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1.
J Anim Sci ; 94(3): 1215-26, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065282

RESUMEN

Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot, calves from AAC cows had reduced ( < 0.01) incidence of bovine respiratory disease compared with CON and INR cohorts. Collectively, these results suggest that feeding the AAC diet to late-gestating beef cows stimulated programming effects on postnatal offspring growth and health compared with the CON diet. Therefore, supplementing late-gestating beef cows with an organic complexed source of Co, Cu, Zn, and Mn instead of no supplementation appears to optimize offspring productivity in beef production systems.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Oligoelementos/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Cobalto/administración & dosificación , Cobalto/farmacología , Cobre/administración & dosificación , Cobre/farmacología , Femenino , Hígado/metabolismo , Manganeso/administración & dosificación , Manganeso/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Paridad , Embarazo , Oligoelementos/administración & dosificación , Destete , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Zinc/farmacología
2.
J Anim Sci ; 93(9): 4443-52, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440344

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses in beef heifers vaccinated against pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Eighteen weaned Angus heifers (initial BW 257 ± 3 kg; initial age 245 ± 2 d) were ranked by BW and allocated to 2 groups, which were assigned to 2 experiments of 7 d and the following treatments on d 1 of each experiment: 1) revaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea Types 1 and 2 viruses, and (VAC; 2 mL [s.c.]) and 2) receiving a 2-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% sterile saline (CON). The group receiving VAC in Exp. 1 was assigned to CON in Exp. 2 and vice versa. Heifers were weaned 21 d before Exp. 1, when they all received the first dose of the aforementioned vaccine. Heifers were maintained in individual pens and offered free-choice mixed alfalfa-grass hay and 3.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a corn-based supplement throughout the study. During Exp. 1, hay and concentrate intake were evaluated daily. During Exp. 2, blood samples were collected before (-2 and 0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after treatment administration. In Exp. 1, treatment × day interactions were detected ( < 0.01) for forage intake and total DMI; these parameters were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers on d 1 and 2 by an average of 1.7 and 0.8 kg (DM basis), respectively. In Exp. 2, mean serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentration was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers and treatment × hour interactions were detected for all plasma variables ( ≤ 0.02), whereas a similar tendency was detected ( = 0.09) for blood α mRNA expression. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 16 to 120 h. Blood α mRNA expression was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 12 h. Cortisol concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 2 to 16 h. Insulin concentration was greater ( = 0.02) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 2 h. Leptin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 6 to 16 h. In conclusion, vaccinating beef heifers against BRD pathogens decreased forage intake and total DMI during the 2 d following vaccination in Exp. 1, which can be associated with transient metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses elicited by vaccination in Exp. 2.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/veterinaria , Vacunas/inmunología , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/genética , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Inflamación/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Leptina/sangre , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vacunación
3.
Animal ; 9(9): 1500-8, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990965

RESUMEN

This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (P<0.01) for MI than CON from day 1 to 51, tended (P=0.09) to be greater for CON than MI from day 112 to 326, while BW on day 326 was similar between treatments. On day 51, MI had greater (P ⩽ 0.01) plasma IGF-I and glucose concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and adipose fatty acid synthase than CON. On days 261 and 325, plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ⩽ 0.03) in CON than MI. Mean mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-I and adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were greater (P ⩽ 0.05) in MI than CON. No treatment effects were detected for puberty attainment rate. In conclusion, supplementing nursing heifers via creep-feeding for 50 days altered physiological and biochemical variables suggestive of a metabolic imprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Métodos de Alimentación/veterinaria , Impronta Psicológica/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Maduración Sexual/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Factores de Edad , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Métodos de Alimentación/instrumentación , Femenino , Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Músculos Paraespinales/diagnóstico por imagen , Progesterona/sangre , Ultrasonografía , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
J Anim Sci ; 93(1): 386-94, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412746

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 µg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 µg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D and 3WK. Uterine flushing pH tended (P ≤ 0.10) to be greater for 1WK vs. 3WK and D. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.15) on expression of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, plasma glucose, and P4 concentrations, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.03) in D and 3WK vs. 1WK. Hence, decreasing frequency of protein supplementation did not reduce uterine flushing pH or plasma P4 concentrations, which are known to impact reproduction in beef cows.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Sincronización del Estro/efectos de los fármacos , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Bovinos , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Dinoprost/farmacología , Femenino , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/farmacología , Insulina/sangre , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Reproducción/fisiología
5.
J Anim Sci ; 92(6): 2716-24, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713162

RESUMEN

Two experiments evaluated the influence of supplement composition on ruminal forage disappearance, performance, and physiological responses of Angus × Hereford cattle consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). In Exp. 1, 6 rumen-fistulated steers housed in individual pens were assigned to an incomplete 3 × 2 Latin square design containing 2 periods of 11 d each and the following treatments: 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Steers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption. Treatments were provided daily at 0.50 and 0.54% of shrunk BW/steer for PROT and ENER, respectively, to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. No treatment effects were detected on rumen disappearance parameters of forage DM (P ≥ 0.33) and NDF (P ≥ 0.66). In Exp. 2, 35 pregnant heifers were ranked by initial BW on d -7 of the study, allocated into 12 feedlot pens (4 pens/treatment), and assigned to the same treatments and forage intake regimen as in Exp. 1 for 19 d. Treatments were fed once daily at 1.77 and 1.92 kg of DM/heifer for PROT and ENER, respectively, to achieve the same treatment intake as percent of initial BW used in Exp. 1 (0.50 and 0.54% for PROT and ENER, respectively). No treatment effects (P = 0.17) were detected on forage DMI. Total DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P = 0.36). Accordingly, ADG was greater (P = 0.01) for PROT compared with CON, tended to be greater for ENER compared with CON (P = 0.08), and was similar between ENER and PROT (P = 0.28). Heifers receiving PROT and ENER had greater mean concentrations of plasma glucose (P = 0.03), insulin (P ≤ 0.09), IGF-I (P ≤ 0.04), and progesterone (P = 0.01) compared to CON, whereas ENER and PROT had similar concentrations of these variables (P ≥ 0.15). A treatment × hour interaction was detected (P < 0.01) for plasma urea N (PUN), given that PUN concentrations increased after supplementation for ENER and PROT (time effect, P < 0.01) but did not change for CON (time effect, P = 0.62). In conclusion, beef cattle consuming low-quality cool-season forages had similar ruminal forage disappearance and intake, performance, and physiological status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Rumen/metabolismo , Estaciones del Año , Zea mays , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Fístula Gástrica/veterinaria , Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Poaceae , Embarazo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 92(6): 2725-34, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713166

RESUMEN

This experiment evaluated the influence of supplement composition on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Angus × Hereford heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). Sixty heifers (initial age = 226 ± 3 d) were allocated into 15 drylot pens (4 heifers/pen and 5 pens/treatment) and assigned to 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Heifers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption during the experiment (d -10 to 160). Beginning on d 0, PROT and ENER were provided daily at a rate of 1.30 and 1.40 kg of DM/heifer to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hay and total DMI were recorded for 5 consecutive days during each month of the experiment. Blood was collected every 10 d for analysis of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples collected on d -10, 60, 120, and 150 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, NEFA, and leptin. Liver samples were collected on d 100 from 2 heifers/pen and analyzed for mRNA expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism. No treatment effect was detected (P = 0.33) on forage DMI. Total DMI, ADG, and mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I as well as hepatic mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P ≥ 0.13). Mean PUN concentrations were also greater (P < 0.01) for PROT and ENER compared with CON, whereas PROT heifers had greater (P < 0.01) PUN compared with ENER. Plasma leptin concentrations were similar between ENER and PROT (P ≥ 0.19) and greater (P ≤ 0.03) for ENER and PROT compared with CON on d 120 and 150 (treatment × day interaction, P = 0.03). Hepatic mRNA expression of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater (P = 0.05) in PROT compared with CON and ENER and similar between CON and ENER (P = 0.98). The proportion of heifers pubertal on d 160 was greater (P < 0.01) in ENER compared with PROT and CON and similar between PROT and CON (P = 0.38). In conclusion, beef heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage had a similar increase in DMI, growth, and overall metabolic status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Maduración Sexual/fisiología , Zea mays , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Insulina/sangre , Proteína 3 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/sangre , Hígado/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinasa (ATP)/metabolismo , Poaceae , Progesterona/sangre
7.
J Anim Sci ; 92(5): 2239-50, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24671588

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to compare fatty acid (FA) concentrations in plasma and reproductive tissues as well as hormones and expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) beginning after timed AI. Ninety nonlactating multiparous Nelore (Bos indicus) cows were timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment and divided into 18 groups of 5 cows/group. Groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of a protein-mineral mix plus 100 g of ground corn per cow daily in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 9) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; n = 9). All groups were maintained in a single Brachiaria brizanta pasture (24 ha) with ad libitum access to forage and water. However, groups were segregated daily and offered treatments individually at the working facility during the experimental period (d 0 to 18). Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and estimate corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 18 of the experiment. On d 19, 36 cows (18 cows/treatment; 2 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm(3) in volume on d 7 and 18 were slaughtered for collection of conceptus, uterine luminal flushing, and tissue samples from the CL and endometrium. Cows receiving CSSO had greater concentrations of linoleic and other ω-6 FA in plasma (P < 0.01), endometrium (P ≤ 0.05), CL (P ≤ 0.05), and conceptus (P ≤ 0.08) compared to CON. On d 7 of the experiment, CSSO-supplemented cows had greater plasma progesterone concentrations (P < 0.01) and CL volume (P = 0.02) compared to CON, whereas no treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.15) for these parameters on d 18 (treatment × day interaction; P < 0.01). Cows receiving CSSO tended (P = 0.09) to have greater concentrations of interferon-tau in the uterine flushing media compared with CON. However, no treatment effects were detected for mRNA expression genes associated with pregnancy establishment in endometrial, CL, and conceptus samples (P ≥ 0.12). In summary, supplementing beef cows with 100 g of CSSO beginning after AI favored incorporation of ω-6 FA into their circulation, reproductive tissues, and conceptus, without impacting expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment on d 19 of gestation.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Calcio/química , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Preñez , Aceite de Soja/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Composición Corporal , Bovinos/sangre , Cuerpo Lúteo/anatomía & histología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Interferón Tipo I/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Embarazo , Proteínas Gestacionales/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangre , Aceite de Soja/química
8.
J Anim Sci ; 90(11): 4042-54, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22585784

RESUMEN

Three experiments compared ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of beef steers consuming hay ad libitum and receiving grain-based supplements without (control) or with (CAM) the inclusion of camelina meal. In Exp. 1, 9 steers fitted with ruminal cannulas received CAM (2.04 kg of DM/d; n = 5) or control (2.20 kg of DM/d; n = 4). Steers receiving CAM had reduced (P = 0.01) total DMI and tended to have reduced (P = 0.10) forage DMI compared with control. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.35) for ruminal hay degradability parameters. In Exp. 2, 14 steers fed CAM (1.52 kg of DM/d; n = 7) or control (1.65 kg of DM/d; n = 7) were assigned to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.1 µg/kg of BW) and a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 0.33 µg/kg of BW) challenge. Steers fed CAM had greater (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of PUFA compared with control before challenges. Upon CRH infusion, plasma haptoglobin concentrations tended (P = 0.10) to be reduced and ceruloplasmin concentrations increased at a lesser rate in CAM steers compared with control (treatment × time; P < 0.01). Upon TRH infusion, no treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.55) for serum thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. In Exp. 3, 60 steers were allocated to 20 pens. Pens were assigned randomly to receive CAM (2.04 kg of DM/steer daily; n = 10) or control (2.20 kg of DM/steer daily; n = 10) during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0). On d 0, steers were transported for 24 h. Upon arrival, pens were assigned randomly to receive CAM or control during feedlot receiving (FR; d 1 to 29). During PC, CAM steers had reduced (P < 0.01) forage and total DMI, and tended to have reduced (P = 0.10) ADG compared with control. Plasma linolenic acid concentrations increased during PC for CAM steers, but not for control (treatment × day; P = 0.02). During FR, steers fed CAM during PC had reduced (P < 0.01) forage and total DMI, but tended (P = 0.10) to have greater G:F compared with control. Steers fed CAM during FR had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of PUFA, and reduced rectal temperature and concentrations of haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin during FR compared with control. In summary, CAM supplementation to steers impaired forage and total DMI, did not alter thyroid gland function, increased circulating concentrations of PUFA, and lessened the acute-phase protein reaction elicited by neuroendocrine stress responses.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Brassica/química , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/sangre , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/sangre , Masculino , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/farmacología
9.
J Anim Sci ; 89(12): 4314-24, 2011 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21821818

RESUMEN

Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·â€¢heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), ß-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements. The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Brassicaceae/química , Dieta/veterinaria , Glicerol/farmacología , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangre , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Glucemia , Bovinos , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Femenino , Glicerol/química , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Insulina/sangre , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Hormonas Tiroideas/sangre
10.
J Anim Sci ; 87(12): 3935-43, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19684273

RESUMEN

Five experiments evaluated the effects of rumen-protected PUFA supplementation on reproductive function of Bos indicus beef cows. In Exp. 1, 910 lactating primiparous Nelore cows were randomly assigned to receive 0.4 kg/d of a protein-mineral mix in addition to 0.1 kg/d of a rumen-inert PUFA source (PF) or 0.1 kg/d of kaolin (rumen-inert indigestible substance; control), from the beginning of estrus synchronization protocol (d -11) until 28 d after fixed-time AI (TAI; d 28). Cows supplemented with PF had greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy rates compared with control cows (51.2 vs. 39.6%). In Exp. 2, 818 lactating primiparous Nelore cows were assigned to the same TAI schedule from Exp. 1 and randomly allocated to receive 1) control from d -11 to 28, 2) PF from d -11 to 16 and control from d 17 to 28, or 3) PF from d -11 to 28. Cows receiving PF until d 28 had greater (P = 0.02) pregnancy rates compared with control cows and tended to have greater (P = 0.10) pregnancy rates compared with cows receiving PF until d 16 (42.9, 31.3, and 35.8%, respectively). In Exp. 3, 435 nulliparous and multiparous lactating B. indicus-crossbred cows were randomly assigned to receive control or PF from the end of synchronization protocol (d 0) until 21 d after fixed-time embryo transfer (d 28). Cows supplemented with PF had greater (P = 0.07) pregnancy rates compared with control cows (49.6 vs. 37.7%). In Exp. 4, 504 lactating multiparous Nelore cows were randomly assigned to receive PF or a similar supplement containing a rumen-protected SFA source (SF) for 28 d beginning after TAI. Cows supplemented with PF had greater (P = 0.02) pregnancy rates compared with SF cows (47.9 vs. 35.5%). In Exp. 5, 9 nonlactating, nonpregnant, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows inserted with an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing device were stratified by BW and BCS and divided into 3 squares. Squares were randomly assigned to receive control, PF, or a protein-mineral mix containing 0.2 kg/d of rumen-inert PUFA source (PF2), in a Latin square 3 x 3 design containing 3 periods of 14 d each. Cows supplemented with PF had greater (P = 0.03) mean serum P4 concentrations compared with control and PF2 cows (1.81, 1.66, and 1.68 ng/mL, respectively). These results indicate that supplementing 0.1 kg/d of rumen-inert PUFA to beef cows, particularly after breeding, may be a method of enhancing their reproductive performance, perhaps by increasing circulating P4 concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/farmacología , Preñez/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Intravaginal , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Femenino , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Preñez/fisiología , Progesterona/administración & dosificación , Progesterona/sangre , Progesterona/farmacología , Distribución Aleatoria , Rumen/fisiología
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