Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 975, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316794

RESUMEN

While cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major co-morbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the mechanism(s) that contribute to CVD in patients with RA remain to be fully elucidated. Herein, we observe that plasma concentrations of 13-series resolvin (RvT)4 negatively correlate with vascular lipid load in mouse inflammatory arthritis. Administration of RvT4 to male arthritic mice fed an atherogenic diet significantly reduces atherosclerosis. Assessment of the mechanisms elicited by this mediator demonstrates that RvT4 activates cholesterol efflux in lipid laden macrophages via a Scavenger Receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI)-Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase-dependent pathway. This leads to the reprogramming of lipid laden macrophages yielding tissue protection. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of macrophage SR-BI reverses the vasculo-protective activities of RvT4 in vitro and in male mice in vivo. Together these findings elucidate a RvT4-SR-BI centered mechanism that orchestrates macrophage responses to limit atherosclerosis during inflammatory arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis , Aterosclerosis , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Animales , Colesterol/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Aterosclerosis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Artritis/metabolismo
2.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 103974, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive degenerative disorder that leads to joint destruction. Available treatments only target the inflammatory component with minimal impact on joint repair. We recently uncovered a previously unappreciated family of pro-resolving mediators, the maresin conjugate in tissue regeneration (MCTR), that display both immunoregulatory and tissue-protective activities. Thus, we queried whether the production of these autacoids is disrupted in RA patients and whether they can be useful in treating joint inflammation and promoting joint repair. METHODS: Using a highly phenotyped RA cohort we evaluated plasma MCTR concentrations and correlated these to clinical markers of disease activity. To evaluate the immunoregulatory and tissue reparative activities we employed both in vivo models of arthritis and organ culture models. FINDINGS: Herein, we observed that plasma MCTR3 concentrations were negatively correlated with joint disease activity and severity in RA patients. Evaluation of the mechanisms engaged by this mediator in arthritic mice demonstrated that MCTR3 reprograms monocytes to confer enduring joint protective properties. Single cell transcriptomic profiling and flow cytometric evaluation of macrophages from mice treated with MCTR3-reprogrammed monocytes revealed a role for Arginase-1 (Arg-1) in mediating their joint reparative and pro-resolving activities. Arg-1 inhibition reversed both the anti-arthritic and tissue reparative actions of MCTR3-reprogrammed monocytes. INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate that circulating MCTR3 levels are negatively correlated with disease in RA. When administered to mice in vivo, MCTR3 displayed both anti-inflammatory and joint reparative activities, protecting both cartilage and bone in murine arthritis. These activities were, at least in part, mediated via the reprogramming of mononuclear phagocyte responses. FUNDING: This work was supported by funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant no: 677542) and the Barts Charity (grant no: MGU0343) to J.D. J.D. is also supported by a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (grant 107613/Z/15/Z).


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental , Artritis Reumatoide , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Arginasa/genética , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Macrófagos , Ratones , Monocitos
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(3)2022 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327544

RESUMEN

A precision medicine approach is widely acknowledged to yield more effective therapeutic strategies in the treatment of patients with chronic inflammatory conditions than the prescriptive paradigm currently utilized in the management and treatment of these patients. This is because such an approach will take into consideration relevant factors including the likelihood that a patient will respond to given therapeutics based on their disease phenotype. Unfortunately, the application of this precision medicine paradigm in the daily treatment of patients has been greatly hampered by the lack of robust biomarkers, in particular biomarkers for determining early treatment responsiveness. Lipid mediators are central in the regulation of host immune responses during both the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Amongst lipid mediators, the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) govern immune cells to promote the resolution of inflammation. These autacoids are produced via the stereoselective conversion of essential fatty acids to yield molecules that are dynamically regulated during inflammation and exert potent immunoregulatory activities. Furthermore, there is an increasing appreciation for the role that these mediators play in conveying the biological actions of several anti-inflammatory therapeutics, including statins and aspirin. Identification and quantitation of these mediators has traditionally been achieved using hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques, primarily liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Recent advances in the field of chromatography and mass spectrometry have increased both the robustness and the sensitivity of this approach and its potential deployment for routine clinical diagnostics. In the present review, we explore the evidence supporting a role for specific SPM as potential biomarkers for patient stratification in distinct disease settings together with methodologies employed in the identification and quantitation of these autacoids.


