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J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6612-6626, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307158


Adrenal responsiveness was tested in nonpregnant, lactating Holstein dairy cows fed diets supplemented with OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ), an immune modulator, and in nonsupplemented control (CON) cows following bolus infusions of a combination of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg of BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg of BW) or ACTH (0.1 IU/kg of BW) in 2 environments: thermoneutral [TN; temperature-humidity index (THI) <60] for 24 h/d and heat stress (HS; THI >68 for 17 h/d). Cows (506) were initially fed OG (n = 254) or CON (n = 252) diets for 44 d before selection of a subgroup of cows (n = 12; 6 OG, 6 CON) for the study. The 2 subgroups were balanced for parity, milk yield, and days in milk. All cows were transported to and housed in 2 environmentally controlled rooms at the University of Arizona Agricultural Research Complex (Tucson). Cows were given 3 d to acclimate to the rooms and then underwent 12 d of TN conditions and then 8 d of HS conditions for a total of 24 d on experiment. Cows were infused with CRH-VP on d 9 of TN and on d 1 of HS and with ACTH on d 10 of TN and on d 2 of HS. Hormone infusions took place at 1000 h (0 h) on each infusion day. Blood samples, taken in 30-min intervals, were first collected at 0800 h (-2 h) and were drawn until 1800 h (8 h). Before infusion, serum progesterone was elevated in OG cows compared with CON cows. Infusion of releasing factors (CRH-VP or ACTH) caused increases in serum cortisol and progesterone, but cortisol release was greater in CON cows than in OG cows during HS, whereas progesterone did not differ between the 2 treatments. Serum ACTH increased following infusion of releasing factors, but this increase was greater following CRH-VP infusion than ACTH infusion. Serum bovine corticosteroid-binding globulin also increased following infusion of releasing factors in both treatment groups, but this increase was greater during HS in cows fed OG. The free cortisol index (FCI) increased following CRH-VP and ACTH and was higher in HS than in TN for both OG and CON cows. However, the FCI response was blunted in OG cows compared with CON cows during HS. Heat stress enhanced the adrenal response to releasing factors. Additionally, the adrenal cortisol and FCI response to releasing factors was reduced during acute heat stress in cows fed OG. Collectively, these data suggest that OG supplementation reduced the adrenal responsiveness to factors regulating cortisol secretion during acute HS.

Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Leche/metabolismo , Vasopresinas/farmacología , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Humedad , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Lactancia , Paridad , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre
J Dairy Sci ; 75(2): 406-14, 1992 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1560135


Jersey heifers were assigned alternately to three groups: 1) negative control (n = 41), 2) intramammary infusion of 200 mg of sodium cloxacillin (n = 38) at 7 d before expected parturition, and 3) intramammary infusion of 200 mg of cephapirin sodium (n = 36) at 7 d before expected parturition. The percentage of mammary glands infected prior to treatment was 62.2, 50.0, and 70.1 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The percentage of mammary glands infected during early lactation was 44.5, 8.6, and 2.1 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Most infections (87.1%) were due to Staphylococcus species other than Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-six of 460 quarters were infected with major pathogens before treatment, 3 of 22 persisted following antibiotic treatment, and 9 of 14 persisted in the control group. Infusion of sodium cloxacillin resulted in antibiotic residues in 17.4% of samples obtained .5 d postpartum. All samples were negative at 3 and 10 d postpartum. Infusion of cephapirin sodium resulted in antibiotic residues in 84.7, 28.2, and 0% of samples obtained at .5, 3, and 10 d, respectively. Prepartum antibiotic therapy was effective in eliminating many IMI, especially those caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, but there is the potential for antibiotic residues in milk.

Cefapirina/uso terapéutico , Cloxacilina/uso terapéutico , Trastornos de la Lactancia/veterinaria , Mastitis Bovina/prevención & control , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Cefapirina/farmacocinética , Cloxacilina/farmacocinética , Calostro/metabolismo , Residuos de Medicamentos/farmacocinética , Femenino , Trastornos de la Lactancia/prevención & control , Leche/metabolismo , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/veterinaria , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control