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1.
Animal ; 17(5): 100805, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149993

RESUMEN

The physiological consequences of overstocking require more investigation, and no research has explored whether dietary supplements could mitigate the anticipated negative physiological effects. OmniGen AF (OG, Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ, USA) is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to support the immune system of cattle following internal and environmental stressors. This study aimed to determine if a 45-day period of OG feed supplementation would influence whole blood leukocyte messenger RNA abundance, energy metabolism and glucocorticoid concentration, during a two-week period of overstocking. Two stocking density treatments (control: one headlock and lying stall per cow; overstocked: 0.5 headlocks and 0.5 lying stalls per cow) and two diet treatments (control: no added supplement; and OG: 56 g/cow per day) were investigated. Four pens of 15 cows were fed their assigned diet (two pens per diet; control stocking density) for 45 days after which each stocking density treatment was applied for a 14-day period using a cross-over design; this study design was replicated twice. During each 14-day period, blood was collected on day four to measure whole blood leukocyte messenger RNA abundance (cluster of differentiation 80, interleukin 8 receptor-beta, interleukin 10 receptor-beta and L-selectin) and fecal samples were collected every two days to measure fecal cortisol metabolite concentration (11,17-dioxoandrostanes). At the end of each 14-day period, eight cows from each pen were selected for an intravenous glucose tolerance test; glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids were measured. There were no effects of diet or stocking density on leukocyte messenger RNA abundance. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations were highest for overstocked cows on the control diet on day four of the stocking density treatment; however, by day 10, overstocked cows fed OG had the highest fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations. Overstocked cows, regardless of diet, had an attenuated insulin response during the glucose tolerance test, represented by a lower area under the curve estimate. Cows fed OG but not overstocked, had a lower non-esterified fatty acid nadir during the glucose challenge, compared to all the other treatments. In conclusion, overstocking prompts a physiological stress response and alters energy metabolism by decreasing the insulin response to an intravenous glucose challenge. Feeding OG during overstocking delayed the increase in fecal cortisol metabolites by several days; however, it is unclear if this altered glucocorticoid response benefited the cow, as OG had no effect on insulin responses or immune parameters.


Asunto(s)
Glucocorticoides , Hidrocortisona , Femenino , Bovinos , Animales , Glucocorticoides/farmacología , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Leche/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Leucocitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Alimentación Animal
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 11580-11592, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454748

RESUMEN

The continuous trend for a narrowing margin between feed cost and milk prices across dairy farms in the United States highlights the need to improve and maintain feed efficiency. Yeast culture products are alternative supplements that have been evaluated in terms of milk performance and feed efficiency; however, less is known about their potential effects on altering rumen microbial populations and consequently rumen fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast culture supplementation on lactation performance, rumen fermentation profile, and abundance of major species of ruminal bacteria in lactating dairy cows. Forty mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (121 ± 43 days in milk; mean ± standard deviation; 32 multiparous and 8 primiparous) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 60-d treatment period. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, and previous lactation milk yield and assigned to a basal total mixed ration (TMR; 1.6 Mcal/kg of dry matter, 14.6% crude protein, 21.5% starch, and 38.4% neutral detergent fiber) plus 114 g/d of ground corn (CON; n = 20) or basal TMR plus 100 g/d of ground corn and 14 g/d of yeast culture (YC; n = 20; Culture Classic HD, Cellerate Yeast Solutions, Phibro Animal Health Corp.). Treatments were top-dressed over the TMR once a day. Cows were individually fed 1 × /d throughout the trial. Blood and rumen fluid samples were collected in a subset of cows (n = 10/treatment) at 0, 30, and 60 d of the treatment period. Rumen fluid sampled via esophageal tubing was analyzed for ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ruminal bacteria populations via quantitative PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA genes. Milk yield was not affected by treatment effects. Energy balance was lower in YC cows than CON, which was partially explain by the trend for lower dry matter intake as % body weight in YC cows than CON. Cows fed YC had greater overall ruminal pH and greater total VFA (mM) at 60 d of treatment period. There was a contrasting greater molar proportion of isovalerate and lower acetate proportion in YC-fed cows compared with CON cows. Although the ruminal abundance of specific fiber-digesting bacteria, including Eubacterium ruminantium and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, was increased in YC cows, others such as Fibrobacter succinogenes were decreased. The abundance of amylolytic bacteria such as Ruminobacter amylophilus and Succinimonas amylolytica were decreased in YC cows than CON. Our results indicate that the yeast culture supplementation seems to promote some specific fiber-digesting bacteria while decreasing amylolytic bacteria, which might have partially promoted more neutral rumen pH, greater total VFA, and isovalerate.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión , Eubacterium , Femenino , Fermentación , Fibrobacter , Leche , Embarazo , Rumen/metabolismo , Ruminococcus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Succinivibrionaceae
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(10): 10727-10743, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253357