Asunto(s)
Eicosanoides , Inflamación , Biomarcadores , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Humanos , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Factor de Activación Plaquetaria , Pronóstico
5.
FASEB J ; 35(6): e21592, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960028

RESUMEN

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction in aging and obesity has been related to chronic unresolved inflammation, which could be mediated by an impaired production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as Lipoxins-LXs, Resolvins-Rvs, Protectins-PDs, and Maresins-MaRs. Our aim was to characterize the changes in BAT SPMs signatures and their association with BAT dysfunction during aging, especially under obesogenic conditions, and their modulation by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diet. Lipidomic, functional, and molecular studies were performed in BAT of 2- and 18-month-old lean (CT) female mice and in 18-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), or a DHA-enriched HFD. Aging downregulated Prdm16 and UCP1 levels, especially in DIO mice, while DHA partially restored them. Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived LXs and DHA-derived MaRs and PDs were the most abundant SPMs in BAT of young CT mice. Interestingly, the sum of LXs and of PDs were significantly lower in aged DIO mice compared to young CT mice. Some of the SPMs most significantly reduced in obese-aged mice included LXB4 , MaR2, 4S,14S-diHDHA, 10S,17S-diHDHA (a.k.a. PDX), and RvD6. In contrast, DHA increased DHA-derived SPMs, without modifying LXs. However, MicroPET studies showed that DHA was not able to counteract the impaired cold exposure response in BAT of obese-aged mice. Our data suggest that a defective SPMs production could underlie the decrease of BAT activity observed in obese-aged mice, and highlight the relevance to further characterize the physiological role and therapeutic potential of specific SPMs on BAT development and function.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Envejecimiento/patología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/administración & dosificación , Lípidos/análisis , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/patología , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Femenino , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Lipidómica , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649786, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859641

RESUMEN

Neuromodulation of the immune system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of near-organ autonomic nerves to the spleen can be harnessed to modulate the inflammatory response in an anesthetized pig model. The development of neuromodulation therapy for the clinic requires chronic efficacy and safety testing in a large animal model. This manuscript describes the effects of longitudinal conscious splenic nerve neuromodulation in chronically-implanted pigs. Firstly, clinically-relevant stimulation parameters were refined to efficiently activate the splenic nerve while reducing changes in cardiovascular parameters. Subsequently, pigs were implanted with a circumferential cuff electrode around the splenic neurovascular bundle connected to an implantable pulse generator, using a minimally-invasive laparoscopic procedure. Tolerability of stimulation was demonstrated in freely-behaving pigs using the refined stimulation parameters. Longitudinal stimulation significantly reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha levels induced by systemic endotoxemia. This effect was accompanied by reduced peripheral monocytopenia as well as a lower systemic accumulation of CD16+CD14high pro-inflammatory monocytes. Further, lipid mediator profiling analysis demonstrated an increased concentration of specialized pro-resolving mediators in peripheral plasma of stimulated animals, with a concomitant reduction of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids including prostaglandins. Terminal electrophysiological and physiological measurements and histopathological assessment demonstrated integrity of the splenic nerves up to 70 days post implantation. These chronic translational experiments demonstrate that daily splenic nerve neuromodulation, via implanted electronics and clinically-relevant stimulation parameters, is well tolerated and is able to prime the immune system toward a less inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica/métodos , Endotoxemia/terapia , Neuroinmunomodulación/fisiología , Nervios Esplácnicos/fisiología , Bazo/inervación , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica/instrumentación , Electrodos Implantados , Endotoxemia/inmunología , Femenino , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/terapia , Bazo/inmunología , Sus scrofa
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242543, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326419

