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Vaccine ; 37 Suppl 1: A140-A145, 2019 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153997


Rabies remains endemic in more than 150 countries. In 99% of human cases, rabies virus is transmitted by dogs. The disease, which is nearly always fatal, is preventable by vaccines given either before and/or after exposure to a rabid animal. Numerous factors including the high cost of vaccines, the relative complexity of post-exposure vaccination protocols requiring multiple doses of vaccine, which in cases of severe exposure have to be combined with a rabies immune globulin, lack of access to health care, and insufficient surveillance contribute to the estimated 59,000 human deaths caused by rabies each year. New, less expensive and more immunogenic rabies vaccines are needed together with improved surveillance and dog rabies control to reduce the death toll of human rabies. Here, we discuss new rabies vaccines that are in clinical and pre-clinical testing and evaluate their potential to replace current vaccines.

Desarrollo de Medicamentos/tendencias , Descubrimiento de Drogas/tendencias , Profilaxis Posexposición/métodos , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Vacunas Antirrábicas/inmunología , Rabia/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Vacunas Antirrábicas/aislamiento & purificación
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 367(1604): 2881-92, 2012 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22966143


Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation.

Quirópteros/virología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/prevención & control , Virus ARN/patogenicidad , Zoonosis/transmisión , Migración Animal , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Vectores de Enfermedades , Ecosistema , Política Ambiental , Conducta Alimentaria , Salud Global/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Dinámica Poblacional
Ecol Lett ; 15(10): 1083-94, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22809422


Infectious disease ecology has recently raised its public profile beyond the scientific community due to the major threats that wildlife infections pose to biological conservation, animal welfare, human health and food security. As we start unravelling the full extent of emerging infectious diseases, there is an urgent need to facilitate multidisciplinary research in this area. Even though research in ecology has always had a strong theoretical component, cultural and technical hurdles often hamper direct collaboration between theoreticians and empiricists. Building upon our collective experience of multidisciplinary research and teaching in this area, we propose practical guidelines to help with effective integration among mathematical modelling, fieldwork and laboratory work. Modelling tools can be used at all steps of a field-based research programme, from the formulation of working hypotheses to field study design and data analysis. We illustrate our model-guided fieldwork framework with two case studies we have been conducting on wildlife infectious diseases: plague transmission in prairie dogs and lyssavirus dynamics in American and African bats. These demonstrate that mechanistic models, if properly integrated in research programmes, can provide a framework for holistic approaches to complex biological systems.

Animales Salvajes , Infecciones/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Ecología , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Lyssavirus , Peste/transmisión , Peste/veterinaria , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/veterinaria , Sciuridae/virología
Microbes Infect ; 8(4): 1090-7, 2006 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16524754


Safe and effective vaccination is important for rabies prevention in animals. Although several genetically engineered rabies vaccines have been developed, few have been licensed for use, principally due to biosafety concerns or due to poor efficacy in animal models. In this paper, we describe the construction and characterization of a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (SRV9 strain) by a different strategy from that reported previously, i.e., the recombinant genome carrying the glycoprotein cDNA was generated by a series of strictly gene cloning steps, infectious recombinant virus was obtained by transfecting the recombinant genome into a canine kidney cell line, MDCK. This recombinant virus, CAV-E3delta-CGS, was subcutaneously injected into dogs. All vaccinated dogs produced effective neutralizing antibodies after one inoculation and a stronger anamnestic immune response was produced after booster injection. The immunized dogs could survive the challenge of 60,000 mouse LD50 CVS-24, which is lethal to all unimmunized dogs and is comparable to the conventional vaccines. The immunity lasts for months with a protective level of neutralizing antibody. This recombinant virus would be an alternative to the attenuated and the inactivated rabies vaccines and be prospective in immunizing dogs against rabies.

Adenovirus Caninos/genética , Vectores Genéticos , Glicoproteínas/genética , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Rabia/prevención & control , Virus Reordenados/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Perros , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Ratones , Pruebas de Neutralización , Rabia/inmunología , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Vacunas de ADN/administración & dosificación