RESUMEN

Feeding yeast culture fermentation products has been associated with improved feed intake and milk yield in transition dairy cows. These improvements in performance have been further described in terms of rumen characteristics, metabolic profile, and immune response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture product (YC; Culture Classic HD, Phibro Animal Health) on performance, blood biomarkers, rumen fermentation, and rumen bacterial population in dairy cows from -30 to 50 d in milk (DIM). Forty Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in a randomized complete block design from -30 to 50 DIM and blocked according to expected calving day, parity, previous milk yield, and genetic merit. At -30 DIM, cows were assigned to either a basal diet plus 114 g/d of ground corn (control; n = 20) or a basal diet plus 100 g/d of ground corn and 14 g/d of YC (n = 20), fed as a top-dress. Cows received the same close-up diet from 30 d prepartum until calving [1.39 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM) and 12.3% crude protein (CP)] and lactation diet from calving to 50 DIM (1.60 Mcal/kg of DM and 15.6% CP). Blood samples and rumen fluid were collected at various time points from -30 to 50 d relative to calving. Cows fed YC compared with control showed a trend for increased energy-corrected milk (+3.2 kg/d). Lower somatic cell counts were observed in YC cows than in control. We detected a treatment × time interaction in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that could be attributed to a trend for greater NEFA in YC cows than control at 7 DIM, followed by lower NEFA in YC cows than control at 14 and 30 DIM. In the rumen, YC contributed to mild changes in rumen fermentation, mainly increasing postpartal valerate while decreasing prepartal isovalerate. This was accompanied by alterations in rumen microbiota, including a greater abundance of cellulolytic (Fibrobacter succinogenes) and lactate-utilizing bacteria (Megasphaera elsdenii). These results describe the potential benefits of supplementing yeast culture during the late pregnancy through early lactation, at least in terms of rumen environment and performance.


Asunto(s)
Rumen , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fermentación , Fibrobacter , Lactancia , Leche , Embarazo , Rumen/metabolismo
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6612-6626, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307158

RESUMEN

Adrenal responsiveness was tested in nonpregnant, lactating Holstein dairy cows fed diets supplemented with OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ), an immune modulator, and in nonsupplemented control (CON) cows following bolus infusions of a combination of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg of BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg of BW) or ACTH (0.1 IU/kg of BW) in 2 environments: thermoneutral [TN; temperature-humidity index (THI) <60] for 24 h/d and heat stress (HS; THI >68 for 17 h/d). Cows (506) were initially fed OG (n = 254) or CON (n = 252) diets for 44 d before selection of a subgroup of cows (n = 12; 6 OG, 6 CON) for the study. The 2 subgroups were balanced for parity, milk yield, and days in milk. All cows were transported to and housed in 2 environmentally controlled rooms at the University of Arizona Agricultural Research Complex (Tucson). Cows were given 3 d to acclimate to the rooms and then underwent 12 d of TN conditions and then 8 d of HS conditions for a total of 24 d on experiment. Cows were infused with CRH-VP on d 9 of TN and on d 1 of HS and with ACTH on d 10 of TN and on d 2 of HS. Hormone infusions took place at 1000 h (0 h) on each infusion day. Blood samples, taken in 30-min intervals, were first collected at 0800 h (-2 h) and were drawn until 1800 h (8 h). Before infusion, serum progesterone was elevated in OG cows compared with CON cows. Infusion of releasing factors (CRH-VP or ACTH) caused increases in serum cortisol and progesterone, but cortisol release was greater in CON cows than in OG cows during HS, whereas progesterone did not differ between the 2 treatments. Serum ACTH increased following infusion of releasing factors, but this increase was greater following CRH-VP infusion than ACTH infusion. Serum bovine corticosteroid-binding globulin also increased following infusion of releasing factors in both treatment groups, but this increase was greater during HS in cows fed OG. The free cortisol index (FCI) increased following CRH-VP and ACTH and was higher in HS than in TN for both OG and CON cows. However, the FCI response was blunted in OG cows compared with CON cows during HS. Heat stress enhanced the adrenal response to releasing factors. Additionally, the adrenal cortisol and FCI response to releasing factors was reduced during acute heat stress in cows fed OG. Collectively, these data suggest that OG supplementation reduced the adrenal responsiveness to factors regulating cortisol secretion during acute HS.


Asunto(s)
Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Leche/metabolismo , Vasopresinas/farmacología , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Humedad , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Lactancia , Paridad , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 127: 11-17, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670050

RESUMEN

Enhancing immunological responses to vaccination is an important goal in many herd health management systems. OmniGen-AF®(OG) is an immunomodulatory feed additive that has been shown to enhance innate immune function in ruminants and its effects on adaptive immunity require additional study. The objective of this study was to evaluate post-vaccine antibody titers and circulating cellular memory development in heifers fed OG and administered a commercially available modified-live bovine respiratory disease (BRD) vaccine. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two diets for 170 days: Control TMR (CON; n = 11), or TMR plus OG (TRT; 9 g/100 kg BW/day; n = 13). Samples for hematology, serology, and cellular assays were collected on D-110, 0, 21, 42, and 60 of the trial. Heifers were administered two priming doses of a modified-live BRD vaccine, with a third dose given on D0. There were no significant differences in total WBC and absolute number or the percentage of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, RBC, or platelets on D-110 through D21. On D42 and D60, CON had significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes. On D0, mean serum neutralizing (SN) titer to BHV-1 was significantly higher for CON compared to TRT. SN titers were not significantly different between CON and TRT at any other time point for BHV-1, BVDV type 1, or BVDV type 2. TRT mounted a significantly stronger recall proliferative response to 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of BHV-1, BVDV type 1 and BVDV type 2 on D42 and D60; 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 on D21 and D42; and 0.25 MOI BVDV type 2 on D42 compared to CON. IL-4 production induced by 0.5 and 1.0 MOI BHV-1 (D42 and D60); 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 (D21); and 0.25 and 0.5 MOI of BVDV type 2 (D60) were significantly higher for TRT than CON. IL-17 production induced by 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 was significantly higher on D60 for TRT compared to CON. IFN-gamma and IL-10 were not significantly different between treatments. These data indicate feeding OG has a beneficial effect on responses to vaccine antigens in Holstein dairy heifers.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 1/inmunología , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 2/inmunología , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/inmunología , Factores Inmunológicos/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Complejo Respiratorio Bovino/inmunología , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 186-190, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909121

RESUMEN

A trial was conducted to determine if feeding OmniGen-AF® (OG) to 22 late lactation cows 60 days prior to and during the early dry period, a time of increased susceptibility to mastitis, could reduce disease incidence in a dairy herd experiencing major health issues. Treated cows (n = 11) consumed a ration containing OG [9 g/100 kg of body weight/day] beginning 60 days before dry-off, during the dry period, and through 30 days in milk (DIM). Control cows received the same ration during the dry period through 30 DIM only. Body weights, body condition scores (BCS), intramammary infection (IMI) prevalence, new IMI rates, somatic cell counts (SCC), milk yield, and adverse health events were measured. No differences were found between treatments for body weight or BCS. Adverse health event data at calving showed no differences between treatments except for percentage of cows with hyperketonemia, which was lower among treated cows (63.6% vs 100%). Prevalence of IMI from calving through 30 DIM for treated cows (6.1%) was lower than controls (11.05%); likewise, new IMI rate during this time for treated cows (0.61%) was lower than controls (5.81%). The SCC from calving through 30 DIM for treated cows (215,000/ml) was lower than controls (493,000/ml). Average production/day at the first DHIA test (~33 DIM) showed that treated cows produced more milk (39.9 kg) than controls (35.34 kg). In conclusion, feeding OG 60 days prior to dry-off reduced hyperketonemia and mastitis, lowered SCC, and numerically increased milk yield in a dairy herd experiencing major health issues.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/inmunología , Mastitis Bovina/prevención & control , Leche/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Recuento de Células/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Mastitis Bovina/epidemiología , Prevalencia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(11): 9915-9925, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219430

RESUMEN

Eighty-two multiparous Holstein cows were enrolled 28 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of feeding a neutral or acidogenic diet varying in Ca concentration on prepartum and postpartum intake, blood mineral and metabolite concentrations, and postpartum milk production. Prepartum diets were formulated to provide a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of -21 (negative, NEG) or -2 (neutral, NEU) mEq/100 g of dry matter with either 1.3% or 1.8% Ca. After calving, cows remained on trial through 63 d in milk (DIM) and were fed a common lactation diet. Urine pH was lower for NEG compared with NEU and tended to be lower for 1.8% Ca compared with 1.3% Ca. Fractional excretion of Ca and Mg in urine was greater for NEG than for NEU. Prepartum plasma bicarbonate was lower and P was higher for NEG compared with NEU. Prepartum plasma P and blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio was higher for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. Postpartum, concentrations of plasma total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, Mg, and ionized Mg (iMg) were higher and Na was lower for NEU compared with NEG. An interaction of DCAD and Ca was observed for plasma creatinine, which was highest for cows fed NEU and 1.3% Ca compared with all other treatments. Interactions of DCAD and DIM were observed for plasma bicarbonate and iMg. Bicarbonate was higher at 3 DIM and lower at 14 DIM for NEU compared with NEG. Concentrations of iMg were higher at 1, 2, and 14 DIM for NEU compared with NEG. Interactions of Ca and DIM were observed for plasma Ca, Cl, and anion gap. Compared with cows fed 1.5% Ca, those fed 1.3% Ca had lower Ca and anion gap and higher Cl at 1 DIM and lower Cl and higher anion gap at 14 DIM. No differences were observed in body weight or body condition score due to DCAD or Ca. Prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) was lower for NEG compared with NEU and lower for 1.8% compared with 1.3% Ca. Postpartum DMI was not different among treatments. An interaction was observed for DCAD and DIM due to higher milk yield after 45 DIM for NEG compared with NEU. No differences were observed in milk component percentage or yield among treatments. There was an interaction of DIM and Ca for milk urea concentrations, which were higher at 5 wk and lower at 6 wk for 1.3% Ca compared with 1.8% Ca. These results suggest that feeding NEG prepartum alters plasma and urine mineral concentrations compared with feeding NEU and supports increased milk yield after 45 DIM. Feeding 1.8% Ca prepartum only improved plasma Ca at 1 DIM. Feeding either NEG or 1.8% Ca reduced DMI prepartum compared with NEU or 1.3% Ca.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Calcio de la Dieta/farmacología , Bovinos , Leche/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Industria Lechera , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Lactancia , Minerales/metabolismo , Paridad , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9048-9051, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077447

RESUMEN

Eighty-two multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and Ca concentrations in a randomized block design experiment beginning 4 wk before anticipated calving to determine the effects on colostrum yield and quality and acid-base balance and mineral status of newborn calves. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial to provide 2 DCAD [-22 mEq/100 g of dry matter (NEG) or -3 mEq/100 g of dry matter (NEU)] and 2 supplemental Ca concentrations (1.3 or 1.8% of dry matter). After calving, cows were milked within 2 to 8 h and colostrum yield was recorded. Calves were fed 200 g of IgG of a commercial colostrum replacer within 4 h of birth. No differences were observed in birth weight or dystocia score among treatments, which averaged 42.7 kg and 1.12, respectively. Colostrum yield was not different among treatments and averaged 8.75 kg. Colostrum quality, as measured using a Brix refractometer, was not affected by DCAD but was higher for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca: 21.58% and 19.87%, respectively. Colostrum IgG concentrations were higher for NEG compared with NEU and for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. No differences were observed in concentrations of serum IgG, Ca, P, K, Cl, anion gap, or whole-blood pH, partial pressure of O2, or SO2 of calves among treatments. Serum Mg and lactate concentrations were higher and CO2 tended to be lower for calves born to cows fed 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. Interactions of DCAD and Ca were observed for serum Na and Cl, which were higher for NEU-1.3% Ca and NEG-1.8% Ca compared with NEU-1.8% Ca and NEG-1.3% Ca. Whole-blood partial pressure of CO2, and HCO3 exhibited an interaction of DCAD and Ca and tended to be lower for NEU-1.3% Ca and NEG-1.8% Ca compared with NEU-1.8% Ca and NEG-1.3% Ca. Results of this trial indicate that feeding prepartum diets with 1.8% compared with 1.3% supplemental Ca reduced colostrum quality and serum concentrations of Mg and lactate in calves immediately after birth. Feeding NEG supported higher colostrum IgG concentrations. Blood mineral concentrations and blood gas balance tended to differ, but the effects were not consistent across DCAD and Ca.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre/veterinaria , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Calcio/sangre , Bovinos/metabolismo , Calostro/química , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Aniones , Cationes , Dieta , Femenino , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Minerales , Embarazo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(6): 4604-4622, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434740

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of decreasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + S2-)] of the prepartum diet on aspects of mineral metabolism, energy metabolism, and performance of peripartum dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 89) were enrolled between 38 and 31 d before expected parturition and randomized to treatments in a completely randomized design (restricted to balance for previous 305-d mature equivalent milk production, parity, and body condition score) at 24 d before expected parturition. Treatments consisted of a low-K ration without anion supplementation [CON; n = 30, DCAD = +18.3 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM)]; partial anion supplementation to a low-K ration (MED; n = 30, DCAD = +5.9 mEq/100 g of DM); and anion supplementation to a low-K ration to reach a targeted average urine pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (LOW; n = 29, DCAD = -7.4 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows were fed a common postpartum diet and data collected through 63 d in milk. Urine pH (CON = 8.22, MED = 7.89, and LOW = 5.96) was affected quadratically by decreasing prepartum DCAD. A linear relationship between urine pH and urine Ca:creatinine ratio was observed (r = -0.81). Plasma Ca concentrations in the postpartum period (d 0 to 14; CON = 2.16, MED = 2.19, and LOW = 2.27 mmol/L) were increased linearly with decreasing prepartum DCAD. A treatment by parity (second vs. third and greater) interaction for postpartum plasma Ca concentration suggested that older cows had the greatest response to the low DCAD diet and older cows fed LOW had decreased prevalence of hypocalcemia after calving. A quadratic effect of decreasing DCAD on prepartum DMI was observed (CON = 13.6, MED = 14.0, and LOW = 13.2 kg/d). Milk production in the first 3 wk postpartum was increased linearly with decreasing DCAD (CON = 40.8, MED = 42.4, and LOW = 43.9 kg/d) and DMI in this period also tended to linearly increase (CON = 20.2, MED = 20.9, and LOW = 21.3 kg/d). Overall, effects on intake and milk yield analyzed over wk 1 to 9 postpartum were not significant. This study demonstrates that feeding lower DCAD diets prepartum improves plasma Ca status in the immediate postpartum period and results in increased DMI and milk production in the 3 wk after parturition. Compared with no anion supplementation or lower levels of anion supplementation, greater improvements were observed with the lower DCAD feeding strategy, in which an average urine pH of 5.5 to 6.0 was targeted.


