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1.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 26(11): 1614-21, 2013 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25049749

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01) with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01). Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01) by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01) in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

2.
Poult Sci ; 91(10): 2532-9, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22991539

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne/normas , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Selenio/farmacología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/inmunología , Dieta/veterinaria , Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Selenio/química , Selenio/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso
3.
Br Poult Sci ; 47(4): 516-22, 2006 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16905479

RESUMEN

1. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oligosaccharide stachyose enhances gastrointestinal tract health by fermentation and proliferation of desirable bacteria species and thus affects growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. 2. A total of 432 1-d-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allocated to one of 6 treatments, with 12 replicate pens per treatment and 6 birds per pen. Chicks were fed a maize-hamlet protein 300 (HP300) basal diet with 0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 or 16.0 g/kg stachyose. A sixth diet contained no HP300 but soybean meal (SBM) and provided 8.7 g/kg stachyose and 3.1 g/kg raffinose. The duration of the study was 42 d. 3. Stachyose contents above 12.0 g/kg depressed group body weights, average daily gain and feed/gain but not feed intake during the whole experimental period. Broiler growth decreased linearly and quadratically with increasing stachyose content. No differences were detected between diets supplemented with 12.0 g/kg stachyose and SBM. 4. Nutrient digestibility tended to decrease but not significantly with increasing stachyose. 5. Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.


Asunto(s)
Ciego/efectos de los fármacos , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Fermentación/efectos de los fármacos , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Ciego/microbiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Masculino
4.
J Anim Sci ; 81(11): 2758-65, 2003 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14601879

RESUMEN

Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.30 kg BW) weaned at 28 +/- 3 d of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and on immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The main factors consisted of diet (7% corn oil [CO] or 7% fish oil [FO]) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). On d 14 and 21, pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 microg/kg BW of LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Blood samples were collected 3 h after injection for analysis of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. On d 2 after LPS challenge, peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was determined. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased ADG (487 vs. 586 g; P < 0.05) and ADFI (as-fed, 776 vs. 920 g; P < 0.05) from d 14 to 21 and ADG (587 vs. 652 g; P < 0.10) from d 21 to 28. Fish oil improved ADG (554 vs. 520 g; P < 0.10) and ADFI (891 vs. 805 g; P < 0.10) from d 14 to 21. On d 14, LPS challenge x diet interactions were observed for IL-1beta (P < 0.10), PGE2 (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.05) such that these measurements responded to the LPS challenge to a lesser extent (IL-1beta: 93 vs. 114 pg/mL, P < 0.05; PGE2: 536 vs. 1,285 pg/mL, P < 0.001; cortisol: 143 vs. 206 ng/mL, P < 0.05) in pigs receiving the FO diet than in pigs fed the CO diet. In contrast, among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed the FO diet had higher IGF-I (155 vs. 101 ng/mL; P < 0.10) than those fed the CO diet. On d 21 among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed FO had lower IL-1beta (70 vs. 84 pg/mL; P < 0.10) and cortisol (153 vs. 205 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than those fed CO. Pigs fed FO had lower PGE2 (331 vs. 444 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and higher IGF-I (202 vs. 171 ng/mL; P < 0.10) compared with those fed CO. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased GH (0.27 vs. 0.33 ng/mL; P < 0.05) on d 14, whereas it had no effect on GH on d 21. During both LPS challenge periods, the challenge increased PBLP when these cells were incubated with 8 (1.46 vs. 1.32; P < 0.10) or 16 microg/mL (1.46 vs. 1.30; P < 0.05) of concanavalin A. Fish oil had no effect on PBLP. These results suggest that FO alters the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which might lead to improved pig performance during an immunological challenge.


Asunto(s)
Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dinoprostona/sangre , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales/veterinaria , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/sangre , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/inmunología , Destete , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Poult Sci ; 82(5): 760-6, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12762398

RESUMEN

Lentinan (LEN) is an intensively studied beta-glucan that has been shown to have immunostimulating and antitumor functions. However, it currently is not used in veterinary practice and animal production. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of LEN on broiler splenocyte proliferation, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, and to explore its effects on receptor signal transduction by determining signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic-free Ca2+, cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The results showed that compared to the control all three measured doses, including 40, 80, and 160 microg/mL LEN, increased splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production (P < 0.05). Lentinan increased splenocyte NO production and cytosolic-free calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). After incubating splenocytes for 20 min, LEN increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP concentrations at a dose of 80 and 160 microg/mL, respectively. However, after incubating the splenocytes for 60 min, LEN had no effect on cytosolic cAMP and cGMP concentration irrespective of the LEN dosage. Those results indicated that LEN had immunostimulatory effects on splenocytes by increasing splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production and by activating splenocyte receptor signal transduction.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Lentinano/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , División Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Pollos , AMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , GMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Activación de Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biosíntesis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/inmunología
6.
Poult Sci ; 82(3): 364-70, 2003 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12705395

RESUMEN

Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides [achyranthan (ACH), a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide, and astragalan (APS), a high-molecular-weight polysaccaride] on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Trial 1 was a 28-d growth assay, in which 7-d-old broilers (n = 240) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments, with eight replicate pens per treatment and ten chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included a control corn-soy-fishmeal (Treatment 1), a diet with 200 mg/kg APS (Treatment 2), and a diet with 200 mg/kg ACH (Treatment 3). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for determination of serum parameters, and chickens were killed on Day 28 to measure immune organ indexes. Trial 2 was an in vitro trial to study the effects of different concentrations of polysaccharides on broiler splenocyte functions. In Trial 1, feeding either APS or ACH had no significant effects on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, feeding ACH significantly increased microhemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, bursa of Fabricius index, serum albumin, serum calcium, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at Day 28 (P < or = 0.05). In Trial 2, both polysaccharides showed significant immunostimulating effects. They increased NO and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of splenocytes and enhanced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Those results indicate that the immunostimulating effects of APS are not as pronounced as those of ACH. Achyranthan showed immunostimulating effects in both the growth assay and in vitro studies. Therefore, ACH may be a Chinese herbal polysaccharide that has the potential to be used as a feed additive to improve broilers' immunity.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/inmunología , Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Quempferoles , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Anticuerpos/sangre , Bolsa de Fabricio/inmunología , Calcio/sangre , División Celular , Concanavalina A/farmacología , Dieta , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/sangre , Albúmina Sérica/análisis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/metabolismo
7.
Arch Tierernahr ; 56(3): 199-212, 2002 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12391905

RESUMEN

Two growth trails were conducted to determine the optimum ratio of histidine in 10-20 kg piglet ideal protein model. Four diets containing 0.23%, 0.31%, 0.39% and 0.47% digestible histidine (0, 0.08%, 0.16%, 0.24% crystalline histidine supplemented into the basal diet) were fed to 96 piglets of mean initial body weight 10.3 +/- 1.08 kg for 18 d in Experiment 1. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were inhibited (P < 0.05) with the diet containing 0.23% digestible histidine. Performance was maximized with 0.31% digestible histidine. As the dietary histidine increased, blood urea nitrogen and serum cholesterol concentration were influenced significantly. The concentrations of serum histamine and free histidine did not change with increase in digestible histidine from 0.23 to 0.31%, but higher supplementation resulted in a significant linear increase in both serum parameters. It was concluded that the dietary level of 0.23% digestible histidine does not meet the requirement of 10-20 kg piglets. Based on the results from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 was designed to determine the optimum ratio of lysine:histidine in the ideal protein model of 10-20 kg piglet. Ninety-six Large White x Landrace piglets weighing 10.2 +/- 0.88 kg were divided into 4 groups. They were fed four diets containing 0.26, 0.29, 0.32 or 0.35% digestible histidine, formulated by adding 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 or 0.12% crystalline histidine to the basal diet. The trial lasted for 21 days. Results showed that performance was significantly improved with 0.32 and 0.35% digestible histidine. As dietary histidine increased, blood urea nitrogen tended to decrease but not significant at P < 0.05. Serum cholesterol concentration increased with an increase in dietary histidine level and reached a maximum at 0.35%. Serum histamine increased with increasing dietary histidine. Free serum histidine increased linearly with increased dietary histidine. From both experiments it was concluded that the digestible histidine requirement for 10-20 kg piglets was 0.31% and that the optimum ratio of dietary lysine to histidine should be 100:30. The concentrations of cholesterol, histamine and free histidine in serum were sensitive parameters to measure changes in dietary histidine levels.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Histidina/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangre , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangre , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Histamina/sangre , Histidina/metabolismo , Lisina/administración & dosificación , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Necesidades Nutricionales , Porcinos/sangre , Triglicéridos/sangre , Aumento de Peso
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