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1.
Kidney Int ; 56(5): 1886-92, 1999 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10571798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We previously reported on increased bone strontium levels in dialysis patients with osteomalacia versus those presenting other types of renal osteodystrophy. A causal role of strontium in the development of osteomalacia was established in a chronic renal failure rat model. METHODS: To further elucidate the latter issue and to find out whether dialysis patients from particular centers/countries are at an increased risk for strontium accumulation, a worldwide multicenter study was established. In total, 834 patients from 34 dialysis centers in 23 countries were included. In each of the patients, a serum sample was taken for strontium determination, and water and dialysate samples were taken at the various steps of the water purification process. For each patient clinical data and for each center dialysis modalities were recorded. RESULTS: Strontium levels in serum of dialysis patients showed major differences between the various centers, ranging from mean values of 25 +/- 8 microgram/liter in the center with the lowest level up to 466 +/- 90 microgram/liter in the center with the highest concentration. It is of interest that these high levels were mainly found in developing countries. Furthermore, our data point toward a role of the final dialysate in the accumulation of the element, as indicated by the strong correlation (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) between mean serum and dialysate strontium levels. As the high tap water concentration of strontium was adequately reduced during the water purification process, contamination of the final dialysis fluid occurred by the addition of concentrates contaminated with strontium. Besides the dialysate, other factors, such as duration of dialysis, vitamin D supplements, or types of phosphate binders, played a less important role in the accumulation of the element. CONCLUSIONS: Data of this multicenter study indicate patients of particular dialysis centers to be at an increased risk for strontium accumulation, the clinical consequence of which is under current investigation.


Asunto(s)
Diálisis Renal , Estroncio/sangre , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 11(6): 1048-51, 1996 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8671967

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of analgesic nephropathy (AN) among renal replacement therapy patients in former Czechoslovakia is not known. Previous surveys were not based on representative samples and lacked uniform criteria for diagnosing the disease. METHODS: Incidence of AN in former Czechoslovakia was investigated in patients commencing renal replacement therapy in 24 (1/3 of all) dialysis centres from 1 January to 31 December 1992. Patients showing an unclear renal diagnosis (n = 149) were investigated with an interview and renal imaging techniques. The diagnosis of AN was withheld or rejected on the base of recently published diagnostic criteria demonstrating that a decreased renal mass of both kidneys combined with bumpy contours and/or papillary calcifications had a high performance for diagnosing AN (Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992; 7: 479-486). RESULTS: Based on the renal imaging criteria, AN was diagnosed in 30 of 328 registered patients, resulting in an AN incidence of 9.1% while the EDTA data only mentioned an incidence of 4.8% (period 1986-1989). The products most commonly abused were analgesic mixtures containing two analgesic substances combined with caffeine and/or codeine. CONCLUSIONS: AN was found to be a common disease in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The disease was diagnosed using reliable renal imaging criteria.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Renales/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Renales/terapia , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , República Checa , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Eslovaquia
3.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 15 Suppl 1: S10-9, 1996 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8882556

RESUMEN

Within the framework of an European Commission-funded project, groups of industrial workers exposed to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury and lead) or solvents were studied together with corresponding control groups. Eighty-one measurements were carried out on urine and serum samples and the scientific results together with individual questionnaire information were entered into a central database. Data obtained was assessed centrally and individually in subsidiary studies. The measurable contributions were assessed either singly or in combination, of smoking, gender, metal exposure and site, to nephrotoxicity. The potential value of each test as an indicator of nephrotoxicity was then assessed on the basis of sensitivity and specificity. A number of new tests including prostaglandins and for extracellular matrix components were investigated as well as established tests for renal damage and dysfunction. The data obtained from this comprehensive study emphasises the value of noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of nephrotoxicity due to environmental toxins. The urinary profile varied with the type of environmental/occupational toxin. By careful selection of a small panel of markers they can be used to indicate the presence of renal damage, the principal region affected, and to monitor the progress of disease and damage. Biomarkers were also used to confirm and tentatively establish safe exposure levels to nephrotoxins.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Biomarcadores , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/normas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/tendencias , Humanos
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