different physical properties of sound. Epidural field potentials were recorded from urethane-anaesthetised and conscious mice during oddball and many-standards control paradigms with stimuli varying in duration, frequency, intensity and inter-stimulus interval. Resulting auditory evoked potentials, classical MMR (oddball - standard), and controlled MMR (oddball - control) waveforms were analysed. Stimulus duration correlated with stimulus-off response peak latency, whereas frequency, intensity and inter-stimulus interval correlated with stimulus-on N1 and P1 (conscious only) peak amplitudes. These relationships were instrumental in shaping classical MMR morphology in both anaesthetised and conscious animals, suggesting these waveforms reflect modification of normal auditory processing by different physical properties of sound. Controlled MMR waveforms appeared to exhibit habituation to auditory stimulation over time, which was equally observed in response to oddball and standard stimuli. These findings are inconsistent with the mechanisms thought to underlie human MMN, which currently do not address differences due to specific physical features of sound. Thus, no evidence was found to objectively support the deviance-detection or adaptation hypotheses of MMN in relation to anaesthetised or conscious mice. These findings highlight the potential risk of mischaracterising difference waveform components that are principally influenced by physical sensitivities and habituation of the auditory system.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva , Estimulación Acústica , Animales , Percepción Auditiva , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Ratones , Tiempo de Reacción
10.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3351-3361, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Legalization of cannabis encourages the development of specific cultivars to treat disease such as neuropathic pain. Because of the large number of cultivars, it is necessary to prioritize extracts before proceeding to clinical trials. PURPOSE: To compare extracts of two unique cannabis cultivars (CT-921, CT-928) for treatment of neuropathic pain induced by constriction of sciatic nerve in mice and to illustrate the use of this animal model to set priority for future trials. METHODS: Pain severity was measured by threshold force causing paw withdrawal. Dose-response relationships and time course were determined for intravenously injected extracts of cultivars and vehicle. The doses for allodynia relief were correlated with decreased respiratory rate, temperature and behavioral changes. RESULTS: Effective analgesic dose for 50 and 95% (ED50An and ED95An) was 15, and 29 mg/kg for CT-921 and 0.9 and 4.7 for CT-928. At ED50An, for both extracts, the duration was 120 min. At ED95An, administration of CT-928 significantly decreased respiratory rate while CT-921 did not. CT-928 decreased temperature more than CT-921. CT-928 produced frantic hyperactivity not seen with CT-921. At equivalent analgesic doses, THC was much less in CT-921 than in CT-928 suggesting interactions with components other than THC influenced the analgesia. At equivalent analgesic doses, efficacy-to-adverse effect profile for CT-928 was worse than for CT-921. CONCLUSION: Both extracts relieved neuropathic pain; however, CT-921 had a better efficacy-to-adverse effect profile, a rational basis for prioritizing cultivars for future clinical evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/farmacología , Cannabis/química , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Neuralgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Calor , Hiperalgesia/tratamiento farmacológico , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Masculino , Ratones , Manejo del Dolor , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Frecuencia Respiratoria/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Rev Med Interne ; 41(6): 396-403, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201015

RESUMEN

Gout is a chronic disease due to the deposition of monosodium urate microcrystals in joints and tissues. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing worldwide in close relation with the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Gout is related to chronic hyperuricemia that should be treated to ensure the reduction or even the disappearance of acute attacks ("gout flares") and to reduce the size and number of tophi. If arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is the most typical form, other joints may be affected, including the spine. Demonstration of urate microcrystals arthritis allows diagnosis of gout but, in the absence of possibility of performing joint puncture, imaging may be useful for providing complementary diagnostic elements. Appropriate care is essential to reduce the number of flares and the evolution towards gouty arthropathy but also in terms of public health in order to reduce costs related to this pathology.


