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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 33(2): 285-292, 2023 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581489

RESUMEN

The most common cancer in women worldwide is cervical cancer. For early-stage disease the standard treatment is radical hysterectomy. One of the main issues faced by surgeons performing a radical hysterectomy is the wide variation in the terminology used to define the procedure and the nomenclature used to describe the anatomical spaces critical to the success of the surgery. The aim of this review was to synthesize currently used anatomical landmarks with relation to surgical avascular spaces for the performance of radical hysterectomy.A computer-based comprehensive review of the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, and SciSearch databases, as well as National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology guidelines, was performed. With all relevant data collected, and previous anatomical studies during surgeries and on cadavers performed by authors, a manuscript of the definition of avascular spaces, methods of dissection, and anatomical limits was prepared.Avascular pelvic spaces developed during radical hysterectomy, such as the paravesical, pararectal, ureter tunnel, and paravaginal, were considered and included in the manuscript. A clear definition of avascular spaces may aid a better understanding of the anatomical aspects of the radical hysterectomy. It could improve surgeon knowledge of the structures that need to be preserved and those that need to be resected during a radical hysterectomy. Additionally, the detailed exposure of anatomical boundaries will facilitate the appropriate tailored radicality depending on the risk factors of the disease. Moreover, knowledge of these spaces could make pelvic surgery safer and easier for other types of gynecological and non-gynecological procedures.


Asunto(s)
Histerectomía , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Humanos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Histerectomía/métodos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Pelvis/patología , Disección
2.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 19(6): 478-85, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19395294

RESUMEN

Maternal undernutrition causes fetal growth restriction. Protein is a vital dietary nutrient for fetal growth, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are noted to have anabolic actions. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal high-protein diet or BCAA-supplemented diet upon fetal growth under the condition of maternal calorie restriction. Pregnant mice were calorie-restricted (undernutrition: UN), using either a standard diet (S-UN group), high-protein diet (HP-UN group), or BCAA-supplemented diet (BCAA-UN group) to 70% of the control; dams fed ad libitum with a standard diet (S-NN group) from 10.5days post coitum (dpc) to 18.5dpc. The fetal weights of UN groups were significantly decreased compared to that of S-NN. However, the fetal weights of HP-UN and BCAA-UN were significantly higher by 5% and 4%, respectively, than those of S-UN, concomitant with augmentation of the gene and protein expressions of IGF-I and IGF-II in fetal liver. A high-protein diet as well as BCAA-supplemented diet partially improved fetal growth restriction caused by maternal calorie-restriction, suggesting a pivotal role of them in the amelioration of fetal growth restriction.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos de Cadena Ramificada/química , Hígado/embriología , Ciencias de la Nutrición Animal , Animales , Restricción Calórica , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Desarrollo Fetal , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/etiología , Peso Fetal , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Factor II del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Exposición Materna , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Embarazo , Preñez
3.
Mol Cancer Res ; 7(2): 210-20, 2009 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19208743

