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1.
Animal ; 12(12): 2521-2528, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576039

RESUMEN

With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day -1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response was not significant (P=0.23). Mean serum titers against bovine respiratory syncytial virus were greater in EG v. PC (P=0.04) and CON (tendency; P=0.08). Collectively, the inclusion of alternative feed ingredients prevented the decrease in feed efficiency when chlortetracycline and ionophores were not added to the initial feedlot diet, and improved antibody response to vaccination against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus in newly weaned cattle.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inmunología , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Destete
2.
Animal ; 12(8): 1576-1583, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277170

RESUMEN

This experiment evaluated the impacts of supplementing a yeast-derived product (Celmanax; Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA) on productive and health responses of beef steers, and was divided into a preconditioning (days 4 to 30) and feedlot receiving phase (days 31 to 69). In all, 84 Angus × Hereford steers were weaned on day 0 (BW=245±2 kg; age=186±2 days), and maintained in a single group from days 0 to 3. On day 4, steers were allocated according to weaning BW and age to a 21-pen drylot (4 steers/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to (n=7 pens/treatment): (1) no Celmanax supplementation during the study, (2) Celmanax supplementation (14 g/steer daily; as-fed) from days 14 to 69 or (3) Celmanax supplementation (14 g/steer daily; as-fed) from days 31 to 69. Steers had free-choice access to grass-alfalfa hay, and were also offered a corn-based concentrate beginning on day 14. Celmanax was mixed daily with the concentrate. On day 30, steers were road-transported for 1500 km (24 h). On day 31, steers returned to their original pens for the 38-day feedlot receiving. Shrunk BW was recorded on days 4, 31 and 70. Feed intake was evaluated daily (days 14 to 69). Steers were observed daily (days 4 to 69) for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs. Blood samples were collected on days 14, 30, 31, 33, 35, 40, 45, 54 and 69, and analyzed for plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, IGF-I, and serum fatty acids. Preconditioning results were analyzed by comparing pens that received (CELM) or not (CONPC) Celmanax during the preconditioning phase. Feedlot receiving results were analyzed by comparing pens that received Celmanax from days 14 to 69 (CELPREC), days 31 to 69 (CELRECV) or no Celmanax supplementation (CON). During preconditioning, BRD incidence was less (P=0.03) in CELM v. CONPC. During feedlot receiving, average daily gain (ADG) (P=0.07) and feed efficiency (P=0.08) tended to be greater in CELPREC and CELRECV v. CON, whereas dry matter intake was similar (P⩾0.29) among treatments. No other treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.20). Collectively, Celmanax supplementation reduced BRD incidence during the 30-day preconditioning. Moreover, supplementing Celmanax tended to improve ADG and feed efficiency during the 38-day feedlot receiving, independently of whether supplementation began during preconditioning or after feedlot entry. These results suggest that Celmanax supplementation benefits preconditioning health and feedlot receiving performance in beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Levadura Seca , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta , Carne Roja
3.
Animal ; 11(11): 1949-1956, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514971

RESUMEN

This experiment evaluated production and health parameters among cattle offered concentrates containing inorganic or organic complexed sources of supplemental Cu, Co, Mn and Zn during a 45-day preconditioning period. In total, 90 Angus×Hereford calves were weaned at 7 months (day -1), sorted by sex, weaning BW and age (261±2 kg; 224±2 days), and allocated to 18 drylot pens (one heifer and four steers per pen) on day 0; thus, all pens had equivalent initial BW and age. Pens were randomly assigned to receive a corn-based preconditioning concentrate containing: (1) Cu, Co, Mn and Zn sulfate sources (INR), (2) Cu, Mn, Co and Zn complexed organic source (AAC) or (3) no Cu, Co, Mn and Zn supplementation (CON). From day 0 to 45, cattle received concentrate treatments (2.7 kg/animal daily, as-fed basis) and had free-choice access to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), long-stem hay and water. The INR and AAC treatments were formulated to provide the same daily amount of Co, Cu, Mn and Zn at a 50-, 16-, 8- and ninefold increase, respectively, compared with the CON treatment. On day 46, cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot, maintained as a single pen, and offered a free-choice receiving diet until day 103. Calf full BW was recorded on days -1 and 0, 45 and 46, and 102 and 103 for average daily gain (ADG) calculation. Liver biopsy was performed on days 0 (used as covariate), 22 and 45. Cattle were vaccinated against respiratory pathogens on days 15, 29 and 46. Blood samples were collected on days 15, 29, 45, 47, 49, 53 and 60. During preconditioning, mean liver concentrations of Co, Zn and Cu were greater (P⩽0.03) in AAC and INR compared with CON. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.17) for preconditioning feed intake, ADG or feed efficiency. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.48) for plasma concentrations of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica, bovine viral diarrhea types 1 and 2 viruses. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations were similar among treatments (P=0.98). Mean plasma cortisol concentration was greater (P⩽0.04) in CON compared with INR and AAC. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.37) for cattle ADG during feedlot receiving. Hence, INR and AAC increased liver concentrations of Co, Zn and Cu through preconditioning, but did not impact cattle performance and immunity responses during preconditioning and feedlot receiving.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Metales Pesados/farmacología , Oligoelementos/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cobalto/farmacología , Cobre/farmacología , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Masculino , Manganeso/farmacología , Distribución Aleatoria , Destete , Zea mays , Zinc/farmacología
4.
J Anim Sci ; 95(11): 4945-4957, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293715

RESUMEN

One hundred eight Angus × Hereford steers, originating from 7 cow-calf were obtained from an auction yard on d -2 and transported by road (800 km; 12 h) to an experimental feedlot facility. Upon arrival on d -1, shrunk BW was recorded and steers were grouped with free-choice access to grass hay, mineral supplement, and water. On d 0, steers were ranked by source and shrunk BW and assigned to 1 of 18 pens (6 steers/pen). Pens were allocated to 1) no immunomodulatory ingredient supplementation during feedlot receiving (CON), 2) supplementation with OmniGen-AF (OMN; 22 g/steer daily, as-fed basis; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) from d 0 to 30, or 3) 2 oral capsules of Stocker Immune Primer on d 0 + 15 g/steer daily (as-fed basis) of Stocker Preconditioned Premix (Ramaekers Nutrition, Santa Cruz, CA) from d 7 to 30 (IPF). From d 0 to 80, steers had free-choice access to grass hay and water and received a corn-based concentrate. Feed DMI was recorded from each pen, and steers were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs daily. Steers were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on d 0 and 21. Final shrunk BW was recorded on d 81, and blood samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 31, 42, 56, and 73. Steer ADG and final BW were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in CON steers than in OMN and IPF steers (1.23, 0.76, and 1.06 kg/d [SEM 0.06], respectively, and 320, 282, and 307 kg [SEM 4], respectively) and ( < 0.01) in IPF steers than in OMN steers. No treatment effects were detected ( ≥ 0.76) for BRD incidence (66 ± 4%) and DMI, whereas G:F was greater ( < 0.01) in OMN steers than in CON steers. Mean plasma cortisol concentration was greater ( = 0.01) in CON steers than in OMN and IPF steers. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations tended ( = 0.10) to be greater in CON steers than in IPF steers on d 3, were greater ( = 0.04) in IPF steers than in CON steers on d 7, and tended ( = 0.10) to be less in OMN steers than in IPF and CON steers on d 21. Blood mRNA expression of was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in OMN and IPF steers than in CON steers on d 3 and in OMN steers than in CON and IPF steers on d 14. Blood mRNA expression of was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in OMN and IPF steers than in CON steers on d 10. Plasma IGF-I concentrations, serum antibody titers to BRD pathogens, and blood mRNA expression of , , , and did not differ ( ≥ 0.21) among treatments. Collectively, the immunomodulatory feed ingredients evaluated herein impacted adrenocortical and innate immune responses but failed to mitigate BRD incidence and improve performance of receiving cattle.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Factores Inmunológicos , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Masculino , Poaceae , Zea mays
5.
J Anim Sci ; 95(12): 5347-5357, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293770

RESUMEN

This experiment compared performance and physiological responses of the offspring from cows supplemented with Ca salts of PUFA or SFA + MUFA during late gestation. Ninety-six multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by BW, BCS, and age and divided into 24 groups of 4 cows/group at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d -7). Cows conceived during the same estrus synchronization + AI protocol, with semen from a single sire; hence, gestation length was 195 d for all cows at the beginning of the experiment (d 0). Groups were randomly assigned to receive (DM basis) 405 g/cow daily of soybean meal in addition to 1) 190 g/cow daily of Ca salts of PUFA based on eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and linoleic acids or 2) 190 g/cow daily of Ca salts of SFA + MUFA based on palmitic and oleic acids (CON). Groups were maintained in 2 pastures (6 groups of each treatment/pasture) and received daily 10.1 kg/cow (DM basis) of grass-alfalfa hay. Groups were segregated into 1 of 12 drylot pens (6 by 18 m) and individually offered treatments 3 times/wk from d 0 until calving. Cow BW and BCS were recorded, and blood samples were collected on d -7 of the experiment and also within 12 h after calving. Calf BW was also recorded within 12 h of calving. Calves were weaned on d 280 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 280 to 325), transferred to a growing lot on d 325, and moved to a finishing lot on d 445, where they remained until slaughter. At calving, PUFA-supplemented cows had a greater ( < 0.01) proportion (as % of total plasma fatty acids) of PUFA, including linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. At weaning, calves from CON-supplemented cows were older ( = 0.03), although no treatment differences were detected ( = 0.82) for calf weaning BW. During both growing and finishing phases, ADG was greater ( ≤ 0.06) in calves from PUFA-supplemented cows. Upon slaughter, HCW and marbling were also greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from PUFA-supplemented cows. Collectively, these results indicate that supplementing eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and linoleic acids to late-gestating beef cows stimulated programming effects on postnatal offspring growth and carcass quality. Therefore, supplementing late-gestating beef cows with Ca salts of PUFA appears to optimize offspring productivity in beef production systems.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Calcio de la Dieta/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Sales (Química)/farmacología , Destete
6.
J Anim Sci ; 94(11): 4892-4902, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898968

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10). Groups were maintained in 4 pastures (5 groups from the same treatment within each pasture) with ad libitum access to forage. Groups were segregated daily and individually offered treatments from d 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 15. After ultrasonography on d 15, 60 cows (30 cows/treatment and 3 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm3 in volume on d 7 and 15 were assigned to conceptus collection via transcervical flushing with PBS followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Additional blood samples were collected for whole-blood RNA extraction (d 20), and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (d 30) in cows not assigned to conceptus collection. Cows receiving CSSO had greater ( ≤ 0.04) mean plasma linoleic acid concentration, plasma linoleic:linolenic acid ratio, plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, and CL volume during the experiment compared with CON cows. Moreover, CSSO supplementation increased ( ≤ 0.04) length and mRNA expression of and by the conceptus as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes on d 20 in gestating cows. No treatment differences were detected ( ≥ 0.30) for endometrial mRNA expression of and . In summary, post-AI CSSO supplementation to B. indicus beef cows increased plasma concentration of linoleic acid and enhanced pregnancy establishment factors, which included CL development and plasma P4 concentration, conceptus growth, and mRNA expression of as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes.


Asunto(s)
Calcio/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Preñez/efectos de los fármacos , Aceite de Soja , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Cuerpo Lúteo , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Lactancia , Ovulación , Paridad , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Rumen , Sales (Química)/farmacología , Aceite de Soja/química
7.
J Anim Sci ; 94(3): 1215-26, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065282

RESUMEN

Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot, calves from AAC cows had reduced ( < 0.01) incidence of bovine respiratory disease compared with CON and INR cohorts. Collectively, these results suggest that feeding the AAC diet to late-gestating beef cows stimulated programming effects on postnatal offspring growth and health compared with the CON diet. Therefore, supplementing late-gestating beef cows with an organic complexed source of Co, Cu, Zn, and Mn instead of no supplementation appears to optimize offspring productivity in beef production systems.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Oligoelementos/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Cobalto/administración & dosificación , Cobalto/farmacología , Cobre/administración & dosificación , Cobre/farmacología , Femenino , Hígado/metabolismo , Manganeso/administración & dosificación , Manganeso/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Paridad , Embarazo , Oligoelementos/administración & dosificación , Destete , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Zinc/farmacología
8.
J Anim Sci ; 93(9): 4443-52, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440344

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses in beef heifers vaccinated against pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Eighteen weaned Angus heifers (initial BW 257 ± 3 kg; initial age 245 ± 2 d) were ranked by BW and allocated to 2 groups, which were assigned to 2 experiments of 7 d and the following treatments on d 1 of each experiment: 1) revaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea Types 1 and 2 viruses, and (VAC; 2 mL [s.c.]) and 2) receiving a 2-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% sterile saline (CON). The group receiving VAC in Exp. 1 was assigned to CON in Exp. 2 and vice versa. Heifers were weaned 21 d before Exp. 1, when they all received the first dose of the aforementioned vaccine. Heifers were maintained in individual pens and offered free-choice mixed alfalfa-grass hay and 3.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a corn-based supplement throughout the study. During Exp. 1, hay and concentrate intake were evaluated daily. During Exp. 2, blood samples were collected before (-2 and 0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after treatment administration. In Exp. 1, treatment × day interactions were detected ( < 0.01) for forage intake and total DMI; these parameters were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers on d 1 and 2 by an average of 1.7 and 0.8 kg (DM basis), respectively. In Exp. 2, mean serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentration was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers and treatment × hour interactions were detected for all plasma variables ( ≤ 0.02), whereas a similar tendency was detected ( = 0.09) for blood α mRNA expression. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 16 to 120 h. Blood α mRNA expression was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 12 h. Cortisol concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 2 to 16 h. Insulin concentration was greater ( = 0.02) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 2 h. Leptin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 6 to 16 h. In conclusion, vaccinating beef heifers against BRD pathogens decreased forage intake and total DMI during the 2 d following vaccination in Exp. 1, which can be associated with transient metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses elicited by vaccination in Exp. 2.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/veterinaria , Vacunas/inmunología , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/genética , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Inflamación/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Leptina/sangre , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vacunación
9.
Animal ; 9(9): 1500-8, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990965

RESUMEN

This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (P<0.01) for MI than CON from day 1 to 51, tended (P=0.09) to be greater for CON than MI from day 112 to 326, while BW on day 326 was similar between treatments. On day 51, MI had greater (P ⩽ 0.01) plasma IGF-I and glucose concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and adipose fatty acid synthase than CON. On days 261 and 325, plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ⩽ 0.03) in CON than MI. Mean mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-I and adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were greater (P ⩽ 0.05) in MI than CON. No treatment effects were detected for puberty attainment rate. In conclusion, supplementing nursing heifers via creep-feeding for 50 days altered physiological and biochemical variables suggestive of a metabolic imprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Métodos de Alimentación/veterinaria , Impronta Psicológica/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Maduración Sexual/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Factores de Edad , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Métodos de Alimentación/instrumentación , Femenino , Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Músculos Paraespinales/diagnóstico por imagen , Progesterona/sangre , Ultrasonografía , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 93(1): 386-94, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412746

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 µg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 µg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D and 3WK. Uterine flushing pH tended (P ≤ 0.10) to be greater for 1WK vs. 3WK and D. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.15) on expression of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, plasma glucose, and P4 concentrations, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.03) in D and 3WK vs. 1WK. Hence, decreasing frequency of protein supplementation did not reduce uterine flushing pH or plasma P4 concentrations, which are known to impact reproduction in beef cows.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Sincronización del Estro/efectos de los fármacos , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Bovinos , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Dinoprost/farmacología , Femenino , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/farmacología , Insulina/sangre , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Reproducción/fisiología
11.
J Anim Sci ; 92(6): 2716-24, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713162

RESUMEN

Two experiments evaluated the influence of supplement composition on ruminal forage disappearance, performance, and physiological responses of Angus × Hereford cattle consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). In Exp. 1, 6 rumen-fistulated steers housed in individual pens were assigned to an incomplete 3 × 2 Latin square design containing 2 periods of 11 d each and the following treatments: 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Steers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption. Treatments were provided daily at 0.50 and 0.54% of shrunk BW/steer for PROT and ENER, respectively, to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. No treatment effects were detected on rumen disappearance parameters of forage DM (P ≥ 0.33) and NDF (P ≥ 0.66). In Exp. 2, 35 pregnant heifers were ranked by initial BW on d -7 of the study, allocated into 12 feedlot pens (4 pens/treatment), and assigned to the same treatments and forage intake regimen as in Exp. 1 for 19 d. Treatments were fed once daily at 1.77 and 1.92 kg of DM/heifer for PROT and ENER, respectively, to achieve the same treatment intake as percent of initial BW used in Exp. 1 (0.50 and 0.54% for PROT and ENER, respectively). No treatment effects (P = 0.17) were detected on forage DMI. Total DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P = 0.36). Accordingly, ADG was greater (P = 0.01) for PROT compared with CON, tended to be greater for ENER compared with CON (P = 0.08), and was similar between ENER and PROT (P = 0.28). Heifers receiving PROT and ENER had greater mean concentrations of plasma glucose (P = 0.03), insulin (P ≤ 0.09), IGF-I (P ≤ 0.04), and progesterone (P = 0.01) compared to CON, whereas ENER and PROT had similar concentrations of these variables (P ≥ 0.15). A treatment × hour interaction was detected (P < 0.01) for plasma urea N (PUN), given that PUN concentrations increased after supplementation for ENER and PROT (time effect, P < 0.01) but did not change for CON (time effect, P = 0.62). In conclusion, beef cattle consuming low-quality cool-season forages had similar ruminal forage disappearance and intake, performance, and physiological status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Rumen/metabolismo , Estaciones del Año , Zea mays , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Fístula Gástrica/veterinaria , Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Poaceae , Embarazo
12.
J Anim Sci ; 92(6): 2725-34, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713166

RESUMEN

This experiment evaluated the influence of supplement composition on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Angus × Hereford heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). Sixty heifers (initial age = 226 ± 3 d) were allocated into 15 drylot pens (4 heifers/pen and 5 pens/treatment) and assigned to 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Heifers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption during the experiment (d -10 to 160). Beginning on d 0, PROT and ENER were provided daily at a rate of 1.30 and 1.40 kg of DM/heifer to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hay and total DMI were recorded for 5 consecutive days during each month of the experiment. Blood was collected every 10 d for analysis of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples collected on d -10, 60, 120, and 150 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, NEFA, and leptin. Liver samples were collected on d 100 from 2 heifers/pen and analyzed for mRNA expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism. No treatment effect was detected (P = 0.33) on forage DMI. Total DMI, ADG, and mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I as well as hepatic mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P ≥ 0.13). Mean PUN concentrations were also greater (P < 0.01) for PROT and ENER compared with CON, whereas PROT heifers had greater (P < 0.01) PUN compared with ENER. Plasma leptin concentrations were similar between ENER and PROT (P ≥ 0.19) and greater (P ≤ 0.03) for ENER and PROT compared with CON on d 120 and 150 (treatment × day interaction, P = 0.03). Hepatic mRNA expression of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater (P = 0.05) in PROT compared with CON and ENER and similar between CON and ENER (P = 0.98). The proportion of heifers pubertal on d 160 was greater (P < 0.01) in ENER compared with PROT and CON and similar between PROT and CON (P = 0.38). In conclusion, beef heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage had a similar increase in DMI, growth, and overall metabolic status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Maduración Sexual/fisiología , Zea mays , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Insulina/sangre , Proteína 3 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/sangre , Hígado/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinasa (ATP)/metabolismo , Poaceae , Progesterona/sangre
13.
J Anim Sci ; 92(5): 2239-50, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24671588

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to compare fatty acid (FA) concentrations in plasma and reproductive tissues as well as hormones and expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) beginning after timed AI. Ninety nonlactating multiparous Nelore (Bos indicus) cows were timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment and divided into 18 groups of 5 cows/group. Groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of a protein-mineral mix plus 100 g of ground corn per cow daily in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 9) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; n = 9). All groups were maintained in a single Brachiaria brizanta pasture (24 ha) with ad libitum access to forage and water. However, groups were segregated daily and offered treatments individually at the working facility during the experimental period (d 0 to 18). Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and estimate corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 18 of the experiment. On d 19, 36 cows (18 cows/treatment; 2 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm(3) in volume on d 7 and 18 were slaughtered for collection of conceptus, uterine luminal flushing, and tissue samples from the CL and endometrium. Cows receiving CSSO had greater concentrations of linoleic and other ω-6 FA in plasma (P < 0.01), endometrium (P ≤ 0.05), CL (P ≤ 0.05), and conceptus (P ≤ 0.08) compared to CON. On d 7 of the experiment, CSSO-supplemented cows had greater plasma progesterone concentrations (P < 0.01) and CL volume (P = 0.02) compared to CON, whereas no treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.15) for these parameters on d 18 (treatment × day interaction; P < 0.01). Cows receiving CSSO tended (P = 0.09) to have greater concentrations of interferon-tau in the uterine flushing media compared with CON. However, no treatment effects were detected for mRNA expression genes associated with pregnancy establishment in endometrial, CL, and conceptus samples (P ≥ 0.12). In summary, supplementing beef cows with 100 g of CSSO beginning after AI favored incorporation of ω-6 FA into their circulation, reproductive tissues, and conceptus, without impacting expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment on d 19 of gestation.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Calcio/química , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Preñez , Aceite de Soja/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Composición Corporal , Bovinos/sangre , Cuerpo Lúteo/anatomía & histología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Interferón Tipo I/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Embarazo , Proteínas Gestacionales/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangre , Aceite de Soja/química
14.
J Anim Sci ; 91(11): 5485-91, 2013 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23989877

RESUMEN

A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving. Also, though it appears that supplementation of beef cows with DDGS during late gestation has a positive effect on weaning weight, there was no apparent developmental programming effect on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of calves.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Preñez , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Embarazo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 90(11): 4042-54, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22585784

RESUMEN

Three experiments compared ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of beef steers consuming hay ad libitum and receiving grain-based supplements without (control) or with (CAM) the inclusion of camelina meal. In Exp. 1, 9 steers fitted with ruminal cannulas received CAM (2.04 kg of DM/d; n = 5) or control (2.20 kg of DM/d; n = 4). Steers receiving CAM had reduced (P = 0.01) total DMI and tended to have reduced (P = 0.10) forage DMI compared with control. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.35) for ruminal hay degradability parameters. In Exp. 2, 14 steers fed CAM (1.52 kg of DM/d; n = 7) or control (1.65 kg of DM/d; n = 7) were assigned to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.1 µg/kg of BW) and a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 0.33 µg/kg of BW) challenge. Steers fed CAM had greater (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of PUFA compared with control before challenges. Upon CRH infusion, plasma haptoglobin concentrations tended (P = 0.10) to be reduced and ceruloplasmin concentrations increased at a lesser rate in CAM steers compared with control (treatment × time; P < 0.01). Upon TRH infusion, no treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.55) for serum thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. In Exp. 3, 60 steers were allocated to 20 pens. Pens were assigned randomly to receive CAM (2.04 kg of DM/steer daily; n = 10) or control (2.20 kg of DM/steer daily; n = 10) during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0). On d 0, steers were transported for 24 h. Upon arrival, pens were assigned randomly to receive CAM or control during feedlot receiving (FR; d 1 to 29). During PC, CAM steers had reduced (P < 0.01) forage and total DMI, and tended to have reduced (P = 0.10) ADG compared with control. Plasma linolenic acid concentrations increased during PC for CAM steers, but not for control (treatment × day; P = 0.02). During FR, steers fed CAM during PC had reduced (P < 0.01) forage and total DMI, but tended (P = 0.10) to have greater G:F compared with control. Steers fed CAM during FR had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of PUFA, and reduced rectal temperature and concentrations of haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin during FR compared with control. In summary, CAM supplementation to steers impaired forage and total DMI, did not alter thyroid gland function, increased circulating concentrations of PUFA, and lessened the acute-phase protein reaction elicited by neuroendocrine stress responses.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Brassica/química , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/sangre , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/sangre , Masculino , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/farmacología
16.
J Anim Sci ; 90(7): 2371-80, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22266994

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein intake, and plasma concentrations of PUN compared with heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S3 (hay quality × supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy were hastened in S7 heifers compared with S3 heifers (supplementation frequency × week interaction; P < 0.02). Therefore, reproductive development of beef replacement heifers consuming diets based on low- and medium-quality forages are enhanced when low-starch energy supplements are offered daily instead of 3 times weekly.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Glucemia , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Femenino , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Embarazo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 89(11): 3677-89, 2011 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21680784

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to compare ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of forage-fed cattle consuming grain-based supplements without (NF) or with the inclusion (10%; DM basis) of a rumen-protected PUFA (PF) or SFA source (SF). Supplements were offered and consumed at 0.6% of BW/animal daily (DM basis). In Exp. 1, DMI and ruminal in situ forage degradability were evaluated in 3 Angus × Hereford cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Within each experimental period, hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access from d 1 to 13, DMI was recorded from d 8 to 13, and cows were limited to receive 90% of their average hay DMI (d 1 to 13) from d 14 to 21. On d 16, polyester bags containing 4 g of ground hay (DM basis) were incubated within the rumen of each cow for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h. Hay and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in cows receiving PF compared with cows receiving SF and NF. No treatment effects were detected (P > 0.48) for ruminal disappearance rate and effective ruminal degradability of hay DM and NDF. In Exp. 2, preconditioning DMI, ADG, carcass traits, and plasma concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, acute-phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in 72 Angus × Hereford steers receiving supplement treatments during a 28-d preconditioning period. All steers were transported to a commercial growing lot after preconditioning (d 1) and were later moved to an adjacent commercial finishing yard (d 144), where they remained until slaughter. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.52) for preconditioning ADG and G:F, but DMI tended (P = 0.09) to be reduced in steers receiving PF compared with those receiving NF and SF. Plasma PUFA concentrations were greater in steers receiving PF compared with those receiving NF and SF (P = 0.01). After transportation, concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α increased for steers receiving NF, did not change for steers receiving SF, but decreased for steers receiving PF (treatment × day interaction, P < 0.01). Steers fed PF had greater (P = 0.02) ADG compared with those fed NF during the growing phase. Carcass yield grade and marbling were greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed PF compared with those fed NF. In conclusion, PUFA supplementation did not affect ruminal forage degradability but did impair DMI in beef cows. Further, PUFA supplementation to steers during preconditioning reduced plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α after transportation, and benefited growing lot ADG and carcass marbling.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/administración & dosificación , Rumen/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos/sangre , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Citocinas/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Femenino , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino
18.
J Anim Sci ; 89(11): 3707-17, 2011 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21622884

RESUMEN

An in situ study (Exp. 1) using 4 ruminally cannulated steers (343 ± 11 kg of BW) in a completely randomized design was used to compare ruminal degradation characteristics of low-quality cool-season (C3; Kentucky bluegrass straw; Poa pratensis; 6.3% CP; DM basis) and warm-season (C4; tallgrass prairie; 5.7% CP; DM basis) forage. Four ruminally cannulated steers (252 ± 8 kg of BW; Exp. 2) and 4 wethers (38 ± 1 kg of BW; Exp. 3) were used in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments to determine the influence of supplemental CP (CPSupp; soybean meal; 0.09 and 0.19% of BW, CP basis, for steers and lambs, respectively) on nutrient intake and digestion of C3 and C4 forages. Steers and wethers were allotted to separate 4 × 4 Latin squares that ran simultaneously with 20-d periods. In Exp. 1, C3 had a greater A fraction (fraction of total pool disappearing at a rate too rapid to measure) and effective degradability of DM and NDF compared with C4 (P < 0.01). In addition, C3 had a greater (P < 0.01) A fraction and effective degradability of N, whereas the C fraction (fraction of total pool unavailable in the rumen) was less (P < 0.01) than those for C4. Consequently, RDP accounted for 84.7% of total CP in C3 as compared with 66% for C4 (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, a CPSupp × forage interaction (P < 0.01) was noted for forage and total DMI, with CPSupp increasing intake of C4 by 47% and intake of C3 forage by only 7%. Dry matter digestibility responded similarly, with a CPSupp × forage interaction (P = 0.05; CPSupp increased digestibility by 21% with C4 and by 9% with C3 forage). In addition, CPSupp × forage interactions were noted for ruminal liquid retention time (P = 0.02; CPSupp decreased retention by 3.6 h with C4 and by only 0.6 h with C3 forage) and particulate passage rate (P = 0.02; CPSupp increased passage by 46% with C4 and by 10% with C3 forage). As in Exp. 2, a CPSupp × forage interaction (P = 0.01; CPSupp increased digestibility by 18% with C4 and by 7% with C3 forage) was observed with DM digestibility in Exp. 3. In contrast, only N balance (P < 0.01) and N digestibility (P < 0.01) were affected by CPSupp. These data suggest that intake and digestion of low-quality C3 and C4 forages by ruminants are not similar and, more important, that the physiological response of ruminants to protein supplementation of low-quality forage is dependent on forage type.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Bovinos/metabolismo , Digestión/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Poaceae , Rumen/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Suplementos Dietéticos/normas , Heces/química , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Análisis de Regresión , Estaciones del Año
19.
J Anim Sci ; 83(7): 1715-25, 2005 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15956481

RESUMEN

The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of protein supplementation frequency on cow performance, grazing time, distance traveled, maximum distance from water, cow distribution, DMI, DM digestibility, harvest efficiency, percentage of supplementation events frequented, and CV for supplement intake for cows grazing low-quality forage. One hundred twenty pregnant (60 +/- 45 d) Angus x Hereford cows (467 +/- 4 kg BW) were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design for one 84-d period in each of three consecutive years. Cows were stratified by age, BCS, and BW and assigned randomly to one of three 810-ha pastures. Treatments included an unsupplemented control (CON) and supplementation every day (D; 0.91 kg, DM basis) or once every 6 d (6D; 5.46 kg, DM basis) with cottonseed meal (CSM; 43% CP, DM basis). Four cows from each treatment (each year) were fitted with global positioning system collars to estimate grazing time, distance traveled, maximum distance from water, cow distribution, and percentage of supplementation events frequented. Collared cows were dosed with intraruminal n-alkane controlled-release devices on d 28 for estimation of DMI, DM digestibility, and harvest efficiency. Additionally, Cr2O3 was incorporated into CSM on d 36 at 3% of DM for use as a digesta flow marker to estimate the CV for supplement intake. Cow BW and BCS change were greater (P < or = 0.03) for supplemented treatments compared with CON. No BW or BCS differences (P > or = 0.14) were noted between D and 6D. Grazing time was greater (P = 0.04) for CON compared with supplemented treatments, with no difference (P = 0.26) due to supplementation frequency. Distance traveled, maximum distance from water, cow distribution, DMI, DM digestibility, and harvest efficiency were not affected (P > or = 0.16) by protein supplementation or supplementation frequency. The percentage of supplementation events frequented and the CV for supplement intake were not affected (P > or = 0.58) by supplementation frequency. Results suggest that providing protein daily or once every 6 d to cows grazing low-quality forage increases BW and BCS gain, while decreasing grazing time. Additionally, protein supplementation and supplementation frequency may have little to no effect on cow distribution, DMI, and harvest efficiency in the northern Great Basin.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aceite de Semillas de Algodón/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Semillas de Algodón/metabolismo , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Heces , Femenino , Masculino , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Tiempo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 82(5): 1508-17, 2004 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15144094

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of supplemental nonprotein N (NPN) provided daily (D) or every other day (2D) on ruminant performance and N efficiency. Treatments included an unsupplemented control (CON) and a urea (28.7% CP) or biuret (28.6% CP) supplement provided D or 2D at 0700. In Exp. 1, five wethers (39 +/- 1 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental NPN source and supplementation frequency (SF) on the efficiency of N use in lambs consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). The amount of CP supplied by each supplement was approximately 0.10% of BW/d (averaged over a 2-d period). In Exp. 2, 80 Angus x Hereford cows (540 +/- 8 kg BW) in the last third of gestation were used to determine the effect of NPN source and SF on cow performance. The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement. The supplemented treatments received the same amount of supplemental N over a 2-d period; therefore, the 2D treatments received double the quantity of supplemental N on their respective supplementation day than the D treatments. In Exp. 1, total DM, OM, and N intake; DM, OM, and N digestibility; N balance; and digested N retained were greater (P < 0.03) for supplemented than for CON wethers, with no difference (P > 0.05) between NPN sources or SF. Plasma urea-N (PUN) was increased with N supplementation compared with CON (P < 0.01), and urea treatments had greater PUN than biuret (P < 0.01). In addition, PUN was greater (P = 0.02) for D than for 2D treatments. In Exp. 2, pre- and postcalving (within 14 d and 24 h after calving, respectively) cow weight and body condition score change were more positive (P < 0.05) for supplemented groups than for CON. These results suggest that supplements containing urea or biuret as the primary source of supplemental N can be effectively used by lambs and cows consuming low-quality forage, even when provided every other day.


Asunto(s)
Biuret/administración & dosificación , Bovinos/fisiología , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Urea/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Biuret/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Esquema de Medicación/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Necesidades Nutricionales , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Rumen/metabolismo , Urea/efectos adversos
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