Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
Más filtros

Medicinas Complementárias
Métodos Terapéuticos y Terapias MTCI
Bases de datos
Tipo del documento
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
J Anim Sci ; 96(5): 1996-2011, 2018 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733420

RESUMEN

Three experiments evaluated the effects of corn oil removal using centrifugation in ethanol plants, on animal performance and digestion characteristics by finishing cattle fed by-products. In Exp. 1, 225 crossbred steers (300 ± 9.1 kg) were utilized in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors consisted of oil concentration [de-oiled (DO) or full fat (FF)] and by-product type [condensed distillers solubles (CDS) or modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS)] compared to a corn-based control. Fat concentration was 6.0% for DO CDS, 21.1% for FF CDS, 9.2% for DO MDGS, and 11.8% for FF MDGS. No oil concentration by by-product type interactions (P ≥ 0.17) were observed. There were no differences in DMI, ADG, or G:F between DO and FF CDS (P ≥ 0.29) or DO and FF MDGS (P ≥ 0.58). No differences (P ≥ 0.25) due to oil concentration were observed for carcass characteristics. Experiment 2 was a 5 × 5 Latin Square digestion trial with treatments similar to Exp. 1. Fat concentration was 8.7% or 15.4% for DO or FF CDS and 9.2% or 12.3% for DO or FF MDGS. Intake and total tract digestibility of fat were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for FF CDS compared with DO CDS. Digestible energy (megacalorie per kilogram), adjusted for intake, was greater (P = 0.02) for steers fed FF CDS compared to DO CDS. Average ruminal pH for cattle fed FF MDGS was greater than DO MDGS (P = 0.06). In Exp. 3, 336 yearling, crossbred steers (352 ± 19 kg) were utilized in a randomized block design with a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included oil concentration (DO or FF) and inclusion [35%, 50%, and 65% wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS)] along with a corn-based control. The fat concentrations of DO and FF WDGS were 7.9% and 12.4%, respectively. A linear interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for DMI, which produced different slopes for DO and FF WDGS. No linear or quadratic interactions were observed for BW, ADG, or G:F (P ≥ 0.31). For the main effect of oil concentration, there were no statistical differences (P > 0.19) for final BW, ADG, or G:F. No statistical differences were observed for all carcass traits (P ≥ 0.34). Corn oil removal via centrifugation had minimal impact on finishing performance suggesting that cattle fed DO by-products will have similar performance to cattle fed FF by-products in dry-rolled and high-moisture corn diets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aceite de Maíz , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Grano Comestible , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Zea mays
2.
J Anim Sci ; 95(7): 3184-3191, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727085

RESUMEN

Data from 16 trials were compiled to calculate microbial CP (MCP) production and MP requirements of growing cattle on high-forage diets. All cattle were individually fed diets with 28% to 72% corn cobs in addition to either alfalfa, corn silage, or sorghum silage at 18% to 60% of the diet (DM basis). The remainder of the diet consisted of protein supplement. Source of protein within the supplement varied and included urea, blood meal, corn gluten meal, dry distillers grains, feather meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and wet distillers grains. All trials included a urea-only treatment. Intake of all cattle within an experiment was held constant, as a percentage of BW, established by the urea-supplemented group. In each trial the base diet (forage and urea supplement) was MP deficient. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of test protein replacing the urea supplement. As protein in the diet increased, ADG plateaued. Among experiments, ADG ranged from 0.11 to 0.73 kg. Three methods of calculating microbial efficiency were used to determine MP supply. Gain was then regressed against calculated MP supply to determine MP requirement for maintenance and gain. Method 1 (based on a constant 13% microbial efficiency as used by the beef NRC model) predicted an MP maintenance requirement of 3.8 g/kg BW and 385 g MP/kg gain. Method 2 calculated microbial efficiency using low-quality forage diets and predicted MP requirements of 3.2 g/kg BW for maintenance and 448 g/kg for gain. Method 3 (based on an equation predicting MCP yield from TDN intake, proposed by the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model [BCNRM]) predicted MP requirements of 3.1 g/kg BW for maintenance and 342 g/kg for gain. The factorial method of calculating MP maintenance requirements accounts for scurf, endogenous urinary, and metabolic fecal protein losses and averaged 4.2 g/kg BW. Cattle performance data demonstrate formulating diets to meet the beef NRC model recommended MP maintenance requirement (3.8 g/kg S) works well when using 13% microbial efficiency. Therefore, a change in how microbial efficiency is calculated necessitates a change in the proposed MP maintenance requirement to not oversupply or undersupply RUP. Using the 2016 BCNRM to predict MCP production and formulate diets to meet MP requirements also requires changing the MP maintenance requirement to 3.1 g/kg BW.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Rumen/microbiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Conducta Alimentaria , Necesidades Nutricionales , Rumen/metabolismo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 95(12): 5327-5338, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293749