RESUMEN

Survival of ovarian cancer patients is largely dictated by their response to chemotherapy, which depends on underlying molecular features of the malignancy. We previously identified YIN YANG 1 (YY1) as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ovarian cancer survival. Herein, we investigated the mechanistic basis of this association. Epigenetic and genetic characteristics of YY1 in serous epithelial ovarian cancer were analyzed along with YY1 mRNA and protein. Patterns of gene expression in primary serous epithelial ovarian cancer and in the NCI60 database were investigated using computational methods. YY1 function and modulation of chemotherapeutic response in vitro was studied using small interfering RNA knockdown. Microarray analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of YY1 and genes with YY1 and transcription factor E2F binding motifs in ovarian cancer and in the NCI60 cancer cell lines. Clustering of microarray data for these genes revealed that high YY1/E2F3 activity positively correlates with survival of patients treated with the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Increased sensitivity to taxanes, but not to DNA cross-linking platinum agents, was also characteristic of NCI60 cancer cell lines with a high YY1/E2F signature. YY1 knockdown in ovarian cancer cell lines results in inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, motility, and proliferation but also increases resistance to taxanes, with no effect on cisplatin sensitivity. These results, together with the prior demonstration of augmentation of microtubule-related genes by E2F3, suggest that enhanced taxane sensitivity in tumors with high YY1/E2F activity may be mediated by modulation of putative target genes with microtubule function.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Paclitaxel/uso terapéutico , Factor de Transcripción YY1/genética , Sitios de Unión , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cisplatino/uso terapéutico , Hibridación Genómica Comparativa , Docetaxel , Factores de Transcripción E2F/genética , Factores de Transcripción E2F/metabolismo , Epigénesis Genética , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas , Neoplasias Glandulares y Epiteliales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Glandulares y Epiteliales/genética , Neoplasias Glandulares y Epiteliales/mortalidad , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos , Neoplasias Ováricas/mortalidad , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , ARN Interferente Pequeño/farmacología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Tasa de Supervivencia , Taxoides/uso terapéutico , Cicatrización de Heridas , Factor de Transcripción YY1/antagonistas & inhibidores
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 16(6): 1289-95, 2008 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18356830

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has revealed that undernutrition in utero is closely associated with obesity and related detrimental metabolic sequelae in adulthood. Recently, using a wild-type (wt) mouse model in which offspring were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition (UN offspring), we reported that the premature leptin surge during neonatal growth promotes lifelong changes in energy regulating circuitry in the hypothalamus, thus playing an important role in the development of pronounced obesity on a high-fat diet (HFD) in adulthood. Here, we further evaluate the essential involvement of leptin in the developmental origins of obesity using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We assessed the progression of obesity on an HFD in adult leptin-deficient ob/ob male mice that were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition by maternal food restriction (ob/ob UN offspring) or to leptin treatment during the neonatal period; this treatment is comparable to the premature leptin surge observed in the wt-UN offspring. RESULTS: On an HFD, the body weight of the male ob/ob UN offspring paralleled that of the ob/ob offspring exposed to normal intrauterine nutrition (ob/ob NN offspring). In contrast, early exposure to leptin in the ob/ob NN offspring during early neonatal growth reproduced the development of pronounced obesity on an HFD in adulthood. DISCUSSION: The presence of leptin and associated energy regulation are indispensable in the acceleration of obesity on an HFD caused by undernutrition in utero. The premature leptin surge plays an essential role in the developmental origins of obesity as a programming signal during the early neonatal period.


Asunto(s)
Animales Recién Nacidos/metabolismo , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/metabolismo , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Desnutrición/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Obesos , Embarazo , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Receptores de Leptina/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
5.
Endocr J ; 52(4): 449-54, 2005 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16127214

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of exogenous estrogen affects the changes of leptin and GnRH levels in women with normal menstrual cycle. A total of 18 women received a bolus intravenous injection of 20 mg conjugated estrogen (premarin group) at 0800 during the fifth day of menstrual cycle, while another 18 women were administered 20 mL of normal saline as the control group. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 24, 28, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hours after injection for analyses of leptin, GnRH, estrone (E(1)), estradiol (E(2)), LH and FSH. Both the mean plasma levels of E(1) and E(2) were significantly increased from 4 hours and significantly sustained elevated levels up to 72 hours after injection of premarin. Simultaneous significant increases of leptin and GnRH levels were observed at 28, 32 and 48 hours after injection, while the controls remained constant. The mean LH and FSH levels were initially suppressed and then significantly increased at 56 and 72 hours after premarin administration. Leptin appears to be involved in the regulation of positive feedback mechanism of estrogen by conveyance of metabolic signal to affect the release of GnRH in hypothalamus, while its participation in the modulation of negative feedback remains unknown.


Asunto(s)
Estrógenos Conjugados (USP)/administración & dosificación , Estrógenos/administración & dosificación , Fase Folicular/efectos de los fármacos , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/sangre , Leptina/sangre , Adulto , Retroalimentación Fisiológica/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/sangre , Fase Folicular/fisiología , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiología , Hormona Luteinizante/sangre , Ovario/fisiología , Hipófisis/fisiología
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 313(4): 962-8, 2004 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14706636

RESUMEN

Human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade the maternal decidua. To identify the molecules involved in EVT invasion, we raised a murine monoclonal antibody (CHL2) that reacts with human EVTs. The molecular mass of CHL2 antigen purified from placental tissues was 160 kDa. Although the N-terminal partial amino acid sequence and one internal sequence are still unreported, the other three internal sequences matched those deduced from the coding region of the estimated sequence tag (1672 bp, AK075131). Based on this information, the full-length of the coding cDNA sequence of CHL2 antigen (2970 bp), which has not been reported elsewhere, was determined by 5' RACE. This novel protein, named laeverin, has a peptidase M1 motif containing a zinc-binding active site. It also has a transmembrane domain near the N-terminus. Its amino acid sequence is homologous with aminopeptidase N. These data indicate that human EVTs express laeverin, a novel protein belonging to gluzincin metallopeptidases.


Asunto(s)
Metaloproteasas/genética , Metaloproteasas/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/enzimología , Secuencias de Aminoácidos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Secuencia de Bases , Antígenos CD13/genética , Dominio Catalítico , Clonación Molecular , ADN Complementario/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Metaloproteasas/química , Ratones , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Peso Molecular , Embarazo , Homología de Secuencia de Aminoácido , Zinc/metabolismo
7.
J Control Release ; 92(3): 301-13, 2003 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14568411

RESUMEN

This paper is an investigation to achieve the in vivo controlled release of cisplatin (CDDP) from a biodegradable hydrogel. Hydrogels with different water contents were prepared through the chemical crosslinking of gelatin by various concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The gelatin hydrogel incorporating CDDP (CDDP-hydrogel) was prepared by allowing CDDP aqueous solution to sorb into the freeze-dried hydrogel. Irrespective of the hydrogel water content, approximately 10-30% of incorporated CDDP was released from the hydrogel in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) at 37 degrees C within the initial 6 h, while little release was observed thereafter. The amount of CDDP released initially decreased with an increase in the time period of CDDP sorption. When intratumorally applied into Meth-AR-1 tumor-bearing mice, CDDP-hydrogel suppressed in vivo tumor growth to a significantly higher extent than free CDDP at the same dose. The survival rate was significantly higher by the application of CDDP-hydrogel of 40 microg CDDP. The CDDP concentration in the tumor tissue was maintained at a higher level for a longer time period than that of free CDDP. However, no problematic change in the mouse body and blood biochemical parameters was observed on the application of the CDDP-hydrogel. The time course of in vivo CDDP retention was in a good accordance with that of hydrogel remaining. Larger CDDP release was observed from the front surface of hydrogel onto which free CDDP was sorbed, than the back surface of hydrogel. These findings demonstrate that the controlled release of CDDP was based on biodegradation of the hydrogel carrier, but not simple diffusion of CDDP. It is possible that the CDDP molecules immobilized in the gelatin hydrogel were released from the hydrogel only when the hydrogel was degraded to generate some water-soluble gelatin fragments.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Cisplatino/uso terapéutico , Fibrosarcoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Gelatina/química , Hidrogeles/química , Animales , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidad Biológica , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Cisplatino/administración & dosificación , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/administración & dosificación , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/química , Implantes de Medicamentos , Femenino , Fibrosarcoma/metabolismo , Fibrosarcoma/mortalidad , Glutaral/química , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Cinética , Recuento de Leucocitos , Ratones , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Recuento de Plaquetas , Platino (Metal)/análisis , Platino (Metal)/sangre , Espectrofotometría Atómica , Tasa de Supervivencia , Agua/química
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