RESUMEN

Clinical studies using a range of omega-3 supplements have yielded conflicting results on their efficacy to control inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids are substrate for the formation of potent immune-protective mediators, termed as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Herein, we investigated whether observed differences in the potencies of distinct omega-3 supplements were linked with their ability to upregulate SPM formation. Using lipid mediator profiling we found that four commercially available supplements conferred a unique SPM signature profile to human macrophages, with the overall increases in SPM concentrations being different between the four supplements. These increases in SPM concentrations were linked with an upregulation of macrophage phagocytosis and a decreased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Pharmacological inhibition of two key SPM biosynthetic enzymes 5-Lipoxygenase or 15-Lipoxygenase reversed the macrophage-directed actions of each of the omega-3 supplements. Furthermore, administration of the two supplements that most potently upregulated macrophage SPM formation and reprogrammed their responses in vitro, to APOE-/- mice fed a western diet, increased plasma SPM concentrations and reduced vascular inflammation. Together these findings support the utility of SPM as potential prognostic markers in determining the utility of a given supplement to regulate macrophage responses and inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Leucotrienos/biosíntesis , Lipoxinas/biosíntesis , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Prostaglandinas/biosíntesis , Animales , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiencia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/inmunología , Araquidonato 15-Lipooxigenasa/genética , Araquidonato 15-Lipooxigenasa/inmunología , Araquidonato 5-Lipooxigenasa/genética , Araquidonato 5-Lipooxigenasa/inmunología , Aterosclerosis/etiología , Aterosclerosis/inmunología , Aterosclerosis/metabolismo , Dieta Occidental/efectos adversos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Leucotrienos/inmunología , Lipoproteínas LDL/antagonistas & inhibidores , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacología , Lipoxinas/inmunología , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/farmacología , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados para ApoE , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Cultivo Primario de Células , Análisis de Componente Principal , Prostaglandinas/inmunología
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e016113, 2020 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696697

RESUMEN

Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an advanced form of atherosclerosis characterized by chronic inflammation. Resolution of inflammation is a highly coordinated process driven by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators endogenously derived from omega-3 fatty acids. We investigated the impact of a short-course, oral, enriched marine oil supplement on leukocyte phenotype and biochemical mediators in patients with symptomatic PAD and healthy volunteers. Methods and Results This was a prospective, open-label study of 5-day oral administration of an enriched marine oil supplement, assessing 3 escalating doses in 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with PAD. Over the course of the study, there was a significant increase in the plasma level of several lipid mediator families, total specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators, and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator:prostaglandin ratio. Supplementation was associated with an increase in phagocytic activity of peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils. Circulating monocyte phenotyping demonstrated reduced expression of multiple proinflammatory markers (cluster of differentiation 18, 163, 54, and 36, and chemokine receptor 2). Similarly, transcriptional profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages displayed polarization toward a reparative phenotype postsupplementation. The most notable cellular and biochemical changes over the study occurred in patients with PAD. There were strong correlations between integrated biochemical measures of lipid mediators (specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators:prostaglandin ratio) and phenotypic changes in circulating leukocytes in both healthy individuals and patients with PAD. Conclusions These data suggest that short-term enriched marine oil supplementation dramatically remodels downstream lipid mediator pathways and induces a less inflammatory and more pro-resolution phenotype in circulating leukocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Further studies are required to determine the potential clinical relevance of these findings in patients with PAD. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02719665.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Femenino , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/sangre , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Prevención Secundaria
9.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(6): e1900873, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945799

RESUMEN

SCOPE: Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs may ameliorate inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Plant-derived n-3 PUFAs are thought to be inferior owing to shorter chain lengths. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of plant- and fish-derived PUFAs on murine colitis. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice are fed high fat (36% kcal) diets with either 2.5% w/w sunflower oil (SO), flaxseed oil (FSO), ahiflower oil (AO), or fish oil (FO). After 4 weeks, mice are orogastrically challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (108 CFU) or sham gavaged. Fecal shedding is assayed at 2, 7, 10, and 14 days post infection (PI), and fecal microbiota at 14 days PI. Colonic inflammation and lipid mediators are measured. Supplementation regulates intestinal inflammation with crypt lengths being 66, 73, and 62 ±17 µm shorter (compared to SO) for FSO, AO, and FO respectively, p < 0.01. FSO blunts pathogen shedding at the peak of infection and FSO and AO both enhance fecal microbial diversity. FO attenuates levels of lipoxin and leukotriene B4 while plant oils increase pro-resolving mediator concentrations including D, E, and T-series resolvins. CONCLUSION: Plant and fish n-3 PUFAs attenuate colitis-induced inflammation while exhibiting characteristic pro-resolving lipid mediator metabolomes. Plant oils additionally promote microbial diversity.