Asunto(s)
Aniones/administración & dosificación , Cationes/administración & dosificación , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Minerales/metabolismo , Periodo Periparto/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos , Cloruros/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Lactancia , Leche , Paridad , Potasio/administración & dosificación , Embarazo , Sodio/administración & dosificación , Azufre/administración & dosificación
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(11): 7133-43, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25173465

RESUMEN

Forty-five multiparous Holstein cows and 15 springing Holstein heifers were used in a randomized block design trial to determine the effect of length of feeding a negative dietary anion-cation difference (DCAD) diet prepartum on serum and urine metabolites, dry matter (DM) intake, and milk yield and composition. After training to eat through Calan doors (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH), cows within parity were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments and fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 (3 W), 4 (4 W), or 6 wk (6 W) before predicted calving. Actual days cows were fed negative-DCAD diets was 19.2 ± 4.1, 27.9 ± 3.1, and 41.5 ± 4.1d for 3 W, 4 W, and 6 W, respectively. Before the trial, all cows were fed a high-forage, low-energy diet. During the trial, cows were fed a diet formulated for late gestation (14.6% CP, 42.3% NDF, 20.5% starch, 7.1% ash, and 0.97% Ca) supplemented with Animate (Prince Agri Products Inc., Quincy, IL), with a resulting DCAD (Na + K - Cl - S) of -21.02 mEq/100g of DM. After calving, cows were fed a diet formulated for early lactation (18.0% CP, 36.4% NDF, 24.2% starch, 8.1% ash, and 0.94% Ca) for the following 6 wk with a DCAD of 20.55 mEq/100g of DM. Urine pH was not different among treatments before calving and averaged 6.36. No differences were observed in prepartum DM intake, which averaged 11.4, 11.5, and 11.7 kg/d for 3 W, 4 W, and 6 W, respectively. Prepartum serum total protein, albumin, and Ca concentrations, and anion gap were within normal limits but decreased linearly with increasing time cows were fed a negative-DCAD diet. No differences were observed in serum metabolite concentrations on the day of calving. Postpartum, serum total protein and globulin concentrations increased linearly with increasing length of time the negative-DCAD diet was fed. No differences were observed in postpartum DM intake, milk yield, or concentration of fat or protein among treatments: 19.1 kg/d, 40.6 kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.80%; 19.6 kg/d, 41.5 kg/d, 4.50%, and 2.90%; and 18.6 kg/d, 41.0 kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.73% for 3 W, 4 W, and 6 W, respectively. Results of this trial indicate that no differences existed in health or milk production or components in cows fed a negative-DCAD diet for up to 6 wk prepartum compared with those fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 or 4 wk prepartum.


Asunto(s)
Cationes , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Minerales/metabolismo , Periodo Periparto , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Aniones/metabolismo , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/veterinaria , Cationes/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Lactancia , Leche/metabolismo , Minerales/administración & dosificación , Paridad , Periodo Posparto/metabolismo , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Tiempo , Orina/química
12.
Radiother Oncol ; 20 Suppl 1: 13-9, 1991.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2020762

RESUMEN

The potential importance of hypoxic cells in cancer treatment response has been debated since their presence in human tumors was inferred by the classical studies of Thomlinson and Gray. Tumor cells which contain low concentrations of molecular oxygen display resistance to high energy photon irradiation and some chemotherapy regimens, in both in vitro and animal tumor studies. No diagnostic procedure is currently available for measuring the oxygenation status of human tumors at the time of diagnosis or throughout treatment. Recent studies with oxygen electrodes and sensitizer-adducts indicate a wide heterogeneity of oxygen levels within solid human tumors, even for tumors of similar histology and size. These studies suggest that to determine the relative importance of tumor hypoxia in treatment resistance, a "predictive assay" for monitoring tumor oxygenation status in individual patients will be required. Recently, several sophisticated techniques for measuring tumor oxygen levels and tumor metabolism have indicated both intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity of tumor oxygen levels and other metabolites. While providing useful information about human tumor biology, most of the invasive procedures are not appropriate as a standard diagnostic tool. Non-invasive measurements of 1) sensitizer-adducts by nuclear medicine procedures and 2) tumor energetics by 31P NMR spectroscopy might be developed as routine predictors of tumor oxygenation and possible treatment outcome.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia de la Célula/fisiología , Neoplasias/patología , Electrodos Implantados , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Fósforo
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