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1.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(1): 137-143, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641619

RESUMEN

The A. G. Leventis Foundation International Conference, "Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline with Diet and Lifestyle", was held on May 11-12th, 2022 in Nicosia, Cyprus. This conference examined the role of diet and lifestyle for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and other forms of cognitive decline. Speakers from leading academic institutions presented evidence on healthy dietary patterns, with a particular focus on the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), in association with cognitive outcomes, mainly cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease, from both observational and interventional studies. Moreover, future directions for the potential use of olive oil, rich in polyphenols, for its therapeutic use as a nutraceutical, as well as nutritional interventions with high-quality dietary patterns (i.e. MedDiet) that support existing primarily observational evidence for the prevention of cognitive decline, as well as challenges in designing rigorous clinical trials are summarized and discussed within the conference proceedings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Dieta Mediterránea , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/prevención & control , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Estilo de Vida , Suplementos Dietéticos
2.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 70(1): 116-22, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26220568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gait is an important health indicator, relating strongly to the risk of falling, morbidity and mortality. In a community-dwelling population, we investigated associations of alcohol, coffee and tobacco consumption with gait. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two thousand forty-six non-demented participants from the Rotterdam Study underwent gait assessment by electronic walkway. We measured gait velocity and Global Gait, which is the average of seven gait domains: Rhythm, Phases, Variability, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Alcohol, coffee and tobacco consumption was assessed by questionnaires. With analysis of covariance, we investigated associations of consumption of alcoholic beverages, coffee consumption and smoking with Global Gait, gait velocity and the seven individual gait domains. RESULTS: In all, 81.9% of participants drank alcohol, 92.4% drank coffee, 17.3% were current smokers and 50.9% were past smokers. Moderate alcohol consumption (1-3 glasses per day) associated with better gait, as measured by Global Gait (0.20 standard deviations (s.d.) (95% confidence interval: 0.10; 0.31)), gait velocity (2.65 cm/s (0.80; 4.50)), Rhythm and Variability. Consuming high amounts of coffee (>3 cups per day) associated with better Global Gait (0.18 s.d. (0.08; 0.28)), gait velocity (2.63 cm/s (0.80; 4.45)), Pace, Turning and Variability. Current smoking associated with worse Global Gait (-0.11 s.d. (-0.21; 0.00)), gait velocity (-3.47 cm/s (-5.33; -1.60)), Rhythm and Pace, compared with non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: In a community-dwelling population, consuming >1 cup of coffee and 1-3 glasses of alcohol relate to better gait, whereas smoking is related to worse gait. Further studies are required to evaluate whether interventions targeting substance consumption may aid to prevent or reduce gait deterioration and thereby related health problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Café , Marcha , Fumar , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Coffea , Etanol/farmacología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos
3.
Osteoporos Int ; 26(5): 1595-604, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792489

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Early life nutrition affects peak bone mass attainment. In this prospective cohort study, children with high adherence to a "dairy and whole grains" pattern in infancy had higher bone mineral density at the age of 6 years. Although the observed effects are small, our study provides insight into mechanisms linking early nutrition to bone acquisition in childhood. INTRODUCTION: Nutrition in early life may affect peak bone mass attainment. Previous studies on childhood nutrition and skeletal health mainly focused on individual nutrients, which does not consider the cumulative effects of nutrients. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns in infancy and childhood bone health. METHODS: This study included 2850 children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Dietary information was obtained from a food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months. Using principal component analysis, three major dietary patterns were extracted, explaining in total 30% of the variation in dietary intake. At the age of 6 years, a total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC), and bone area (BA) were analyzed. RESULTS: Higher adherence score to a "dairy and whole grains" pattern was positively associated with BMD and aBMC, but not with BMC and BA. Accordingly, children in the highest quartile of the "dairy and whole grains" pattern had higher BMD (difference 3.98 mg/cm(2), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 7.61) and aBMC (difference 4.96 g, 95% CI 1.27 to 8.64) than children in the lowest quartile. Stratification for vitamin D supplementation showed that the positive associations between the "dairy and whole grains" pattern and bone outcomes were only observed in children who did not receive vitamin D supplementation. A "potatoes, rice, and vegetables" and a "refined grains and confectionery" pattern were not consistently associated with bone outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: An infant dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of dairy and cheese, whole grains, and eggs is positively associated with bone development in childhood. Further research is needed to investigate the consequences for bone health in later life.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante/fisiología , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Adulto , Desarrollo Óseo/fisiología , Productos Lácteos/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Granos Enteros
4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 67(4): 353-9, 2013 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy might influence the fetal immune system through anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, and might affect the risks of childhood asthma and atopy. In Generation R, a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands, we examined the associations of first trimester fish consumption with childhood wheezing and eczema in the first 4 years of life. METHODS: In total, 2976 mothers completed a 293-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering dietary intake in the first trimester. The occurrence of wheezing and eczema was yearly assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS: Median weekly fish consumption was 83 (95% range 0-316) grams per week. We observed no consistent associations of maternal total-, lean- or fatty-fish consumption during pregnancy with the risks of childhood wheezing. Maternal shellfish consumption of 1-13 g per week was associated with overall increased risks of childhood wheezing and eczema (OR 1.20 (1.04, 1.40) and OR 1.18 (1.01, 1.37), respectively). Maternal fatty fish consumption of 35-69 g per week was associated with increased overall risks of childhood eczema (OR 1.17 (1.00, 1.38)), but maternal total- or lean-fish consumption was not. CONCLUSIONS: During pregnancy, shellfish consumption was associated with increased risks of wheezing and eczema, while fatty fish consumption was associated with a higher risk of eczema only. Maternal total fish or lean fish consumption were not associated with wheezing or eczema. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to explore underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Eccema/epidemiología , Peces , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Alimentos Marinos/efectos adversos , Adulto , Animales , Asma/etiología , Asma/fisiopatología , Preescolar , Eccema/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 17(11): 1116-29, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21876539

RESUMEN

Coffee consumption is a model for addictive behavior. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on coffee intake from 8 Caucasian cohorts (N=18 176) and sought replication of our top findings in a further 7929 individuals. We also performed a gene expression analysis treating different cell lines with caffeine. Genome-wide significant association was observed for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24 region. The two SNPs rs2470893 and rs2472297 (P-values=1.6 × 10(-11) and 2.7 × 10(-11)), which were also in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.7) with each other, lie in the 23-kb long commonly shared 5' flanking region between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. CYP1A1 was found to be downregulated in lymphoblastoid cell lines treated with caffeine. CYP1A1 is known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are important constituents of coffee, whereas CYP1A2 is involved in the primary metabolism of caffeine. Significant evidence of association was also detected at rs382140 (P-value=3.9 × 10(-09)) near NRCAM-a gene implicated in vulnerability to addiction, and at another independent hit rs6495122 (P-value=7.1 × 10(-09))-an SNP associated with blood pressure-in the 15q24 region near the gene ULK3, in the meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts. Our results from GWASs and expression analysis also strongly implicate CAB39L in coffee drinking. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed significantly enriched ubiquitin proteasome (P-value=2.2 × 10(-05)) and Parkinson's disease pathways (P-value=3.6 × 10(-05)).


Asunto(s)
Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/genética , Café/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Ingestión de Líquidos/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/genética , Cafeína/farmacología , Línea Celular , Femenino , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Población Blanca/genética
6.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 2(3): 195, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26105250

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Blood pressure levels during pregnancy are important risk factors for gestational hypertensive disorders. Non-pregnant women from ethnic minority groups are found to have higher blood pressure levels compared to white women. Little is known about variation in blood pressure development during pregnancy across different ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in blood pressure levels in each trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders and the degree to which such differences can be explained by education and lifestyle related factors. METHODS: The study included 6215 women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Ethnicity was assessed at enrolment. Blood pressure was measured in each trimester. Information about gestational hypertensive disorders was available from medical records. Lifestyle factors included smoking, alcohol, caffeine intake, folic acid supplementation, sodium and energy intake, body mass index and maternal stress. Associations and explanatory pathways were investigated using linear and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Dutch pregnant women had higher systolic blood pressure levels as compared to women in other ethnic groups in each trimester of pregnancy. Compared to Dutch women, Turkish and Moroccan women had lower diastolic blood pressure levels in each trimester. These differences remained after adjusting for education and lifestyle factors. Turkish and Moroccan women had a lower risk of gestational hypertension as compared to Dutch women (OR 0.32; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.58 and OR 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.58) and Cape Verdean women had an elevated risk of preeclampsia (OR 2.22; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.07). Differences could not be explained by education or lifestyle. CONCLUSION: Substantial ethnic differences were observed in blood pressure levels in each trimester of pregnancy and risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. A wide range of potential explanatory variables could not explain these differences.

7.
BJOG ; 118(4): 500-9, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21244614

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal age and birth outcomes, and to investigate the role of sociodemographic and lifestyle-related determinants. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards. SETTING: Rotterdam, the Netherlands. POPULATION: A cohort of 8568 mothers and their children. METHODS: Maternal age was assessed at enrolment. Information about sociodemographic (height, weight, educational level, ethnicity, parity) and lifestyle-related determinants (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, folic acid supplement use, caffeine intake, daily energy intake) and birth outcomes was obtained from questionnaires and hospital records. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Birthweight, preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age, and large-for-gestational-age. RESULTS: As compared with mothers aged 30-34.9 years, no differences in risk of preterm delivery were found. Mothers younger than 20 years had the highest risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age babies(OR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5); however, this increased risk disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle-related determinants. Mothers older than 40 years had the highest risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age babies (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8-2.4). The associations of maternal age with the risks of delivering large-for-gestational-age babies could not be explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle-related determinants. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with mothers aged 30-34.9 years, younger mothers have an increased risk of small-for-gestational-age babies, whereas older mothers have an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age babies. Sociodemographic and lifestyle-related determinants cannot fully explain these differences.


Asunto(s)
Edad Materna , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/epidemiología , Macrosomía Fetal/epidemiología , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional , Estilo de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Matern Child Health J ; 15(6): 689-99, 2011 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20533083

RESUMEN

Despite compulsory health insurance in Europe, ethnic differences in access to health care exist. The objective of this study is to investigate how ethnic differences between Dutch and non-Dutch women with respect to late entry into antenatal care provided by community midwifes can be explained by need, predisposing and enabling factors. Data were obtained from the Generation R Study. The Generation R Study is a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study conducted in the city of Rotterdam. In total, 2,093 pregnant women with a Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, Cape Verdean, Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani background were included in this study. We examined whether ethnic differences in late antenatal care entry could be explained by need, predisposing and enabling factors. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent role of explanatory variables in the timing of antenatal care entry. The main outcome measure was late entry into antenatal care (gestational age at first visit after 14 weeks). With the exception of Surinamese-Hindustani women, the percentage of mothers entering antenatal care late was higher in all non-Dutch compared to Dutch mothers. We could explain differences between Turkish (OR = 0.95, CI: 0.57-1.58), Cape Verdean (OR = 1.65. CI: 0.96-2.82) and Dutch women. Other differences diminished but remained significant (Moroccan: OR = 1,74, CI: 1.07-2.85; Dutch Antillean OR 1.80, CI: 1.04-3.13). We found that non-Dutch mothers were more likely to enter antenatal care later than Dutch mothers. Because we are unable to explain fully the differences regarding Moroccan, Surinamese-Creole and Antillean women, future research should focus on differences between 1st and 2nd generation migrants, as well as on language barriers that may hinder access to adequate information about the Dutch obstetric system.


Asunto(s)
Partería/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/etnología , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Cabo Verde/etnología , Causalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Marruecos/etnología , Países Bajos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Suriname/etnología , Factores de Tiempo , Turquía/etnología
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 21(1): 54-61, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19819678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Periconception folic acid supplementation may influence early placentation processes and thereby the occurrence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders. For this reason we examined the associations between periconception folic acid supplementation and uteroplacental vascular resistance, blood pressure, and the risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, in 5993 pregnant women, participating in a population-based cohort study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Folic acid supplementation was assessed by questionnaire. Mean pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the uterine (UtA) and umbilical arteries (UmA) were measured by Doppler ultrasound in mid- and late pregnancy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were measured in early, mid- and late pregnancy. Compared to women who did not use folic acid, preconception folic acid users had a slightly lower UtA-RI in mid-pregnancy [ß -0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.03, -0.01] and late pregnancy [ß -0.02, 95% CI -0.03, -0.001], a lower UtA-PI in mid-pregnancy [ß -0.06, 95% CI -0.1, -0.03] and late pregnancy [ß -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.01], as well as tendencies towards a lower UmA-PI in mid-pregnancy [ß -0.02, 95% CI -0.04, -0.001] and late pregnancy [ß -0.01, 95% CI -0.02, 0.01]. Additionally, these women had slightly higher SBP and DBP throughout pregnancy. Neither the patterns of blood-pressure change during pregnancy, nor the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia differed between the folic acid categories. CONCLUSION: Periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with lower uteroplacental vascular resistance and higher blood pressures during pregnancy. The effects are small and within physiologic ranges and seem not associated with the risk of hypertensive pregnancy disorders.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico/farmacología , Circulación Placentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Resistencia Vascular/efectos de los fármacos , Vitaminas/farmacología , Adolescente , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Estudios de Cohortes , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/epidemiología , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/fisiopatología , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Trimestres del Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Ultrasonografía , Arterias Umbilicales/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Umbilicales/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
10.
Neurology ; 67(2): 315-8, 2006 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16864826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased homocysteine levels might accelerate dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease (PD), through neurotoxic effects. Higher dietary intakes of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 (cofactors in homocysteine metabolism) might decrease the risk of PD through decreasing plasma homocysteine. Moreover, vitamin B6 might influence the risk of PD through antioxidant effects unrelated to homocysteine metabolism and through its role in dopamine synthesis. METHODS: In the Rotterdam Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study of people aged 55 years and older, the authors evaluated the association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 and the risk of incident PD among 5,289 participants who were free of dementia and parkinsonism and underwent complete dietary assessment at baseline. PD was assessed through repeated in-person examination and continuous monitoring by computer linkage to medical records. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, the authors identified 72 participants with incident PD. Higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of PD (hazard ratio per SD, 0.69 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.96]; for highest vs lowest tertile, 0.46 [0.22 to 0.96]). Stratified analyses showed that this association was restricted to smokers. No association was observed for dietary folate and vitamin B(12). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary vitamin B6 may decrease the risk of Parkinson disease, probably through mechanisms unrelated to homocysteine metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Dietoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Ácido Fólico/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Vitamina B 12/administración & dosificación , Vitamina B 6/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Estudios de Cohortes , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Neurology ; 64(12): 2040-5, 2005 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15985568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unsaturated fatty acids are important constituents of neuronal cell membranes and have neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids might be associated with a lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: In the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study of people ages > or =55, the association between intake of unsaturated fatty acids and the risk of incident PD was evaluated among 5,289 subjects who were free of dementia and parkinsonism and underwent complete dietary assessment at baseline. PD was assessed through repeated in-person examination, and the cohort was continuously monitored by computer linkage to medical records. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 6.0 years, 51 participants with incident PD were identified. Intakes of total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were significantly associated with a lower risk of PD, with an adjusted hazard ratio per SD increase of energy-adjusted intake of 0.69 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.91) for total fat, of 0.68 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.94) for MUFAs, and 0.66 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.96) for PUFAs. No associations were found for dietary saturated fat, cholesterol, or trans-fat. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that high intake of unsaturated fatty acids might protect against Parkinson disease.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/prevención & control , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Monoinsaturados/uso terapéutico , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Alimentos Formulados/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/metabolismo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Neurology ; 59(12): 1915-21, 2002 Dec 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12499483

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids (saturated fat), trans fatty acids (trans fat), and cholesterol and low intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA are associated with increased risk of dementia and its subtypes. METHOD: Data from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among elderly, were used. At baseline (1990 to 1993), 5,395 subjects had normal cognition, were noninstitutionalized, and underwent complete dietary assessment by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The cohort was continuously monitored for incident dementia, and re-examinations were performed in 1993 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999. The association between fat intake and incident dementia was examined by Cox's proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 6.0 years, 197 subjects developed dementia (146 AD, 29 vascular dementia). High intake of total, saturated, trans fat, and cholesterol and low intake of MUFA, PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA were not associated with increased risk of dementia or its subtypes. Rate ratios of dementia per standard deviation increase in intake were for total fat 0.93 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.07), for saturated fat 0.91 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.05), for trans fat 0.90 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.06), for cholesterol 0.93 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.08), for MUFA 0.96 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.10), for PUFA 1.05 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.38), for n-6 PUFA 1.03 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.36), and for n-3 PUFA 1.07 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.22). CONCLUSION: High intake of total, saturated, and trans fat and cholesterol and low intake of MUFA, PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA were not associated with increased risk of dementia or its subtypes.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/epidemiología , Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Colesterol en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Estudios de Cohortes , Demencia/diagnóstico , Educación , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos/efectos adversos , Ácidos Grasos Monoinsaturados , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Ácidos Grasos Omega-6 , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Vitamina E/uso terapéutico
13.
Arch Intern Med ; 159(18): 2170-4, 1999 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10527294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have indicated a protective role of dietary flavonoids in cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major dietary source for flavonoids in Western populations. We studied the association of tea intake with aortic atherosclerosis in a general population. METHODS: The present analysis formed part of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective study of men and women 55 years and older. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline by a trained dietician who used a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Calcified plaques in the abdominal aorta were radiographically detected after 2 to 3 years of follow-up. Aortic atherosclerosis was classified as "mild," "moderate," or "severe," according to the length of the calcified area (<1 cm, 1-5 cm, and >5 cm, respectively). The association of tea intake with severity of aortic atherosclerosis was studied in 3454 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Data were analyzed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), smoking, education, and intake of alcohol, coffee, vitamin antioxidants, total fat, and total energy. RESULTS: Multivariable analyses showed a significant, inverse association of tea intake with severe aortic atherosclerosis. Odds ratios decreased from 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.92) for drinking 125 to 250 mL (1-2 cups) of tea to 0.31 (CI, 0.16-0.59) for drinking more than 500 mL/d (4 cups per day). The associations were stronger in women than in men. The association of tea intake with mild and moderate atherosclerosis was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a protective effect of tea drinking against ischemic heart disease.


Asunto(s)
Arteriosclerosis/prevención & control , Flavonoides/farmacología , , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Riesgo , Té/química
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 69(2): 261-6, 1999 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9989690

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown dietary antioxidants to be inversely correlated with ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E were related to the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in an elderly population. DESIGN: The study sample consisted of 4802 participants of the Rotterdam Study aged 55-95 y who were free of MI at baseline and for whom dietary data assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were available. During a 4-y follow-up period, 124 subjects had an MI. The association between energy-adjusted beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E intakes and risk of MI was examined by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk of MI for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of beta-carotene intake was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.83; P for trend = 0.013), adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, pack-years, income, education, alcohol intake, energy-adjusted intakes of vitamin C and E, and use of antioxidative vitamin supplements. When beta-carotene intakes from supplements were considered, the inverse relation with risk of MI was slightly more pronounced. Stratification by smoking status indicated that the association was most evident in current and former smokers. No association with risk of MI was observed for dietary vitamin C and vitamin E. CONCLUSION: The results of this observational study in the elderly population of the Rotterdam Study support the hypothesis that high dietary beta-carotene intakes may protect against cardiovascular disease. We did not observe an association between vitamin C or vitamin E and MI.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Ácido Ascórbico/administración & dosificación , Dieta , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , beta Caroteno/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 60(1): 129-35, 1994 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8017327

RESUMEN

In a double-blind controlled trial, 91 middle-aged and elderly women with mild to moderate hypertension who were not on antihypertensive medication were randomly assigned to treatment with magnesium aspartate-HCl (20 mmol Mg/d) or placebo for 6 mo. Magnesium aspartate-HCl in the given dose was well-tolerated and was not associated with an increased frequency of diarrhea compared with placebo. At the end of the study, systolic blood pressure had fallen by 2.7 mm Hg (95% CI -1.2, 6.7; P = 0.18) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.4 mm Hg (1.3, 5.6; P = 0.003) more in the magnesium group than in the placebo group. Blood pressure response was not associated with baseline magnesium status, as measured by dietary magnesium intake and urinary magnesium excretion. Urinary magnesium excretion in the magnesium group increased by 50% during the intervention period. No changes were seen in other biochemical indexes, including serum concentrations of total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The findings suggest that oral supplementation with magnesium aspartate-HCl may lower blood pressure in subjects with mild to moderate hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Aspártico/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , Ácido Aspártico/administración & dosificación , Ácido Aspártico/efectos adversos , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Magnesio/sangre , Magnesio/orina , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , Renina/sangre
16.
Arterioscler Thromb ; 11(3): 653-62, 1991.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2029503

RESUMEN

A delayed clearance of postprandial lipoproteins from the plasma may play a role in the etiology of premature coronary atherosclerosis. To address this hypothesis, we studied chylomicron (remnant) metabolism in two groups of 20 selected normolipidemic men aged 35-65 years, a group of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, and a matched control group with documented minimal coronary atherosclerosis. Subjects received an oral fat load supplemented with cholesterol and retinyl palmitate. Plasma samples obtained during the next 24-hour period were analyzed for total as well as d less than 1.019 g/ml and d greater than 1.019 g/ml triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and retinyl ester concentrations. Although both groups of patients responded identically in terms of the appearance of gut-derived lipids in the plasma, CAD patients showed a marked delay in the clearance of retinyl esters as well as in the normalization of plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Postheparin plasma hepatic lipase activity was significantly lower in the CAD group. Apolipoprotein E phenotype measurements did not reveal marked differences in frequency between both groups. The frequency distribution was not unusual in comparison with the normal Dutch population. The magnitude of the postprandial responses of triacylglycerol and retinyl esters was correlated positively with the fasting levels of plasma triacylglycerol and negatively with high density lipoprotein subfraction 2 cholesterol concentrations. These data indicate that the clearance of postprandial lipoproteins in normolipidemic CAD patients as selected in the present study is delayed as compared with that of controls without coronary atherosclerosis and suggest that postprandial lipoproteins may play a role in the etiology of their disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/sangre , Alimentos , Lípidos/sangre , Lipoproteínas/sangre , Adulto , Apolipoproteínas E/sangre , Colesterol/sangre , Colesterol en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Quilomicrones/sangre , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Diterpenos , Heparina/farmacología , Humanos , Lipasa/sangre , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangre , Lipoproteínas HDL2 , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ésteres de Retinilo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Vitamina A/administración & dosificación , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Vitamina A/sangre
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 86(1): 85-90, 1991 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2064637

RESUMEN

To evaluate the antioxidant hypothesis with regard to atherosclerosis, we compared plasma selenium, serum alpha-tocopherol, serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and the ratios of selenium and alpha-tocopherol to PUFAs in subjects with varying degrees of coronary atherosclerosis. Cases had more than 85% stenosis in at least one coronary vessel and controls had less than 50% stenosis in all three vessels. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in cases than controls (95.1 +/- 21.0 micrograms/l and 108.8 +/- 29.3 micrograms/l, respectively). Though alpha-tocopherol and PUFA levels were similar in both groups, the ratios Se/linoleic acid, Se/total PUFA and Se/total n-6 acids were significantly lower in cases. In particular, these differences were observed in subjects with low serum alpha-tocopherol level (below the median; 1452 micrograms/dl). Moreover, in this subgroup the ratio Se/PUFA was significantly lower in cases than in controls for all PUFAs except eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Though definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from our data, it is hypothesized that high PUFA levels, when insufficiently protected by antioxidants against peroxidation, may indicate a higher risk of atherosclerosis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/sangre , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Selenio/sangre , Vitamina E/sangre , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/metabolismo , Femenino , Depuradores de Radicales Libres , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 9(2): 128-35, 1990 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2187027

RESUMEN

To provide further insight into the possible role of selenium in cardiovascular disease, we examined the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, some nutritional parameters, and short- and long-term selenium status. A total of 82 healthy Dutch volunteers, 59 men and 23 women, aged 40-75 years, were studied. Means and standard deviations of selenium parameters were: plasma selenium 106.4 +/- 23.7 micrograms/L, erythrocyte selenium 0.59 +/- 0.19 microgram/g Hb, toenail selenium 0.78 +/- 0.17 ppm, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity 28.0 +/- 8.1 U/g Hb. No association was found between selenium status and gender, age, serum total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, alcohol intake, and body mass index. A significantly lower plasma selenium level was observed among smokers compared to nonsmokers (101.0 micrograms/L, SE = 3.9 vs 112.0 micrograms/L, SE = 3.6, p = 0.04). A significant negative association was found between erythrocyte selenium and serum levels of vitamin A and ferritin. No relevant relationship was observed between selenium status and serum fatty acid composition, vitamin E, vitamin B6, and iron. Apart from an association between smoking and short-term selenium status, we found no indications that a possible effect of selenium on cardiovascular disease may operate through the known risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/etiología , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Selenio/fisiología , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
19.
JAMA ; 261(8): 1161-4, 1989 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2915438

RESUMEN

To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, we compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls (31.3 +/- 8.4 U/g of hemoglobin and 28.0 +/- 8.1 U/g of hemoglobin, respectively). Because the toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Selenio/deficiencia , Anciano , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Femenino , Glutatión Peroxidasa/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/metabolismo , Uñas/análisis , Factores de Riesgo , Selenio/sangre
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 16(2): 329-32, 1987 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3610463

RESUMEN

This paper summarizes Dutch epidemiological findings on the impact of a low selenium (Se) status on mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Se status parameters of Dutch subjects are compared to those from Finland and the USA, and the concept of a threshold effect for Se on disease risk is discussed. Case-control analyses of prospective data suggest that low serum Se (below 105 micrograms/l) is not clearly associated with an excess risk of CVD death (relative risk RR = 1.6, 90% confidence interval Cl = 0.9-2.9). Se cancer findings indicate a possible gender difference in risk (in males RR = 2.7, 90% Cl = 1.2-6.2; in females RR = 1.5, 90% Cl = 0.5-4.5). Larger studies, monitoring a combination of Se status parameters are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Selenio/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Glutatión Peroxidasa/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangre , Países Bajos , Riesgo , Selenio/deficiencia
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