Asunto(s)
Citrobacter rodentium/patogenicidad , Colitis/dietoterapia , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Aceites de Plantas/farmacología , Animales , Derrame de Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Colitis/microbiología , Colitis/patología , Colon/efectos de los fármacos , Colon/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/dietoterapia , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Aceite de Linaza/química , Aceite de Linaza/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Aceite de Girasol/farmacología
10.
Circ Res ; 126(1): 75-90, 2020 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829100

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM-lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins) are produced via the enzymatic conversion of essential fatty acids, including the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid. These mediators exert potent leukocyte directed actions and control vascular inflammation. Supplementation of animals and humans with essential fatty acids, in particular omega-3 fatty acids, exerts protective actions reducing vascular and systemic inflammation. Of note, the mechanism(s) activated by these supplements in exerting their protective actions remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Given that essential fatty acids are precursors in the biosynthesises of SPM, the aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between supplementation and peripheral SPM concentrations. We also investigated the relationship between changes in plasma SPM concentrations and peripheral blood platelet and leukocyte responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy volunteers were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, and peripheral blood was collected at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post administration of placebo or one of 3 doses of an enriched marine oil supplement. Assessment of plasma SPM concentrations using lipid mediator profiling demonstrated a time- and dose-dependent increase in peripheral blood SPM concentration. Supplementation also led to a regulation of peripheral blood cell responses. Here we found a dose-dependent increase in neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis of bacteria and a decrease in the diurnal activation of leukocytes and platelets, as measured by a reduction in adhesion molecule expression. In addition, transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood cells demonstrated a marked change in transcript levels of immune and metabolic genes 24 hours post supplementation when compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that supplementation with an enriched marine oil leads to an increase in peripheral blood SPM concentrations and reprograms peripheral blood cells, indicating a role for SPM in mediating the immune-directed actions of this supplement. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03347006.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Lipoxinas/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Células Sanguíneas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/sangre , Ritmo Circadiano/efectos de los fármacos , Estudios Cruzados , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Método Doble Ciego , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Ontología de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Factor de Activación Plaquetaria/farmacología , Agregación Plaquetaria/efectos de los fármacos , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto Joven
11.
JCI Insight ; 4(13)2019 07 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292292

RESUMEN

Rheumatoid arthritis is linked with altered host immune responses and severe joint destruction. Recent evidence suggests that loss of gut homeostasis and barrier breach by pathobionts, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, may influence disease severity. The mechanism(s) leading to altered gut homeostasis and barrier breakdown in inflammatory arthritis are poorly understood. In the present study, we found a significant reduction in intestinal concentrations of several proresolving mediators during inflammatory arthritis, including downregulation of the gut-protective mediator resolvin D5n-3 DPA (RvD5n-3 DPA). This was linked with increased metabolism of RvD5n-3 DPA to its inactive 17-oxo metabolite. We also found downregulation of IL-10 expression in the gut of arthritic mice that was coupled with a reduction in IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) in lamina propria macrophages. These changes were linked with a decrease in the number of mucus-producing goblet cells and tight junction molecule expression in the intestinal epithelium of arthritic mice when compared with naive mice. P. gingivalis inoculation further downregulated intestinal RvD5n-3 DPA and Il-10 levels and the expression of gut tight junction proteins. RvD5n-3 DPA, but not its metabolite 17-oxo-RvD5n-3 DPA, increased the expression of both IL-10 and IL-10R in macrophages via the upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist l-kynurenine. Administration of RvD5n-3 DPA to arthritic P. gingivalis-inoculated mice increased intestinal Il-10 expression, restored gut barrier function, and reduced joint inflammation. Together, these findings uncover mechanisms in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, where disruption of the gut RvD5n-3 DPA-IL-10 axis weakens the gut barrier, which becomes permissive to the pathogenic actions of the pathobiont P. gingivalis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Traslocación Bacteriana/inmunología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Porphyromonas gingivalis/inmunología , Animales , Artritis Experimental/inmunología , Artritis Experimental/microbiología , Artritis Reumatoide/microbiología , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/inmunología , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Abajo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Masculino , Ratones , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidad , Receptores de Interleucina-10/inmunología , Receptores de Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(10): 1350-1362, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207356

RESUMEN

Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) are used in experimental cell therapy to treat various immunological disorders, and the extracellular vesicles (hMSC-EVs) they produce have emerged as an option for cell-free therapeutics. The immunomodulatory function of hMSCs resembles the resolution of inflammation, in which proresolving lipid mediators (LMs) play key roles. Multiple mechanisms underlying the hMSC immunosuppressive effect has been elucidated; however, the impact of LMs and EVs in the resolution is poorly understood. In this study, we supplemented hMSCs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which serve as precursors for multiple LMs. We then determined the consequent compositional modifications in the fatty acid, phospholipid, and LM profiles. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the supplemented PUFAs were incorporated into the main membrane phospholipid classes with different dynamics, with phosphatidylcholine serving as the first acceptor. Most importantly, the PUFA modifications were transferred into hMSC-EVs, which are known to mediate hMSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, the membrane-incorporated PUFAs influenced the LM profile by increasing the production of downstream prostaglandin E2 and proresolving LMs, including Resolvin E2 and Resolvin D6. The production of LMs was further enhanced by a highly proinflammatory stimulus, which resulted in an increase in a number of mediators, most notably prostaglandins, while other stimulatory conditions had less a pronounced impact after a 48-h incubation. The current findings suggest that PUFA manipulations of hMSCs exert significant immunomodulatory effects via EVs and proresolving LMs, the composition of which can be modified to potentiate the therapeutic impact of hMSCs.


Asunto(s)
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfolípidos/metabolismo
13.
JCI Insight ; 3(6)2018 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563331

RESUMEN

While the treatment of inflammatory disorders is generally based on inhibiting factors that drive onset of inflammation, these therapies can compromise healing (NSAIDs) or dampen immunity against infections (biologics). In search of new antiinflammatories, efforts have focused on harnessing endogenous pathways that drive resolution of inflammation for therapeutic gain. Identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) as effector molecules of resolution has shown promise in this regard. However, their action on inflammatory resolution in humans is unknown. Here, we demonstrate using a model of UV-killed Escherichia coli-triggered skin inflammation that SPMs are biosynthesized at the local site at the start of resolution, coinciding with the expression of receptors that transduce their actions. These include receptors for lipoxin A4 (ALX/FPR2), resolvin E1 (ChemR23), resolvin D2 (GPR18), and resolvin D1 (GPR32) that were differentially expressed on the endothelium and infiltrating leukocytes. Administering SPMs into the inflamed site 4 hours after bacterial injection caused a reduction in PMN numbers over the ensuing 6 hours, the phase of active resolution in this model. These results indicate that in humans, the appearance of SPMs and their receptors is associated with the beginning of inflammatory resolution and that their therapeutic supplementation enhanced the resolution response.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Escherichia coli/inmunología , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Piel/inmunología , Piel/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Vesícula/inmunología , Vesícula/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/farmacología , Eicosanoides/inmunología , Eicosanoides/farmacología , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucocitos/inmunología , Leucocitos/metabolismo , Lipoxinas/farmacología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores de Quimiocina/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Péptido/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Receptores de Lipoxina/metabolismo , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/patología , Voluntarios , Adulto Joven
14.
FASEB J ; 31(8): 3636-3648, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465323

RESUMEN

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition characterized by overzealous inflammation that leads to joint damage and is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Statins are frontline therapeutics for patients with cardiovascular disease and exert beneficial actions in rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism that mediates the beneficial actions of statins in rheumatoid arthritis remains of interest. In the present study, we found that the administration of 2 clinically relevant statins-atorvastatin (0.2 mg/kg) or pravastatin (0.2 mg/kg)-to mice during inflammatory arthritis up-regulated systemic and tissue amounts of a novel family of proresolving mediators, termed 13-series resolvins (RvTs), and significantly reduced joint disease. Of note, administration of simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg) did not significantly up-regulate RvTs or reduce joint inflammation. We also found that atorvastatin and pravastatin each reduced systemic leukocyte activation, including platelet-monocyte aggregates (∼25-60%). These statins decreased neutrophil trafficking to the joint as well as joint monocyte and macrophage numbers. Atorvastatin and pravastatin produced significant reductions (∼30-50%) in expression of CD11b and major histocompatibility complex class II on both monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in joints. Administration of an inhibitor to cyclooxygenase-2, the initiating enzyme in the RvT pathway, reversed the protective actions of these statins on both joint and systemic inflammation. Together, these findings provide evidence for the role of RvTs in mediating the protective actions of atorvastatin and pravastatin in reducing local and vascular inflammation, and suggest that RvTs may be useful in measuring the anti-inflammatory actions of statins.-Walker, M. E., Souza, P. R., Colas, R. A., Dalli, J. 13-Series resolvins mediate the leukocyte-platelet actions of atorvastatin and pravastatin in inflammatory arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapéutico , Artritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapéutico , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Pravastatina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Artritis/inducido químicamente , Artritis/metabolismo , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Inflamación/metabolismo , Leucocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(15): 3963-3968, 2017 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356517