Asunto(s)
Gota , Enfermedad Crónica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/epidemiología , Gota/etiología , Gota/terapia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/complicaciones , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/epidemiología , Hiperuricemia/terapia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Ácido Úrico/efectos adversos
12.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(1): 222-223, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626359

RESUMEN

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome causes widespread skin denudation primarily in infants < 1 year old. Selection of empiric therapy is complicated by rising rates of antibiotic resistance in community-acquired staphylococcal infections. Consistent with a previous study, this retrospective review found that SSSS-associated isolates were more likely to be clindamycin-resistant and less likely to be methicillin-resistant compared to overall staphylococcal infections. We favor cephalosporins and penicillinase-resistant penicillins (eg, oxacillin) for empiric management of SSSS, with consideration of adding MRSA coverage in communities with high MRSA prevalence or failure to improve following several days of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Clindamicina/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Estafilocócico de la Piel Escaldada/tratamiento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Clindamicina/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Resistencia a la Meticilina , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Resistencia a las Penicilinas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Síndrome Estafilocócico de la Piel Escaldada/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(1): 18-28, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630432

RESUMEN

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous lymphoma in pediatric patients. Given the indolent nature of MF, symptoms often present in childhood but may not be diagnosed as MF until adulthood. Delayed diagnosis is associated with poor long-term prognosis. Thus, increased clinician recognition and accurate diagnosis of early-stage MF in pediatric patients is critically important. In this review, we summarize the clinical features of the most common pediatric MF subtypes and highlight important differences between pediatric and adult MF. Moreover, we reviewed all pediatric MF case series published between 2008 and 2018 to analyze treatment modalities and identify emerging therapies. As treatment of pediatric MF is complex, selection of therapy varies significantly depending upon the specific clinical characteristics, disease severity, and patients' preferences.


Asunto(s)
Micosis Fungoide/diagnóstico , Micosis Fungoide/terapia , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/terapia , Biopsia , Niño , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Micosis Fungoide/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 4999-5008, 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740932

RESUMEN

Enteric methane (CH4) emissions are not only an important source of greenhouse gases but also a loss of dietary energy in livestock. Corn oil (CO) is rich in unsaturated fatty acid with >50% PUFA, which may enhance ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids, leading to changes in ruminal H2 metabolism and methanogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CO supplementation of a diet on CH4 emissions, nutrient digestibility, ruminal dissolved gases, fermentation, and microbiota in goats. Six female goats were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments, which included control and CO supplementation (30 g/kg DM basis). CO supplementation did not alter total-tract organic matter digestibility or populations of predominant ruminal fibrolytic microorganisms (protozoa, fungi, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes), but reduced enteric CH4 emissions (g/kg DMI, -15.1%, P = 0.003). CO supplementation decreased ruminal dissolved hydrogen (dH2, P < 0.001) and dissolved CH4 (P < 0.001) concentrations, proportions of total unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001) and propionate (P = 0.015), and increased proportions of total SFAs (P < 0.001) and acetate (P < 0.001), and acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.038) in rumen fluid. CO supplementation decreased relative abundance of family Bacteroidales_BS11_gut_group (P = 0.032), increased relative abundance of family Rikenellaceae (P = 0.021) and Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.025), and tended to increase relative abundance of genus Butyrivibrio_2 (P = 0.06). Relative abundance (P = 0.09) and 16S rRNA gene copies (P = 0.043) of order Methanomicrobiales, and relative abundance of genus Methanomicrobium (P = 0.09) also decreased with CO supplementation, but relative abundance (P = 0.012) and 16S rRNA gene copies (P = 0.08) of genus Methanobrevibacter increased. In summary, CO supplementation increased rumen biohydrogenatation by facilitating growth of biohydrogenating bacteria of family Lachnospiraceae and genus Butyrivibrio_2 and may have enhanced reductive acetogenesis by facilitating growth of family Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of CO led to a shift of fermentation pathways that enhanced acetate production and decreased rumen dH2 concentration and CH4 emissions.


Asunto(s)
Aceite de Maíz/administración & dosificación , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Cabras/metabolismo , Metano/biosíntesis , Rumen/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Aceite de Maíz/metabolismo , Femenino , Fermentación , Fibrobacter , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiota/fisiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 233: 603-611, 2019 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597354

RESUMEN

As an urban fringe district, the Ecorse River watershed is faced with increased impervious area caused by urban expansion. Effects of Green Infrastructure (GI) practice implementation were simulated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 model (L-THIA-LID 2.1). Suitable locations of each GI practice were identified, based on construction condition requirements and demand on GI practices in the study area. Using the data of 2011, various GI practice combination scenarios were explored according to the cost-efficiency of each GI practice. GI practice implementation scenarios in 2050 were also simulated based on projected land use and rainfall data. Results show that grassed swales, rain barrels (residential areas) and dry ponds were the top three most cost-efficient GI practices, with the cost at $1.5/m³/yr, $3.0/m³/yr and $3.4/m³/yr, respectively. Green roofs with rain cisterns (industrial and commercial area) were the most expensive GI practices, with the cost at $92.9/m³/yr. With the increase of investment in GI practices, the changing curves of the annual runoff volume, Total Nitrogen (TN) load and Total Phosphorus (TP) load reduction ratios match the law of diminishing marginal utility. The scenario with grassed swales, rain barrels, dry ponds and porous pavement would be the most cost-efficient scenario for runoff water quantity reduction. In addition, the scenario with additional wet ponds would be the most cost-efficient one for TN load and TP load reduction. GI practices in each scenario for expected 2050 conditions show better effectiveness on water quantity and quality management.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Ríos , Hidrología , Michigan , Fósforo , Lluvia , Movimientos del Agua
16.
Anesth Analg ; 129(1): 269-275, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In vivo animal assays are a cornerstone of preclinical pain research. An optimal stimulus for determining the activity of potential analgesics would produce responses of a consistent magnitude on repeated testing. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of hypertonic saline (HS) in mice produces robust nociceptive responses to different analgesics, without evidence of tissue damage. Here, we investigated whether the nociceptive response is changed by repeating the injection at different times and sites in a mouse and whether it is attenuated by morphine. METHODS: We conducted randomized and blinded experiments to assess responses to repeated i.pl. 10% HS in female CD-1 mice. An injection of HS was followed by a second injection into the same hind paw at 4 hours, 24 hours, or 7 days. A separate group of mice each received i.pl. injections at 5, 10, and 15 days. In 2 independent experiments, 30 minutes after initial HS injections in the ipsilateral hind paw, mice received HS injection into the contralateral hind paw or ipsilateral forepaw. The ability of morphine to block the nociceptive responses was examined by injecting morphine at 5-day intervals. RESULTS: Repeated injection of HS did not alter the responses at 4 hours (84 vs 75 seconds; mean difference [95% CI], -9 [-40 to 23]; P = .6), 24 hours (122 vs 113 seconds; -6 [-24 to 12]; P = .5), or 7 days (112 vs 113 seconds; -0.3 [-12 to 11]; P = .95) or at multiple injections (day 0, 122 seconds vs day 5, 121 seconds; -0.3 [-28 to 27], P > .99; day 10, 118 seconds; 2.5 [-36 to 41], P = .99; day 15, 119 seconds; 2 [-36 to 38], P = .99). A previous hind paw injection did not change the responses of the contralateral hind paw (right, 93 seconds versus left, 96 seconds; -3 [-20 to 13], P = .7) or of the ipsilateral forepaw (forepaw after HS, 146 seconds versus forepaw after 0.9% saline, 149 seconds; -3 [-28 to 22], P = .8). Morphine dose-dependently attenuated HS responses (control, 94 seconds vs 4 mg/kg, 66 seconds; 29 [-7 to 64], P = .12; vs 10 mg/kg, 27 seconds; 67 [44-90], P < .0001; 4 vs 10 mg/kg, 67 [44-90], P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The repetition of i.pl. HS produces consistent reproducible responses without tissue damage. This results in efficient, rapid detection of analgesic activity, reducing the number of animals required.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Morfina/farmacología , Dolor Nociceptivo/inducido químicamente , Dolor Nociceptivo/prevención & control , Solución Salina Hipertónica , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Femenino , Ratones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 35(2): 213-219, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pityriasis lichenoides is an uncommon papulosquamous disorder of unknown etiology. The objective of this study was to review the clinical features and treatment responses of individuals with pityriasis lichenoides seen at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Seventy-five patients diagnosed with pityriasis lichenoides between 1997 and 2013 were reviewed, and 46 had long-term follow-up via telephone interviews. RESULTS: Fifty (67%) patients were diagnosed with pityriasis lichenoides chronica, 22 (29%) with pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta, and 3 (4%) with mixed pityriasis lichenoides chronica and pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta features. Mean ± standard deviation age at onset was 12 ± 13 years (median 8 years). Disease duration was significantly shorter for patients with pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (35 ± 35 months) than for those with pityriasis lichenoides chronica (at least 78 ± 48 months). At long-term follow-up, 23 of 28 (82%) patients with pityriasis lichenoides chronica and 3 of 16 (19%) with pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta had active disease. None progressed to lymphomatoid papulosis or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Ten of 23 active pityriasis lichenoides chronica cases had residual pigmentary change independent of race and lasted at least 35 ± 20 months. The most effective treatments were phototherapy (47% response rate), heliotherapy (33%), topical corticosteroids (27%), and antibiotics (25%). CONCLUSION: Pityriasis lichenoides is a predominantly pediatric disorder. The time course of pityriasis lichenoides chronica is significantly longer than that of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. Pityriasis lichenoides chronica may persist with pigmentary alterations in the absence of other signs of active inflammation. Treatment response is often limited, particularly for patients with pityriasis lichenoides chronica.


Asunto(s)
Pitiriasis Liquenoide/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Glucocorticoides/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Fototerapia/métodos , Pitiriasis Liquenoide/epidemiología , Pitiriasis Liquenoide/terapia , Pronóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(6): 1483-1492, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468892

RESUMEN

Background: The relation between α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. European researchers reported that ≤40% of ALA can be present as trans forms.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between intake of ALA and intermediate and advanced AMD.Design: Seventy-five thousand eight hundred eighty-nine women from the Nurses' Health Study and 38,961 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were followed up from 1984 to 2012 and from 1986 to 2010, respectively. We assessed dietary intake by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 y thereafter. One thousand five hundred eighty-nine incident intermediate and 1356 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) were confirmed by medical record review.Results: The multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate AMD comparing ALA intake at the top quintile to the bottom quintile was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.56; P-trend = 0.01) in the analyses combining 2 cohorts. The HR in each cohort was in the positive direction but reached statistical significance only in the women. However, the positive association was apparent only in the pre-2002 era in each cohort and not afterward (P-time interaction = 0.003). ALA intake was not associated with advanced AMD in either time period. Using gas-liquid chromatography, we identified both cis ALA (mean ± SD: 0.13% ± 0.04%) and trans ALA isomers (0.05% ± 0.01%) in 395 erythrocyte samples collected in 1989-1990. In stepwise regression models, mayonnaise was the leading predictor of erythrocyte concentrations of cis ALA and one isomer of trans ALA. We also found trans ALA in mayonnaise samples.Conclusions: A high intake of ALA was associated with an increased risk of intermediate AMD before 2002 but not afterward. The period before 2002 coincides with the same time period when trans ALA was found in food and participants' blood; this finding deserves further study.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Degeneración Macular/etiología , Ácidos Grasos trans/efectos adversos , Ácido alfa-Linolénico/efectos adversos , Anciano , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Ácidos Grasos trans/sangre , Ácido alfa-Linolénico/sangre
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(6): 1493-1501, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490509

RESUMEN

Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy constituents, and early menopause are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Calcio de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Calcio/uso terapéutico , Menopausia , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Productos Lácteos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
20.
J Pediatr ; 186: 192-195.e1, 2017 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438376

RESUMEN

Superficial fungal infections are among the most commonly managed skin problems by general practitioners. Although evidence shows combination antifungal/corticosteroid topicals are more expensive and less effective than single-agent antifungals, practitioners continue to prescribe combination agents. We examined current prescription trends of 2 combination antifungal/corticosteroid medications, Lotrisone and Mycolog-II.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Betametasona/uso terapéutico , Clotrimazol/uso terapéutico , Dermatomicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Gramicidina/uso terapéutico , Neomicina/uso terapéutico , Nistatina/uso terapéutico , Triamcinolona Acetonida/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Combinación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina
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