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology, and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) to determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge following 20 d of ZH supplementation altered the blood chemistry profile in cattle. Crossbred heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), without ZH, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL; ZH at 8.33 mg/kg [DM basis] for 20 d). On d 20 of supplementation, heifers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters. On d 24, starting at 0800 h and continuing until 1600 h, blood samples were collected at 60-min intervals. At 1000 h, heifers received an i.v. bolus of CRH (0.3 µg/kg BW) and VP (1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Serum was separated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for a large-animal chemistry panel. Following the CRH/VP challenge, heifers were harvested on d 25, 26, and 27 (5, 6, and 7 d after ZH supplementation); BW, HCW, select organ weights, and histology were measured, and a total heart necropsy was performed. A treatment effect ( ≤ 0.02) was observed for Ca, K, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Zilpaterol-fed heifers had decreased ( ≤ 0.02) concentrations of Ca and K and increased concentrations ( 0.01) of creatinine ( = 0.02) during the CRH/VP challenge when compared to control heifers. Control heifers had greater ( ≤ 0.05) alkaline phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase concentrations when compared with ZIL heifers. A treatment × time interaction ( = 0.02) was observed for P; concentrations were similar between treatments from -2 to 6 h postchallenge, and 7 h postchallenge CON heifers had decreased P. Liver ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.08) weights as a percentage of BW tended ( ≤ 0.08) to be reduced in ZIL heifers. Gross liver weights tended ( = 0.08) to be lower in ZIL heifers. Other organ (heart, lung, adrenals) to BW ratios remained similar ( ≥ 0.41). These data suggest that there are some variations observed between treatments in terms of response to ZH supplementation and the CRH/VP challenge; however, in the environmental conditions of this study, limited variation in blood metabolic responses and organ weights suggests that the supplementation of ZH did not detrimentally alter the physiology of cattle.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/metabolismo , Vasopresinas/farmacología , Animales , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/veterinaria , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Distribución Aleatoria
4.
J Anim Sci ; 94(9): 3933-3946, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898887

RESUMEN

Two studies evaluated effects of replacing corn with a pellet containing alkaline treated corn stover, dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS), and distillers' solubles on total tract digestion and performance of finishing cattle. Experiment 1 used 4 ruminally fistulated steers in a 4 × 6 Latin rectangle to evaluate total tract digestion. Treatments consisted of a control (CON) containing 50.3% dry-rolled corn (DRC), 40% modified distillers' grains plus solubles (MDGS), and 5% untreated corn stover. The next 2 treatments replaced 25% DRC (DM basis) with either a CaO-treated stover pellet (STOVPEL) or a pellet consisting of 64% CaO-treated corn stover, 18% DDGS, and 18% corn distillers' solubles (COMBPEL). The last treatment replaced 25% DRC with a mixture of feeds: 10% treated stover pellet, 10% DDGS, and 5% distillers' solubles (COMB). Experiment 2 used 336 crossbred steer calves (301 ± 25 kg initial BW) in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial to evaluate effects of replacing corn with a pellet containing 64% CaO-treated corn stover, 18% DDGS, and 18% corn distillers' solubles on finishing performance. Factors included level of MDGS (20 or 40%) and pellet inclusion (10, 20, or 30%). The CON diet contained a 50:50 blend of DRC and high-moisture corn and 40% MDGS. All diets contained 5% wheat straw and 4% dry meal supplement. In Exp. 1, no differences ( ≥ 0.50) were observed between the CON, STOVPEL, COMB, or COMBPEL treatments for DM (76.5, 75.4, 72.5, and 78.0%, respectively; SEM 2.5) or OM (79.1, 79.7, 75.7, and 80.5%, respectively; SEM 2.4) digestibility. In Exp. 2, a linear increase ( = 0.03) in DMI was observed as pellet inclusion increased from 0% in the CON (10.6 kg/d [SE 0.13]) to 30% (11.0 kg/d [SE 0.13]) in treatments containing 40% MDGS. A quadratic response ( = 0.03) in DMI was observed as pellet inclusion increased in diets containing 20% MDGS due to greater DMI of the 20% pellet treatment. A linear decrease ( = 0.03) in G:F was observed as the level of pellet inclusion increased from 0 (0.182 [SE 0.02]) to 30% (0.175 [SE 0.02]) in diets containing 40% MDGS. In diets containing 20% MDGS, no differences ( ≥ 0.22) in G:F were observed as pellet inclusion increased from 10 to 30%. In conclusion, replacing up to 20% of corn (DM basis) in diets containing 20% MDGS had minimal impact on performance. Conversely, up to 30% of corn could be replaced in diets containing 40% MDGS with little impact on performance.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Digestión/fisiología , Grano Comestible/química , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Zea mays , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Masculino
5.
J Anim Sci ; 94(7): 2798-810, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482667