RESUMEN

The resolution of inflammation is an active process orchestrated by specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM) that limit the host response within the affected tissue; failure of effective resolution may lead to tissue injury. Because persistence of inflammatory signals is a main feature of chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), herein we investigate expression and functions of SPM in intestinal inflammation. Targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics was used to identify SPMs from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human IBD colon biopsies, quantifying a significant up-regulation of the resolvin and protectin pathway compared with normal gut tissue. Systemic treatment with protectin (PD)1n-3 DPA or resolvin (Rv)D5n-3 DPA protected against colitis and intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation in mice. Inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase activity reduced PD1n-3 DPA and augmented intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis. Intravital microscopy of mouse mesenteric venules demonstrated that PD1n-3 DPA and RvD5n-3 DPA decreased the extent of leukocyte adhesion and emigration following ischemia-reperfusion. These data were translated by assessing human neutrophil-endothelial interactions under flow: PD1n-3 DPA and RvD5n-3 DPA reduced cell adhesion onto TNF-α-activated human endothelial monolayers. In conclusion, we propose that innovative therapies based on n-3 DPA-derived mediators could be developed to enable antiinflammatory and tissue protective effects in inflammatory pathologies of the gut.


Asunto(s)
Colitis/prevención & control , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/farmacología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/metabolismo , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Colitis/inducido químicamente , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Mesenterio/irrigación sanguínea , Mesenterio/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Persona de Mediana Edad , Peritonitis/inducido químicamente , Peritonitis/prevención & control , Daño por Reperfusión/prevención & control
16.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 13(2): 87-99, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053331

RESUMEN

The past two decades have witnessed major advancements in the clinical management of inflammatory arthritis, with new treatment strategies in some cases providing a marked improvement in patient outcomes. However, it is widely accepted that current strategies do not provide the 'total therapeutic solution', in view of the proportion of patients who do not respond to therapy, the important incidence of adverse effects and the development of an immune response against antibodies or fusion proteins used therapeutically. Moreover, although some therapeutic approaches can effectively bring about an end to inflammation, mechanisms to promote the recovery and/or repair of damage are required. Harnessing the concepts and mechanisms of the resolution of inflammation is a new approach to the treatment of inflammatory pathologies; this approach could help address the unmet need for new therapeutic approaches that not only control but also revert the course of inflammatory rheumatic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Artritis/inmunología , Inflamación/inmunología , Artritis/metabolismo , Artritis/fisiopatología , Artritis/terapia , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Inflamación/metabolismo , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Inflamación/terapia
17.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 20(2): 145-152, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002074

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). RECENT FINDINGS: The SPM genus is composed of four mediator families - the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. These molecules potently and stereoselectively promote the termination of inflammation, tissue repair, and regeneration. Recent studies indicate that in disease, SPM production becomes dysregulated giving rise to a status of failed resolution. Of note, several studies found that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, at doses within the recommended daily allowance, led to increases in several SPM families that correlate with enhanced white blood cell responses in humans and reduced inflammation in mice. SUMMARY: Given the potent biological actions of SPM in organ protection and promoting bacterial clearance, nutritional therapies enriched in omega-3 fatty acids hold promise as a potential co-therapy approach when coupled with functional lipid mediator profiling.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/uso terapéutico , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Inflamación/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Animales , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Inflamación/metabolismo , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Lipoxinas/uso terapéutico , Ratones
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(43): 12232-12237, 2016 10 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791009

RESUMEN

Macrophages are central in coordinating immune responses, tissue repair, and regeneration, with different subtypes being associated with inflammation-initiating and proresolving actions. We recently identified a family of macrophage-derived proresolving and tissue regenerative molecules coined maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR). Herein, using lipid mediator profiling we identified MCTR in human serum, lymph nodes, and plasma and investigated MCTR biosynthetic pathways in human macrophages. With human recombinant enzymes, primary cells, and enantiomerically pure compounds we found that the synthetic maresin epoxide intermediate 13S,14S-eMaR (13S,14S-epoxy- 4Z,7Z,9E,11E,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) was converted to MCTR1 (13R-glutathionyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) by LTC4S and GSTM4. Incubation of human macrophages with LTC4S inhibitors blocked LTC4 and increased resolvins and lipoxins. The conversion of MCTR1 to MCTR2 (13R-cysteinylglycinyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) was catalyzed by γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in human macrophages. Biosynthesis of MCTR3 was mediated by dipeptidases that cleaved the cysteinyl-glycinyl bond of MCTR2 to give 13R-cysteinyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid. Of note, both GSTM4 and GGT enzymes displayed higher affinity to 13S,14S-eMaR and MCTR1 compared with their classic substrates in the cysteinyl leukotriene metabolome. Together these results establish the MCTR biosynthetic pathway and provide mechanisms in tissue repair and regeneration.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Lípidos/genética , Regeneración/genética , Vías Biosintéticas/genética , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/genética , Compuestos Epoxi/química , Compuestos Epoxi/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamación/genética , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Lípidos/sangre , Ganglios Linfáticos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ganglios Linfáticos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Estructura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Cicatrización de Heridas/genética
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(353): 353ra111, 2016 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559094

RESUMEN

Resolution of inflammation is a finely regulated process mediated by specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived resolvins and maresins. The immunomodulatory role of SPMs in adaptive immune cells is of interest. We report that D-series resolvins (resolvin D1 and resolvin D2) and maresin 1 modulate adaptive immune responses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. These lipid mediators reduce cytokine production by activated CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells but do not modulate T cell inhibitory receptors or abrogate their capacity to proliferate. Moreover, these SPMs prevented naïve CD4(+) T cell differentiation into TH1 and TH17 by down-regulating their signature transcription factors, T-bet and Rorc, in a mechanism mediated by the GPR32 and ALX/FPR2 receptors; they concomitantly enhanced de novo generation and function of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells via the GPR32 receptor. These results were also supported in vivo in a mouse deficient for DHA synthesis (Elovl2(-/-)) that showed an increase in TH1/TH17 cells and a decrease in Treg cells compared to wild-type mice. Additionally, either DHA supplementation in Elovl2(-/-) mice or in vivo administration of resolvin D1 significantly reduced cytokine production upon specific stimulation of T cells. These findings demonstrate actions of specific SPMs on adaptive immunity and provide a new avenue for SPM-based approaches to modulate chronic inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Acetiltransferasas/deficiencia , Acetiltransferasas/genética , Inmunidad Adaptativa , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Elongasas de Ácidos Grasos , Humanos , Inflamación/terapia , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Activación de Linfocitos , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Receptores de Formil Péptido/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoxina/metabolismo , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/citología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/inmunología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Linfocitos T/citología
20.
J Immunol ; 197(6): 2362-8, 2016 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534559

RESUMEN

Uncontrolled inflammation is a unifying component of many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. Resolvins (Rvs) are a new family from the endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that actively stimulate resolution of inflammation. In this study, using lipid mediator metabololipidomics with murine joints we found a temporal regulation of endogenous SPMs during self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. The SPMs present in self-resolving arthritic joints include the D-series Rvs, for example, RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, and RvD4. Of note, RvD3 levels were reduced in inflamed joints from mice with delayed-resolving arthritis when compared with self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. RvD3 was also reduced in serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with healthy controls. RvD3 administration reduced joint leukocytes as well as paw joint eicosanoids, clinical scores, and edema. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for dysregulated endogenous RvD3 levels in inflamed paw joints and its potent actions in reducing murine arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis/inmunología , Artritis/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Animales , Artritis/fisiopatología , Edema/prevención & control , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/sangre , Humanos , Articulaciones/inmunología , Articulaciones/metabolismo , Articulaciones/fisiopatología , Metabolómica , Ratones
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA