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1.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 41(11): 544-52, 2005 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16398834

RESUMEN

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both chickenpox and herpes zoster and is responsible for a significant disease burden, including hospitalizations and deaths, in Australian children and adults. Varicella vaccine has been available in Australia for 5 years; however, from November 2005, it will be funded for use in all susceptible children at 18 months and 10-13 years of age under the National Immunisation Program. Experience with universal varicella vaccination of children in the USA over the last 10 years has shown that the vaccine is safe and highly effective in reducing varicella-related disease. This review summarizes the epidemiology of VZV-related disease in Australia, the use of varicella vaccine and the international experience with vaccine efficacy and safety. The potential impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence of herpes zoster is also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Varicela , Programas de Inmunización , Adolescente , Australia , Varicela/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Varicela/economía , Vacuna contra la Varicela/uso terapéutico , Niño , Contraindicaciones , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Herpes Zóster/prevención & control , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Seguridad , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Med J Aust ; 161(5): 305-7, 1994 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7830665

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To document and review the theoretical basis of vaccination practices and policies of homoeopaths in Sydney. METHODS: After preliminary interviews, a questionnaire was designed and mailed to all 29 homoeopaths listed in the Sydney telephone directory and practising in central Sydney. RESULTS: Six homoeopaths (21%) returned the completed questionnaire and 10 others were interviewed. Their attitudes to vaccination varied widely. The two medically qualified homoeopaths recommended orthodox vaccination routinely for most children. Five of the six respondents did not recommend routine vaccination by any method. We could not obtain any scientific data about the contents of homoeopathic vaccinations. No reports evaluating homoeopathic vaccination were found in the peer-reviewed medical literature from 1982-1993. CONCLUSIONS: Homoeopathic vaccination practices are variable, with no statutory body regulating them in Australia. Medically qualified homoeopaths frequently recommend orthodox vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía , Vacunación , Actitud , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante
3.
J Surg Oncol ; 18(2): 163-72, 1981.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7300363

RESUMEN

In an attempt to prolong the durations of remission and survival of patients with advanced breast cancer treated with the FAC-BCG protocol, we modified the CMF maintenance combination by increasing the dose of all three drugs and administering them intravenously. Eighty-five evaluable patients treated with this new regimen were compared with a recent historical control group of 105 evaluable patients treated with FAC-BCG and a lower-dose, oral CMF maintenance program. The overall (70% and 76%) and complete (16% and 19%) response rates were identical in these two groups. The median times to progression for all patients entered were similar too (13 months for both groups.). The durations of response were 17 months (PO-CMF) and 14 months (IV-CMF), not significantly different (P = .16). The durations of survival of the two treated groups were also very similar. After the administration of intensive FAC induction therapy, a high-dose, intravenous CMF maintenance program appears no better than a low-dose oral regimen. Other drug combinations consisting entirely of drugs not used in the induction regimen might be better choices for maintenance treatment


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia
5.
Cancer ; 40(5 Suppl): 2726-30, 1977 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-922710

RESUMEN

The poor postsurgical prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer of the Dukes' C classification has prompted a clinical trial of adjuvant immunotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy intended to prolong either the disease-free interval or the overall survival or both. One hundred and twenty-one patients have been entered on this study. Fifty-two patients received BCG alone and 69 patients received the combination of 5-FU and BCG. The disease-free interval and the overall survival were compared with similar parameters in a group of historical controls with similar prognostic characteristics who were operated on in our institution prior to the initiation of the current study. There was no difference as yet between BCG alone and the combination of 5-FU + BCG in terms of both the disease-free interval and the survival. Both treatments, however, had significantly better results than the surgical controls. Adjuvant therapy, especially with BCG is advocated for patients with colorectal carcinoma, Dukes' C class, following potentially curative surgery.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Neoplasias del Recto/terapia , Carcinoma/inmunología , Neoplasias del Colon/inmunología , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias del Recto/inmunología
6.
Lancet ; 1(7965): 871-6, 1976 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-58143

RESUMEN

83 patients with colorectal carcinoma of the Dukes' C class were randomised to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy with B.C.G. alone or in combination with oral doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-F.U.), and have been followed for up to thirty months. Results were compared with carefully selected historical controls who were treated by surgery alone. A statistically significant prolongation of both disease-free interval and overall survival was observed in 50 patients receiving the combination of B.C.G. and 5-F.U. (P=0.03, P=0.01 respectively) as well as in 33 patients receiving B.C.G. alone (P=0.03, P=0.05 respectively). The efficacy of B.C.G.+5-F.U. was independent of the number of tumour-involved lymph-nodes in the surgical specimen. In contrast, B.C.G. given alone appears to be highly effective among 10 patients with 6 or more positive lymph-nodes (P less than 0.04) and ineffective (as yet) among 23 patients with 5 or less positive lymph-nodes. These results suggest that adjuvant immunotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, can improve the prognosis of surgically treated patients with colorectal carcinoma of the Dukes' C class.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Cuidados Posoperatorios , Neoplasias del Recto/terapia , Administración Oral , Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias del Colon/mortalidad , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Metástasis Linfática , Mesenterio , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Neoplasias del Recto/mortalidad , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Cancer ; 36(6 Suppl): 2421-7, 1975 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1212660

RESUMEN

Fifty-eight patients with Dukes' C classification of carcinoma of the large bowel were placed on adjuvant immuno- or chemoimmunotherapy with Bacillus calmette guerin (BCG) or combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus BCG following primary and definitive surgery, and were followed for up to 21 months. Of twenty-six patients receiving BCG alone by scarification, five have relapsed with 75% of freedom from disease estimated at 15.1 months compared with 10.1 months in a group of carefully selected historical controls who had surgery alone (p = 0.12). The survival of all patients receiving BCG alone has not reached the 75 percentile yet, and the difference from controls is currently estimated at the 18% level. The combination of 5-FU plus BCG (studied in 32 patients) may be superior to BCG alone at this time, in that it appears to more effectively protect against tumor recurrence (75 percentile not yet reached compared to control, (p = 0.08). The survival of patients on 5-FU plus BCG also appears to be improved (p = 0.09). No patients have expired compared to a 75 percentile survival of 16.6 months in the control. Serial determination of plasma CEA was crucial in the clinical follow-up of these patients. Frequent CEA detetminations have led to early detection of clinical relapse. In the elevation of CEA suggests tumor recurrence with a high degree of probability in patients with past history of cancer of the large bowel.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Recto/terapia , Antígeno Carcinoembrionario/análisis , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Neoplasias del Recto/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Recto/patología
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