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), no ZH supplementation, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL), supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg/kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for serum and 60-min intervals for plasma and whole blood, from -2 to 8 h relative to the challenge at 0 h (1000 h). Samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and complete blood cell counts. Following the challenge, cattle were harvested over a 3-d period. Liver, LM, and biceps femoris (BF) samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycolytic potential (GP). There was a treatment ( ≤ 0.001) effect for vaginal temperature (VT), with ZIL having a 0.1°C decrease in VT when compared with CON. A treatment × time effect ( = 0.002) was observed for NEFA. A treatment effect was observed for BUN; ZIL had decreased BUN concentrations compared with CON ( < 0.001) prior to the challenge; however, no treatment × time effect was observed. There was also a treatment effect for cortisol ( ≤ 0.01) and epinephrine ( = 0.003); ZIL had decreased cortisol and epinephrine during the CRH/VP challenge when compared with CON. There was a time effect for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes; each variable increased ( ≤ 0.01) 2 h postchallenge. Additionally, neutrophil counts decreased ( ≤ 0.01) in response to CRH/VP challenge in both treatment groups. Glucose concentrations within the LM were greater ( = 0.03) in CON when compared with ZIL. Lactate concentrations and GP within the BF were greater in CON ( = 0.05) when compared with ZIL. These data suggest there are some variations observed between treatments in terms of response to the CRH/VP challenge; however, in the environmental conditions of this trial, none of the variations observed suggest that the supplementation of ZH detrimentally alters the ability of cattle to effectively respond to stressful stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Hormonas/administración & dosificación , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/farmacología , Animales , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas/veterinaria , Glucemia/análisis , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/administración & dosificación , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Músculos Isquiosurales/efectos de los fármacos , Músculos Isquiosurales/metabolismo , Hematología , Insulina/sangre , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Vasopresinas/administración & dosificación
6.
J Anim Sci ; 93(7): 3613-22, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440029

RESUMEN

Two studies were conducted to optimize use of alkaline-treated corn stover and wheat straw and distillers grains as partial corn replacements. In Exp. 1, a finishing experiment used 30 pens (12 steers/pen) of calf-fed steers (initial BW = 374 ± 23.9 kg) with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 replications per treatment. Factors were grind size, where corn stover was processed through a 2.54- or 7.62-cm screen, and chemical treatment (corn stover either fed in native, non-treated form [NT; 93.4% DM] or alkaline treated [AT; 5% CaO hydrated to 50% DM]). No interactions (P ≥ 0.38) were noted between grind size and chemical treatment. Feeding AT compared with NT improved (P ≤ 0.02) final BW, ADG, and G:F. Reducing grind size improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG and G:F, and no interaction with chemical treatment was observed. Steers fed AT had similar DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics compared with a 5% roughage control that contained 15 percentage units (DM basis) more corn. In Exp. 2, 60 individually fed steers (initial BW = 402 ± 61.4 kg) were randomly assigned to 10 diets. Six treatments evaluated 10, 25, or 40% dry-rolled corn (DRC), which was replaced with either a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio (DM basis) of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) and treated corn stover analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial. An additional 3 treatments were added where a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:straw were compared with a 3:1 ratio of MDGS:stover. As DRC increased, G:F (P = 0.06) quadratically increased for 3:1 MDGS:stover diets. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.07) G:F in treated stover diets, regardless of ratio. Increasing DRC increased (P = 0.10) ADG for 3:1 ratios for both straw and stover. Reducing grind size, feeding a maximum of 20% treated crop residue, and maintaining at least 25% corn in the diet are strategies for optimizing cattle performance when replacing dry-rolled and high-moisture corn with treated crop residues and distillers grains.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/química , Animales , Bovinos , Grano Comestible , Manipulación de Alimentos , Masculino
7.
J Anim Sci ; 93(6): 2616-25, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115250

RESUMEN

Increased corn prices over the past decade have altered land use away from traditional forage in favor of corn. Accordingly, beef and dairy producers have had to adopt nontraditional forage resources into their production systems, many of which have become available as a result of increased corn production. Corn residues have become more available due to increases in corn hectares and yield. The individual plant components (i.e., husk, leaf, and stem) vary in fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility estimates = 40.5, 31.4, and 0.6% ± 0.8 for husk, leaf, and stalk, respectively). Stocking cattle to consume 3.6 kg forage/25.5 kg of grain allows cattle to graze selectively; selection of husks and leaves improves cattle performance. Byproducts of the wet and dry milling industries can be supplemented to calves grazing corn residues to provide protein and energy. Optimal gains were observed when these byproducts were supplemented at approximately 2.5 kg/d to 250-kg growing calves. Gestating beef cows do not require supplemental inputs when grazing corn residue, if stocked appropriately. Alkaline treatment of crop residues improves their feeding value. Concentrations of up to 20% harvested corn residue treated with calcium oxide can be included in finishing diets with an average of 1.3% reduction in G:F when diets contain 40% wet or modified distillers grains. Conversely, when untreated corn residues are included in similar finishing diets, G:F is reduced by 13.4%. Calcium oxide-treated residues included in beef growing diets increases DMI and ADG without significant improvements in G:F. Calcium oxide treatment of corn residues has been evaluated in dairy diets by replacing corn or corn silage with variable results. Efficient use of nontraditional fiber sources, such as corn milling byproducts and corn residue, are critical to the future viability of ruminant animal production.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Zea mays/química , Animales , Oxalato de Calcio , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos
8.
J Anim Sci ; 93(6): 3034-43, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115289

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N volatilized. Feeding a Y. schidigera extract did not affect N balance or manure characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Calcio/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Óxidos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Yucca , Zea mays , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Grano Comestible , Masculino , Estiércol/análisis , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Estaciones del Año
9.
J Anim Sci ; 93(5): 2285-96, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020325

RESUMEN

Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that for +CON. Carcass weight SD was not different (P > 0.10) between +CON and -CON, whereas carcass weight SD of 4-SORT was reduced (P < 0.01) compared with that of -CON and +CON. Steers fed ZH had a greater percentage of carcasses over 454 kg than steers fed -CON (P < 0.01). Although not statistically different (P = 0.27), the percentage of carcasses over 454 kg was reduced by 28% for 4-SORT compared with +CON. Feeding ZH increases carcass weight, but sorting reduces variation, allowing further increases in carcass weight while minimizing overweight carcasses.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/farmacología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
10.
J Anim Sci ; 90(1): 296-306, 2012 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21856891

RESUMEN

Two experiments using 96 steers each were conducted to evaluate the effect of corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) concentration on steer performance, N loss, and P mass balance. Feeding WDGS as an energy source instead of protein may increase N release into the environment but also the amount of N removed in the manure. Calves (BW = 294 ± 33 kg) were fed 167 d from November to May (WIN), and yearlings (BW = 373 ± 24 kg) were fed 133 d from June to October (SUM). Treatments consisted of 0, 15, and 30% dietary inclusion of WDGS (DM basis) replacing corn (CON, 15WDGS, 30WDGS, respectively). Basal diets consisted of high-moisture and dry-rolled corn fed at a 1:1 ratio, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 5% molasses, and 5% supplement (DM basis). The CON and 15WDGS diets were formulated to meet MP requirements, and 30WDGS exceeded MP requirements. Dry matter intake, ADG, and HCW increased linearly (P < 0.05) with WDGS concentration in the WIN, whereas DMI and ADG increased linearly (P < 0.10) in the SUM. Efficiency of BW gain was not different (P > 0.10) among treatments in either experiment. Nitrogen and P intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with WDGS concentration in both experiments. Calculated retention of N and P increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with WDGS concentration in the WIN but not in the SUM (P > 0.10). Calculated excretion of N and P increased linearly (P < 0.01) with WDGS concentration in both experiments. Amount of N removed in the manure was not different (P = 0.26) among treatments in the WIN but increased linearly (P = 0.05) with WDGS concentration in the SUM. Amount of P and OM removed increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with WDGS concentration in both experiments. Amount of N lost (kg/steer) increased linearly (P < 0.05) with WDGS concentration in both experiments. Expressed as a percentage of N excretion, N volatilization rate (amount of N lost divided by N excretion) was not different (P > 0.30) among treatments and averaged 68.3 and 77.0 in the WIN and SUM, respectively. More N volatilized when WDGS were fed, but not all of the additional N excreted was volatilized. Regressing the amount of OM on the pen surface against manure N, 98% of the variability for manure N in the WIN and 92% in the SUM was accounted for. Feeding WDGS increased the total amount of N lost to volatilization; however, not all of the additional N excreted was lost because of an increase in the proportion of manure OM.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Composición Corporal , Bovinos/fisiología , Digestión , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Estaciones del Año , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Sci ; 89(4): 1146-52, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21148781

RESUMEN

In a 3-yr study, 135 crossbred steers (330 ± 10 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) fed to yearling steers as a substitute for forage and N fertilizer and its effect on N use efficiency in yearling steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures. Steers were initially stocked at 6.8 animal unit months (AUM)/ha on nonfertilized smooth bromegrass pastures (CONT), at 9.9 AUM/ha on smooth bromegrass pastures fertilized with 90 kg of N/ha (FERT), or at 9.9 AUM/ha on nonfertilized smooth bromegrass pastures with 2.3 kg (DM) of DDGS supplemented daily per steer (SUPP). Paddock was the experimental unit, with 3 replications per treatment per year for 3 yr. Paddocks were strip-grazed, and put-and-take cattle were used to maintain similar grazing pressure among treatment paddocks during the 160-d grazing season. Steers consumed less forage (P < 0.01), but total N intake for SUPP was greater (P < 0.01) per steer and per hectare than for FERT, and both were greater (P < 0.01) than for CONT. Nitrogen retention for steers in the SUPP treatment was increased (P < 0.01) by 31% compared with N retention in the CONT and FERT treatments. Nitrogen retention per hectare for SUPP was 30 and 98% greater (P < 0.01) than N retention per hectare for FERT and CONT, respectively. Nitrogen excretion per steer and per hectare were also greater (P < 0.01) for SUPP than FERT, and both were increased (P < 0.01) compared with CONT. Animal N use efficiency was similar (P = 0.29) for steers in the CONT, FERT, and SUPP treatments. However, system-based N use improved (P < 0.01) by 144% for SUPP compared with FERT. The DDGS increased N intake and N excretion in yearling steers. However, because of improvements in BW gain and increases in stocking rate of pastures, DDGS can be a useful tool to increase the efficiency of N use in smooth bromegrass grazing systems.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Bovinos/fisiología , Fertilizantes , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Bromus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Grano Comestible , Masculino , Aumento de Peso/fisiología , Zea mays
12.
J Food Sci ; 75(2): C166-72, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20492221

RESUMEN

Vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of flat iron steaks and petite tenders from steers fed finishing rations containing 0% and 40% corn wet distiller's grains and solubles (WDGS) with and without supplemental vitamin E were determined. Feeding treatment groups were: 0% WDGS with basal vitamin E, 0% WDGS with supplemental vitamin E (500 IU daily), 40% WDGS with basal vitamin E, and 40% WDGS and supplemental vitamin E. Cattle can be fed 40% WDGS diets more economically than corn diets. The incorporation of 40% WDGS, with and without vitamin E, was hypothesized to have little effect on the vitamin concentrations of these value meat cuts. Flat iron steaks and petite tenders were broiled and/or grilled to 70 degrees C internal temperature. Mean cooking yields ranged from 68.7% to 78.2%. The majority of the vitamin concentrations of broiled and of grilled meat were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of raw meat. Vitamin E concentrations of raw and cooked meat from steers that received supplemental vitamin E were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed basal vitamin E. Significant differences in thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations in raw flat iron steaks and in vitamin B(6) in raw petite tenders were observed by WDGS. Thiamin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of broiled flat iron steaks were significantly different (P < 0.05) than grilled. A few differences in vitamin concentrations of the flat iron steaks and petite tenders were observed by WDGS, vitamin E supplementation, and cooking treatments, but most of the vitamin concentrations were statistically similar.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Culinaria/métodos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne/análisis , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , Zea mays , Animales , Composición Corporal , Bovinos , Grano Comestible , Factores de Tiempo , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/análisis
13.
J Anim Sci ; 88(7): 2393-402, 2010 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20348380

RESUMEN

Phosphorus is an expensive nutrient to supplement, and excess may lead to manure P challenges. Therefore, minimizing dietary P to meet requirements is important. Two experiments were conducted to determine the P requirement of finishing cattle (Exp. 1) and to evaluate the effects of feeding different P concentrations on the quantity and route of P excretion (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 60 heifers (BW = 278 kg +/- 17 kg) were individually fed 1 of 5 dietary P concentrations (0.10, 0.17, 0.24, 0.31, or 0.38% P). Cattle performance, plasma P concentration, bone characteristics, and bone P concentration were used to determine the P requirement. Intake and ADG increased quadratically (P < 0.01) as dietary P increased. Plasma P in heifers receiving the 0.10% treatment was less (P < 0.01) than the other treatments and suggested that these heifers were experiencing a P deficiency. Total ash weight of the phalanx bones increased linearly (P < 0.01) as dietary P increased. In Exp. 2 using a 5 x 5 Latin square design, 5 different diets varying in P concentration (0.12, 0.27, 0.42, 0.30, and 0.36% P) were fed to steers to evaluate route and quantity of P excreted. Steers excreted little (1.78 g/d on average) P in the urine as a percentage of total P excretion. Steers on the 0.12% P diet excreted very little P in urine (0.50 g/d). Excretion of P was less (P < 0.05) for the cattle fed 0.12% P compared with all other treatments. Results from cattle performance, plasma P concentrations, and bone characteristics indicate that the heifers fed 0.10% P were experiencing a deficiency and the P requirement of finishing heifers is between 0.10 and 0.17% P. Dietary P concentrations of 0.10 to 0.17% P resulted in decreased P excretion. Supplementation of mineral P is unnecessary in grain-based feedlot diets because dietary P will greatly exceed the requirements (<0.17%).


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Fósforo/farmacología , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Huesos/química , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Heces/química , Femenino , Masculino , Necesidades Nutricionales , Fósforo/análisis , Fósforo/sangre , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/orina
14.
J Anim Sci ; 87(12): 4073-81, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19717786

RESUMEN

Three experiments were conducted examining the effects of feeding different levels of dried distillers grains (DDG) and different proportions of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) added to DDG on performance and digestibility in forage-fed steers. In Exp. 1, a total of 120 individually fed crossbred steers (276 +/- 31 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included DDG supplementation level (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, or 1.0% of BW daily) and proportion of CDS in DDG (0.0, 5.4, 14.5, 19.1, and 22.1% of DDG DM). A basal diet of 58.8% alfalfa hay, 39.2% sorghum silage, and 2% vitamin and mineral supplement (DM basis) was fed for ad libitum intake. As the level of DDG increased, intake of forage decreased linearly (P < 0.01), intake of DDG increased linearly (P < 0.01), and total DMI increased quadratically (P = 0.06). A DDG level x CDS level interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for ADG and G:F. The 0.0, 5.4, 14.5, 19.1, and 22.1% CDS treatments had the greatest ADG when DDG was supplemented at 0.75, 1.0, 1.0, 0.75, and 0.50% of BW daily, respectively. In Exp. 2, four crossbred steers (295 +/- 19 kg) were used in a 3-period switchback design. A basal diet of 58.8% alfalfa hay, 39.2% brome hay, and 2% vitamin and mineral supplement (DM basis) was fed at 95% of ad libitum intake. Treatments were DDG containing 0.0 or 22.1% CDS supplemented at 1.0% of BW daily. Apparent total tract digestibility was measured by total fecal collection. No differences between treatments were observed for digestibility of DM, OM, or NDF (P >/= 0.14). Digestibility of ether extract was greater (P = 0.02) in steers supplemented with DDG containing 22.1% CDS. In Exp. 3, two ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (663 +/- 24 kg) were used to estimate DM and CP digestion of the DDG fed in Exp. 1 using the mobile bag technique. Basal diets were the same as fed in Exp. 1 and steers were supplemented with DDG at 0.5% of BW daily. Ruminal DM digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.01), and postruminal and total tract DM digestibility increased quadratically (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively) as the level of CDS increased. Level of CDS may affect growing steer performance because depressions in ADG and G:F were observed as intake of ether extract increased. A clear explanation for the interaction between the DDG supplementation level and the CDS level on growing steer performance was not evident in the digestion experiments.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Bovinos/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/fisiología , Duodeno/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Manipulación de Alimentos , Masculino , Rumen/fisiología , Ensilaje , Aumento de Peso/fisiología , Zea mays
15.
J Anim Sci ; 87(11): 3639-46, 2009 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19648489

RESUMEN

In a 3-yr study, corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as a substitute for forage and N fertilizer in yearling steers grazing smooth bromegrass. A total of 135 steers (330 +/- 10 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to measure the effects of DDGS supplementation and N fertilization on animal and pasture performance. Steers were initially stocked at 6.8 animal unit month (AUM)/ha on nonfertilized smooth bromegrass pastures (CONT), at 9.9 AUM/ha on smooth bromegrass pastures fertilized with 90 kg of N/ha (FERT), or at 9.9 AUM/ha on nonfertilized smooth bromegrass pastures with 2.3 kg of DDGS DM supplemented daily (SUPP). Paddock was the experimental unit, with 3 replications per year for 3 yr. Paddocks were strip-grazed and put-and-take cattle were used to maintain similar grazing pressure among treatment paddocks during the 160-d grazing season. In vitro DM disappearance declined quadratically (P < 0.01), whereas CP and standing crop showed cubic responses (P < 0.01) throughout the grazing season. Crude protein was greater (P < 0.05) for FERT compared with CONT and SUPP. Standing crop was 18% greater (P < 0.01) for FERT than CONT and was 10% greater (P < 0.01) than SUPP. Adjusted stocking rates (AUM/ha) were greater (P < 0.01) for FERT and SUPP compared with CONT. Final BW were greater (P < 0.01) for SUPP steers compared with CONT and FERT steers. Similar results were observed for ADG, with SUPP steers gaining more (P < 0.01) compared with CONT and FERT steers. Total BW gain per hectare was increased (P < 0.01) by 53% with FERT and by 105% with SUPP. Feedlot ADG was similar among treatments (P = 0.88), and SUPP steers maintained their BW advantage through the finishing phase. Dried distillers grains can be used to substitute effectively for N fertilizer by increasing the performance of yearling steers grazing smooth bromegrass and increasing stocking rates compared with nonfertilized pastures.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Bovinos/fisiología , Fertilizantes , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Bromus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Grano Comestible , Masculino , Nitrógeno , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
16.
J Anim Sci ; 87(2): 639-52, 2009 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18952733

RESUMEN

Three experiments evaluated the lipids in distillers grains plus solubles compared with corn or other sources of lipid in finishing diets. Experiment 1 utilized 60 individually fed yearling heifers (349 +/- 34 kg of BW) fed treatments consisting of 0, 20, or 40% (DM basis) wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS), or 0, 2.5, or 5.0% (DM basis) corn oil in a finishing diet based on high-moisture corn (HMC) and dry-rolled corn. Cattle fed 20 and 40% WDGS had greater (P < 0.10) G:F than cattle fed 0% WDGS. Cattle fed the 5.0% corn oil had less overall performance than cattle fed the other diets. Results from Exp. 1 indicated that adding fat from WDGS improves performance, whereas supplementing 5.0% corn oil depressed G:F, suggesting that the fat within WDGS is different than corn oil. Experiment 2 used 234 yearling steers (352 +/- 16 kg of BW) fed 1 of 5 treatments consisting of 20 or 40% (DM basis) dry distillers grains plus solubles, 1.3 or 2.6% (DM basis) tallow, or HMC. All diets contained 20% (DM basis) wet corn gluten feed as a method of controlling acidosis. No differences between treatments for any performance variables were observed in Exp. 2. The dry distillers grains plus solubles may be similar to tallow and HMC in finishing diets containing 20% wet corn gluten feed. Experiment 3 used 5 Holstein steers equipped with ruminal and duodenal cannulas in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Treatments were a 40% WDGS diet, 2 composites, one consisting of corn bran and corn gluten meal; and one consisting of corn bran, corn gluten meal, and corn oil; and 2 dry-rolled corn-based diets supplemented with corn oil or not. Cattle fed the WDGS diet had numerically less rumen pH compared with cattle fed other treatments. Cattle fed WDGS had greater (P < 0.10) molar proportions of propionate, decreased (P < 0.10) acetate:propionate ratios, greater (P < 0.10) total tract fat digestion, and a greater (P < 0.10) proportion of unsaturated fatty acids reaching the duodenum than cattle fed other treatments. Therefore, the greater energy value of WDGS compared with corn may be due to more propionate production, greater fat digestibility, and more unsaturated fatty acids reaching the duodenum.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Aceite de Maíz/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/fisiología , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animales , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Aceite de Maíz/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Femenino , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Rumen/química , Rumen/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
17.
J Anim Sci ; 86(12): 3504-10, 2008 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18708605

RESUMEN

Crossbred heifers (n = 120; 265 kg, SD = 37) were fed individually (84 d) to determine the effect of supplement type, concentration, and frequency on intake and performance and to estimate the energy value of dry distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in a high-forage diet. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial, with 3 supplements, 2 concentrations, and 2 frequencies of supplementation. Supplements including dry-rolled corn (DRC), DRC with corn gluten meal (DRC + CGM), and DDGS were fed at 0.21% (LOW) or 0.81% (HIGH) of BW daily and were provided daily (DAILY) or 3 times weekly (ALT). Heifers were fed to consume grass hay (8.7% CP) ad libitum. Individual DMI, diet composition, BW, and ADG were used to calculate energy values for DDGS and DRC. Supplement type, concentration, frequency, and interactions were tested using the MIXED procedure of SAS, with BW included as a covariate. Supplement x concentration interactions for gain (P = 0.01) and G:F (P < 0.01) were detected. At the LOW concentration, heifers supplemented with DDGS gained more and were more efficient (P /= 0.22) between DDGS and DRC + CGM in HIGH treatments, although both improved (P

Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Grano Comestible , Aumento de Peso/fisiología , Zea mays , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Grano Comestible/química , Femenino , Purinas/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Tiempo , Zea mays/química
18.
J Anim Sci ; 85(10): 2614-24, 2007 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17565061

RESUMEN

Crossbred heifers (n = 120; BW = 368 kg, SD = 39 kg) were used to determine effects of dried distillers grains (DDG) and relative contributions of undegradable intake protein (UIP) and fat (ether extract, EE) in DDG on ADG and forage intake (FI). Heifers rotationally grazed six 3.5-ha, smooth bromegrass paddocks (IVDMD = 65.7%, CP = 20.8%, UIP = 2.17%, DM basis). Heifers were blocked by previous ADG and allotted to treatments in a 3 x 3 + 1 factorial design. Factors were source and level of supplementation. Supplements were as follows: 1) DDG (UIP = 15.8%, EE = 9.67%), 2) corn gluten meal (CGM; UIP = 31.6%, EE = 0.83%), or 3) corn oil (OIL; UIP = 0.74%, EE = 19.3%). Amounts of DDG were 750, 1,500, or 2,250 g/d, whereas amounts of CGM and OIL were 375, 750, or 1,125 g/ d. Supplements containing CGM and OIL were fed in amounts that provided UIP and EE, respectively, equivalent to those of the DDG. Contrasts of interest were DDG vs. CGM and DDG vs. OIL. Control heifers were fed 250 g/d of a supplement containing corn bran and molasses (UIP = 0.92%, EE = 1.13%). Heifers were supplemented individually. Treatments were separated by regressing the response variables on grams of nutrient (DM, UIP, or EE) intake per kilogram of BW, because not all heifers consumed their allotment of supplement. Supplemental DDG resulted in a linear increase in ADG (P < 0.01), whereas CGM tended to increase ADG (P = 0.14) but at a rate that was 39% of that for DDG, representing a response to MP. Supplementation of OIL did not affect ADG (P = 0.25) and tended to result in ADG less than that of DDG (P = 0.09). Supplementation with DDG had no effect (P = 0.63) on FI when predicted by the use of chromic oxide but tended (P = 0.07) to decrease FI when it was predicted from ADG using NE equations. Despite the differences between methods in the significance of the effect of DDG, the rates of substitution agreed (-0.50 and -0.45 for chromic oxide and NE equations, respectively), suggesting that the chromic oxide method was less sensitive in assessing FI. Supplementation with CGM decreased FI (P < 0.01), but FI for CGM did not differ from that of DDG when the chromic oxide method was used (P = 0.19). Corn oil had no effect on FI (P = 0.42). Increased ADG and decreased FI observed from DDG supplementation is not independently explained by UIP or EE contained in DDG.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Bromus , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grano Comestible , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Aceite de Maíz , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Éter/química , Femenino , Distribución Aleatoria , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
19.
J Anim Sci ; 85(10): 2625-30, 2007 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17526665

RESUMEN

Ten ruminally cannulated heifers (BW = 416 kg; SD = 24) were used to test the effect of the form and frequency of supplemental energy on forage DMI and digestibility. Five treatments were arranged in a replicated, 5 x 4 Latin rectangle (n = 8), and included no supplement (control), dry-rolled corn (DRC) fed daily, DRC fed on alternate days (DRC-A), dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) fed daily, and DDGS fed on alternate days (DDGS-A). Supplements fed daily were fed at 0.40% of BW, whereas alternate day-fed supplements were fed at 0.80% of BW every other day. Chopped grass hay (8.2% CP) was fed to allow ad libitum DMI, and the intake pattern was measured. Control heifers had greater (P < 0.01) hay DMI than supplemented heifers (1.88 vs. 1.66% of BW daily, respectively), although total DMI was lower (P < 0.01) for control. Hay DMI did not differ (P = 0.45) between DRC and DDGS, and tended to be lower (P = 0.08) by heifers on DDGS-A and DRC-A than by heifers supplemented daily. Hay intake was lower (P < 0.01) on supplementation days for DDGS-A and DRC-A than on nonsupplemented days. Heifers in alternate-day treatments had fewer (P < 0.01) and larger (P < 0.01) meals and spent less (P < 0.01) time eating than those supplemented daily. Average rumen pH was greater (P = 0.05) for control than supplemented heifers (6.30 vs. 6.19). Control heifers had greater (P = 0.04) rates and extents of NDF disappearance than supplemented heifers. Rate of hay NDF disappearance was lower (P = 0.02) for DRC than for DDGS. Supplementation decreased hay DMI and changed digestion kinetics. Supplementation frequency affected amount and pattern of DMI. Rate of hay NDF disappearance was greater for DDGS than DRC.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Grano Comestible , Zea mays , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Femenino , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Oxazoles/química , Oxazoles/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria
20.
J Anim Sci ; 80(6): 1690-5, 2002 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12078751

RESUMEN

Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/fisiología , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fósforo Dietético/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Densidad Ósea/fisiología , Huesos/química , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Absorción Intestinal , Masculino , Necesidades Nutricionales , Valor Nutritivo , Fósforo Dietético/administración & dosificación , Fósforo Dietético/sangre
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA