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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 202(7): 3062-3072, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273185

RESUMEN

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now considered among the top three contributors to mortality globally. There is limited understanding surrounding the contribution of magnesium to the progression of COPD. This survey aims to evaluate the connection between dietary magnesium intake and both lung function and COPD prevalence among the US population. The research comprised 4865 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) program conducted from 2007 to 2012. To evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and lung function as well as COPD, the study conducted multiple regression analyses, stratified analyses, and smoothed curves. In this study, we explored the relationship between higher magnesium intake and higher FEV1 [ß = 0.21 (95% CI 0.12, 0.30)] and FVC [ß = 0.25 (95% CI 0.14, 0.36)] after accounting for all potential confounding factors. We demonstrated a relationship between increased magnesium intake and reduced odds of developing COPD [OR = 0.9993 (95% CI 0.9987, 1.0000)]. The results of stratified analyses further indicated that the relationship between magnesium intake and the risk of COPD is more pronounced in the 40-60 age group and males. The study demonstrated positive associations between the intake of dietary magnesium and both FEV1 and FVC. Additionally, an adverse relationship between magnesium intake and the prevalence of COPD was also observed, suggesting that supplementation with magnesium may be a practical approach to preventing and managing COPD.


Asunto(s)
Magnesio , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Humanos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Magnesio/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Dieta , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado
2.
Chin J Physiol ; 66(5): 313-325, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37929342

RESUMEN

The flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) have been used as vegetable and medicinal herb for thousands of years in Taiwan and eastern Asia. Daylily flowers have been demonstrated to exert several biomedical properties. In this study, we provided the evidences show that daylily flowers exert anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and improved the sleep quality in vivo. We demonstrated that adult volunteers received water extract of daylily flowers improved sleep quality, sleep efficiency and daytime functioning, while sleep latency was reduced, compared to the adult volunteers received water. In addition, we demonstrated that aqueous and ethanol extracts of daylily flowers inhibited nitric oxide and interleukin-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. Furthermore, the quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-based analysis showed the rutin content of the aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fractions of ethanolic extract, and water fractions of ethanolic extract were 7.27, 23.30, 14.71, and 57.43 ppm, respectively. These results indicate that daylily flowers have the potential to be a nutraceutical for improving inflammatory-related diseases and sleep quality in the future.


Asunto(s)
Hemerocallis , Extractos Vegetales , Calidad del Sueño , Humanos , Flores/química , Hemerocallis/química , Interleucina-6 , Macrófagos , Óxido Nítrico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(18): 4919-4941, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802834

RESUMEN

Halogenated sesquiterpenes are important derivatives of sesquiterpenes, referring to chemical components of sesquiterpenes that contain halogens such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Halogenated sesquiterpenes have attracted attention from researchers in China and abroad because of their diverse structures, unique halogen elements, and extensive pharmacological activities. Studies have shown that halogenated sesquiterpenes exhibit significant antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, insecticidal, hypoglycemic, and enzyme inhibitory activities. In order to better explore the potential pharmaceutical value of halogenated sesquiterpenes, this paper reviewed the structural characteristics and pharmacological activities of halogenated sesquiterpenes in the past two decades, aiming to provide references for further research and development of this class of compounds.


Asunto(s)
Sesquiterpenos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacología , Sesquiterpenos/química , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , China
4.
Hortic Res ; 10(8): uhad129, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560018

RESUMEN

The carbon concentrating mechanism-C4 photosynthesis-represents a classic example of convergent evolution, but how this important trait originated and evolved remains largely enigmatic. The spider flower Gynandropsis gynandra is a valuable leafy vegetable crop and medicinal plant that has also been recognized as a C4 model species. Here we present a high-quality chromosome-scale annotated genome assembly of G. gynandra through a combination of Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT), HiFi and Hi-C technology. The 17 super-scaffolds cover 98.66% of the estimated genome (997.61 Mb), with a contig N50 of 11.43 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 51.02 Mb. Repetitive elements occupy up to 71.91% of its genome, and over half are long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) derived from recent bursts, contributing to genome size expansion. Strikingly, LTR-RT explosion also played a critical role in C4 evolution by altering expression features of photosynthesis-associated genes via preferential insertion in promoters. Integrated multiomics analyses of G. gynandra and the ornamental horticulture C3 relative Tarenaya hassleriana reveal that species-specific whole-genome duplication, gene family expansion, recent LTR-RT amplification, and more recent tandem duplication events have all facilitated the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, revealing uniqueness of C4 evolution in the Cleome genus. Moreover, high leaf vein density and heat stress resilience are associated with shifted gene expression patterns. The mode of C3-to-C4 transition found here yields new insights into evolutionary convergence of a complex plant trait. The availability of this reference-grade genomic resource makes G. gynandra an ideal model system facilitating efforts toward C4-aimed crop engineering.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 317: 116834, 2023 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355084

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a traditional Chinese medical decoction, designed based on the classic Si-Jun-Zi-Tang decoction and used clinically to improve the synergic effects of energy promotion, liver function and cancer related symptom and quality of life. However, the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) function of KSY is unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the anti-mobility activity of KSY on HCC cells and elucidate its molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two malignancy hepatocellular carcinoma cells, Mahlavu and SK-Hep-1, were used for the test of cell proliferation via alarm blue assay. The wound healing and Transwell assays were used to determine the anti-mobility activity of KSY in HCC cells. Cell morphology was analyzed via confocal microscopy. The genomic profile of KSY-treated HCC cells was analyzed by microarray. The potential signaling pathways and bio-functions of KSY-mediated genes were analyzed by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of indicated gene. RESULTS: KSY did not affect cell viability of HCC cells but significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in those HCC Mahlavu and SK-Hep-1 cells. In parallel, KSY induced changes in morphology of HCC cells via re-modulating actin cytoskeleton. KSY upregulated 1270 genes but reduced 1534 genes in Mahlavu cells. KSY regulated various gene networks which controlled cell migration, invasion and movement. Specifically, KSY reduced expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), which is correlated to cell mobility, and concomitantly downregulated mRNA levels of phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 (PIK3R3) and CEA cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that regulation of CCL2-mediated PIK3R3 and CEACAM1 may be involved in KSY inhibited cell mobility. Moreover, KSY may be a potential a Chinese decoction for reducing cell mobility.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional China , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Abajo , Calidad de Vida , Movimiento Celular , Proliferación Celular , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Línea Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo
6.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 427, 2023 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37386574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and immune dysfunction with classically activated macrophages(M1) infiltration are important mechanisms in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-dependent mitochondrial fission is a novel target for alleviating inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DRP1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 on AS. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet supplemented with or without Mdivi-1. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by ox-LDL, pretreated with or without MCC950, Mito-TEMPO, or Mdivi-1. The burden of plaques and foam cell formation were determined using ORO staining. The blood lipid profles and inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by commercial kits and ELISA, respectively. The mRNA expression of macrophage polarization markers, activation of NLRP3 and the phosphorylation state of DRP1 were detected. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS), mitochondrial staining, ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by mito-SOX, MitoTracker, ATP determination kit and JC-1 staining, respectively. RESULTS: In vivo, Mdivi-1 reduced the plaque areas, M1 polarization, NLRP3 activation and DRP1 phosphorylation at Ser616. In vitro, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) triggered M1 polarization, NLRP3 activation and abnormal accumulation of mito-ROS. MCC950 and Mito-TEMPO suppressed M1 polarization mediated foam cell formation. Mito-TEMPO significantly inhibited NLRP3 activation. In addition, Mdivi-1 reduced foam cells by inhibiting M1 polarization. The possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-atherosclerotic effects of Mdivi-1 on reducing M1 polarization were associated with suppressing mito-ROS/NLRP3 pathway by inhibiting DRP1 mediated mitochondrial fission. In vitro, similar results were observed by DRP1 knockdown. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission by Mdivi-1 alleviated atherogenesis via suppressing mito-ROS/NLRP3-mediated M1 polarization, indicating DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission as a potential therapeutic target for AS.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis , Indenos , Animales , Ratones , Dinámicas Mitocondriales , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Aterosclerosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Dinaminas , Furanos , Adenosina Trifosfato
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36846050

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the association between waist circumference (WC) and cardiovascular death in patients with permanent pacemakers (PPMs). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that enrolled patients who underwent PPM implantation in Fuwai Hospital from May 2010 to April 2014, according to the BIOTRONIK Home Monitoring database. The WC was treated as sex-specific quartiles, and patients were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI): normal (≤22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥25 kg/m2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cardiovascular death according to WC and BMI in patients. Results: 492 patients with PPMs implantation were analyzed (mean age: 71.9 ± 10.8 years; 55.1% men (n = 271)). Data showed that after a mean follow-up 67.2 ± 17.5 months, 24 (4.9%) patients had experienced cardiovascular death and 71 (14.4%) were cases of all-cause mortality. Men in the third quartile of WC had an HR of 10.67 (Model 4, 95% CI: 1.00-115.21, p trend = 0.04) for cardiovascular death. However, the association disappeared in female patients (Model 4, HR = 3.99, 95% CI: 0.37-42.87, p trend = 0.25). There was no association between BMI and cardiovascular death or all-cause mortality in both male and female patients. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with PPMs, and this relationship was only in male patients.

8.
Fitoterapia ; 165: 105405, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572119

RESUMEN

A phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Citrullus colocynthis resulted in the isolation of 21 structurally diverse cucurbitane triterpenoids, including 9 previously undescribed ones, colocynins A-I (1-9). Their absolute configurations were elucidated by means of quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, CD exciton chirality method, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Colocynins A-C (1-3) represent the first examples of nonanorcucurbitane-type triterpenoids. An anti-acetylcholinesterase activity assay showed that 6, 10, 13, 18, and 20 exhibited inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 5.0 to 21.7 µM. In addition, 18 and 21 showed significant cytotoxicity against PACA, A431, and HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.042 to 0.60 and 3.6-14.4 µM, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Citrullus colocynthis , Triterpenos , Citrullus colocynthis/química , Frutas/química , Estructura Molecular , Triterpenos/farmacología , Triterpenos/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(23): 6408-6413, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211998

RESUMEN

The chemical constituents of Helleborus thibetanus were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography, and semi-preparative RP-HPLC, and the structures of all compounds were identified by modern spectrographic technology(MS, NMR). The MTT method was used to measure the cytotoxicity of compounds 1-8. Twelve compounds were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of H. thibetanus and were identified as(25R)-22ß,25-expoxy-26-[(O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-1ß,3ß-dihydroxyfurosta-5-en(1), ß-sitosterol myristate(2), ß-sitosterol lactate(3), ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß-D-glucopyrannoside(4), 4,6,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one(5), 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene(6), 7,8-dimethylbenzo pteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione(7), 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid(8), p-hydroxy cinnamic acid(9), lauric acid(10), n-butyl α-L-arabinofuranoside(11) and methyl-α-D-fructofuranoside(12), respectively. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound and named thibetanoside L; compounds 2, 5-8, 11 are first isolated from the family Ranunculaceae; compound 12 is isolated from the genus Helleborus for the first time. The results of MTT assay showed that the IC_(50) values of compounds 1-8 against HepG2 and HCT116 cells were greater than 100 µmol·L~(-1).


Asunto(s)
Helleborus , Helleborus/química , Estructura Molecular , Raíces de Plantas/química , Rizoma/química , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética
10.
Artículo en Chino | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985514

RESUMEN

Objectives: To study the association between metals mixture exposure and DNA oxidative damage using mixture analysis methods, and to explore the most significant exposure factors that cause DNA oxidative damage. Methods: Workers from steel enterprises were recruited in Shandong Province. Urinary metals were measured by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. The level of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), elastic net regression and quantile g-computation regression were used to analyze the association between urinary metals and urinary 8-OHdG. Results: A total of 768 subjects aged (36.15±7.40) years old were included in the study. BKMR, elastic net regression and quantile g-computation all revealed an overall positive association between the mixture concentration and increased urinary 8-OHdG. The quantile g-computation results showed that with a 25% increase in metal mixtures, the urinary 8-OHdG level increased by 77.60%. The elastic net regression showed that with a 25% increase in exposure risk score, the urinary 8-OHdG level increased by 26%. The BKMR summarized the contribution of individual exposures to the response, and selenium, zinc, and nickel were significant contributors to the urinary 8-OHdG elevation. Conclusion: Exposure to mixed metals causes elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage, and selenium, zinc, and nickel are significant exposure factors.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Níquel/toxicidad , Selenio , Teorema de Bayes , Metales/toxicidad , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Zinc , Daño del ADN
11.
Neuroimage ; 264: 119766, 2022 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435344

RESUMEN

Predictions, the bridge between the internal and external worlds, are established by prior experience and updated by sensory stimuli. Responses to omitted but unexpected stimuli, known as omission responses, can break the one-to-one mapping of stimulus-response and can expose predictions established by the preceding stimulus built up. While research into exogenous predictions (driven by external stimuli) is often reported, that into endogenous predictions (driven by internal percepts) is rarely available in the literature. Here, we report evidence for endogenous predictions established by the Zwicker tone illusion, a phantom pure-tone-like auditory percept following notch noises. We found that MMN, P300, and theta oscillations could be recorded using an omission paradigm in subjects who can perceive Zwicker tone illusions, but could not in those who cannot. The MMN and P300 responses relied on attention, but theta oscillations did not. In-depth analysis shows that an increase in single-trial theta power, including total and induced theta, with the endogenous prediction, is lateralized to the left frontal brain areas. Our study depicts that the brain automatically analyzes internal perception, progressively establishes predictions and yields prediction errors in the left frontal region when a violation occurs.


Asunto(s)
Ilusiones , Humanos , Ilusiones/fisiología , Sonido , Atención/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos/fisiología
12.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154215, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691077

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a global serious pandemic and is responsible for over 4 million human deaths. Currently, although various vaccines have been developed, humans can still get SARS-CoV-2 infection after being vaccinated. Therefore, the blocking of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be potential therapeutic strategies. Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMI), a small fungal protein, is cloned from Ganoderma microsporum. It exhibits anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, it is still unclear whether GMI involves in interfering with viral infection. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential functions and mechanisms of GMI on inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. METHODS: The effects of GMI were examined in vitro on ACE2 overexpressing HEK293T (HEK293T/ACE2) cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Spike lentiviral pseudovirus encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The infection efficacy was determined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein level of ACE2 was verified by Western blot. The effects of GMI on cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2 and lung epithelial WI38-2RA cells were determined by MTT assay. Mice received GMI via nebulizer. RESULTS: GMI did not affect the cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2, WI38-2RA and macrophages. Functional studies showed that GMI inhibited GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus from infecting HEK293T/ACE2 cells. GMI slightly interfered the interaction between ACE2 and Spike protein. GMI interacted with S2 domain of Spike protein. Specifically, GMI dramatically reduced ACE2 expression in HEK293T/ACE2 and WI38-2RA cells. Mechanistically, GMI induced ACE2 degradation via activating protein degradation system, including proteasome and lysosome. Abolishing proteasome and lysosome by MG132 and bafilomycin A1, respectively, rescued GMI-reduced ACE2 levels. In addition, GMI triggered dynamin and lipid raft-mediated ACE2 endocytosis. ACE2 levels were downregulated in the lung tissue after the mice inhaling GMI. CONCLUSIONS: GMI prevents SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection via induction of ACE2 degradation in host cells. Our findings suggest that GMI will be a potential prevention agent to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , Animales , Ganoderma , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ratones , Complejo de la Endopetidasa Proteasomal/metabolismo , Unión Proteica , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Pseudotipado Viral
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0227621, 2022 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404086

RESUMEN

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection leads to late-term reproductive failure and respiratory illness that affect the global swine industry. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenolic compound from green tea that exerts antiviral activity against diverse viruses. This study aimed to report an uncharacterized mechanism of how EGCG restricted PRRSV proliferation. EGCG showed no significant effects on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages and MARC-145 cells. The treatment of cells with EGCG attenuated the replication of both highly pathogenic and less pathogenic PRRSV in vitro. The viral life cycle analysis demonstrated that EGCG affected PRRSV replication and assembly, but not viral attachment, entry, or release. Interestingly, EGCG treatment abrogated the increased lipid droplets formation and lipid content induced by PRRSV infection. We further demonstrated that EGCG blocked PRRSV-stimulated expression of the key enzymes in lipid synthesis. In addition, EGCG attenuated PRRSV-induced autophagy that is critical for PRRSV proliferation. The supplementation of oleic acid restored PRRSV replication and assembly under EGCG treatment. Together, our results support that EGCG inhibits PRRSV proliferation through disturbing lipid metabolism. IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped single-positive-stranded RNA virus that causes acute respiratory distress in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, resulting in huge economic losses to the global swine industry. Several lines of evidence have suggested the crucial roles of lipids in PRRSV proliferation. Our previous report demonstrated that PRRSV activated lipophagy to facilitate viral replication through downregulating the expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1. The manipulation of lipid metabolism may be a new perspective to prevent PRRSV spread. In the present study, we reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea catechins, significantly attenuated PRRSV infection through inhibiting lipid synthesis and autophagy. Given that natural products derived from plants have helped in the prevention and treatment of various infectious diseases, EGCG has a great potential to serve as a safe and environmentally friendly natural compound to treat PRRSV infection.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino , Animales , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular , Femenino , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Lípidos , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/tratamiento farmacológico , Porcinos ,
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 153, 2022 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Seed storage lipids are valuable for human diet and for the sustainable development of mankind. In recent decades, many lipid metabolism genes and pathways have been identified, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie differences in seed oil biosynthesis in species with developed embryo and endosperm are not fully understood. RESULTS: We performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses of castor bean and rapeseed, which have high seed oil contents, and maize, which has a low seed oil content. These results revealed the molecular underpinnings of the low seed oil content in maize. First of all, transcriptome analyses showed that more than 61% of the lipid- and carbohydrate-related genes were regulated in castor bean and rapeseed, but only 20.1% of the lipid-related genes and 22.5% of the carbohydrate-related genes were regulated in maize. Then, compared to castor bean and rapeseed, fewer lipid biosynthesis genes but more lipid metabolism genes were regulated in the maize embryo. More importantly, most maize genes encoding lipid-related transcription factors, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthetic enzymes, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and Calvin Cycle proteins were not regulated during seed oil synthesis, despite the presence of many homologs in the maize genome. Additionally, we observed differential regulation of vital oil biosynthetic enzymes and extremely high expression levels of oil biosynthetic genes in castor bean, which were consistent with the rapid accumulation of oil in castor bean developing seeds. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to high-oil seeds (castor bean and rapeseed), less oil biosynthetic genes were regulated during the seed development in low-oil seed (maize). These results shed light on molecular mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis in maize, castor bean, and rapeseed. They can provide information on key target genes that may be useful for future experimental manipulation of oil production in oil plants.


Asunto(s)
Brassica napus , Ricinus communis , Brassica napus/genética , Ricinus communis/genética , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Semillas , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(1): 83-89, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294126

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE50) in the treatment of dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis. METHODS: This was a multi-center, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, parallel randomized controlled clinical trial with 1? allocation. We recruited 404 patients with dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis (blood stasis symptom pattern) in 10 hospitals in China. GBE50 group received GBE50 and Naoxinqing tablet (NXQ) of mimetic agent, control group received NXQ and GBE50 of mimetic agent. The main outcome was Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptom pattern score of blood stasis after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes were changes in the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score, vertigo visual analogue scale (VAS) score, the university of California vertigo questionnaire (UCLA-DQ) score and single-item symptom score of TCM from baseline to 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Safety indicators included the incidence of adverse events, severe adverse events and laboratory examination including blood routine, liver function, renal function, and so forth. RESULTS: The total effective rate of TCM symptom pattern score in the GBE50 group after 6 weeks of treatment was higher than that in the control group, the difference in rate was statistically significant (92.67% vs 83.07%, P = 0.004). Compared with the control group, there was no difference in the incidence of adverse reactions (9.95% vs 14.85%, P = 0.136). CONCLUSION: The treatment of dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis with GBE50 is effective, safe and reliable.


Asunto(s)
Ginkgo biloba , Arteriosclerosis Intracraneal , Mareo/tratamiento farmacológico , Mareo/etiología , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vértigo/tratamiento farmacológico , Vértigo/etiología
16.
Artículo en Chino | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940702

RESUMEN

Hepatolenticular degeneration(HLD),also known as Wilson disease (WD), is a genetic disorder characterized by copper metabolism disorder caused by ATP7B gene mutation. Specifically, due to the ceruloplasmin synthesis disorder induced by gene mutation,copper cannot be excreted through bile,which results in pathological deposition of copper in various organs and damage to organs such as the brain and the liver. The incidence of WD in Chinese is significantly higher than that in the world. Copper chelating agents, such as D-penicillamine and dimercaptosuccinic acid, are used as the main therapeutic agents in western medicine. However, many clinical adverse events limit the application of these drugs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has its characteristics in the treatment of WD. As confirmed by long-term research on TCM clinical diagnosis and treatment,MD has become TCM dominant disease. In spite of many views about the etiology and pathogenesis of WD,a consensus has not been reached so far. Based on the theory of latent pathogen in TCM and the pathological mechanism of excessive deposition of copper ions in the body,this study proposed that latent toxin is the key etiology of WD,and further elaborated that the latent toxin of WD was inherited from parents and occurred in children and adolescents,which was hidden in the liver and the kidney and damaged the brain. The latent toxin, Yang in nature and dispersing in property, is prone to transform into dampness-heat to block Qi movement and produce phlegm leading to stasis. Furthermore, this study determined latent toxin blocking collaterals as the basic pathogenesis of WD and revealed the complex clinical manifestations of latent toxin blocking collaterals such as liver collaterals,brain collaterals,kidney collaterals,spleen collaterals,stomach collaterals,lung collaterals,heart collaterals, and uterus collaterals. Treatment should follow the basic therapeutic principles of resolving pathogens,removing toxins, and dredging collaterals. This study is expected to provide a theoretical basis for syndrome differentiation and treatment of WD in TCM.

17.
Artículo en Chino | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940701

RESUMEN

ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Gandou Fumu granules (GDFM) in the treatment of Wilson disease (WD) with liver-kidney deficiency and phlegm-blood stasis. MethodNinety WD patients in The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine were randomly divided into a control group (45 cases) and a treatment group (45 cases). All patients were treated with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS), while those in the treatment group received additional GDFM. All patients were treated for four courses (32 days). The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores,clinical effective rate,24 h urinary copper,ceruloplasmin (CER),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6 (IL-6),superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the two groups before and after treatment were observed. ResultAfter treatment, the TCM syndrome scores of the two groups decreased (P<0.01),and the score of TCM syndrome in the treatment group was lower than that of the control group (P<0.01). The total effective rate of the treatment group was 82.22% (37/45), higher than 57.78% (26/45) of the control group (χ2=6.402,P<0.05). There was no significant difference in CER before and after treatment in both groups. The post-treatment 24 hour urinary copper increased (P<0.01), which was higher in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.05). The TNF-α,IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in both groups after treatment(P<0.01),and the above indicators in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment,the SOD level increased and the MDA level decreased in the control group (P<0.01), while no significant difference in GSH-Px level was observed. The SOD and GSH-Px levels increased and the MDA level decreased in the treatment group (P<0.01). After treatment, SOD and GSH-Px levels of the treatment group were higher than those in the control group, while the MDA level was lower than that in the control group(P<0.05,P<0.01). ConclusionGDFM can improve the TCM syndrome score and clinical efficacy,enhance the copper removing effect,and inhibit the inflammatory response and antioxidative stress in the treatment of WD with liver and kidney deficiency and phlegm-blood stasis.

18.
New Phytol ; 232(2): 835-852, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289124

RESUMEN

Despite a much higher proportion of intragenic heterochromatin-containing genes in crop genomes, the importance of intragenic heterochromatin in crop development remains unclear. Intragenic heterochromatin can be recognised by a protein complex, ASI1-AIPP1-EDM2 (AAE) complex, to regulate alternative polyadenylation. Here, we investigated the impact of rice ASI1 on global poly(A) site usage through poly(A) sequencing and ASI1-dependent regulation on rice development. We found that OsASI1 is essential for rice pollen development and flowering. OsASI1 dysfunction has an important impact on global poly(A) site usage, which is closely related to heterochromatin marks. Intriguingly, OsASI1 interacts with the intronic heterochromatin of OsXRNL, a nuclear XRN family exonuclease gene involved in the processing of an miRNA precursor, to promote the processing of full-length OsXRNL and regulate miRNA abundance. We found that OsASI1-mediated regulation of pollen development partially depends on OsXRNL. Finally, we characterised the rice AAE complex and its involvement in alternative polyadenylation and pollen development. Our findings help to elucidate an epigenetic mechanism governing miRNA abundance and rice development, and provide a valuable resource for studying the epigenetic mechanisms of many important processes in crops.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Oryza , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Heterocromatina/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Oryza/genética , Polen/genética , Poliadenilación
19.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(5): 1545-1555, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677638

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: Regional association analysis of 50 re-sequenced Chinese semi-winter rapeseed accessions in combination with co-expression analysis reveal candidate genes affecting oil accumulation in Brassica napus. One of the breeding goals in rapeseed production is to enhance the seed oil content to cater to the increased demand for vegetable oils due to a growing global population. To investigate the genetic basis of variation in seed oil content, we used 60 K Brassica Infinium SNP array along with phenotype data of 203 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed accessions to perform a genome-wide analysis of haplotype blocks associated with the oil content. Nine haplotype regions harbouring lipid synthesis/transport-, carbohydrate metabolism- and photosynthesis-related genes were identified as significantly associated with the oil content and were mapped to chromosomes A02, A04, A05, A07, C03, C04, C05, C08 and C09, respectively. Regional association analysis of 50 re-sequenced Chinese semi-winter rapeseed accessions combined with transcriptome datasets from 13 accessions was further performed on these nine haplotype regions. This revealed natural variation in the BnTGD3-A02 and BnSSE1-A05 gene regions correlated with the phenotypic variation of the oil content within the A02 and A04 chromosome haplotype regions, respectively. Moreover, co-expression network analysis revealed that BnTGD3-A02 and BnSSE1-A05 were directly linked with fatty acid beta-oxidation-related gene BnKAT2-C04, thus forming a molecular network involved in the potential regulation of seed oil accumulation. The results of this study could be used to combine favourable haplotype alleles for further improvement of the seed oil content in rapeseed.


Asunto(s)
Brassica napus/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Semillas/genética , Transcriptoma , Brassica napus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Mapeo Cromosómico/métodos , Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Fenotipo , Fitomejoramiento/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/metabolismo
20.
J Exp Bot ; 72(2): 385-397, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045083

RESUMEN

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule regulating several plant developmental and stress responses. Here, we report that NO plays an important role in seed oil content and fatty acid composition. RNAi silencing of Arabidopsis S-nitrosoglutathione reductase 1 (GSNOR1) led to reduced seed oil content. In contrast, nitrate reductase double mutant nia1nia2 had increased seed oil content, compared with wild-type plants. Moreover, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3) were higher, whereas those of stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), and arachidonic acid (C20:1) were lower, in seeds of GSNOR1 RNAi lines. Similar results were obtained with rapeseed embryos cultured in vitro with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the NO inhibitor NG-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME). Compared with non-treated embryos, the oil content decreased in SNP-treated embryos, and increased in L-NAME-treated embryos. Relative concentrations of C16:0, C18:2 and C18:3 were higher, whereas C18:1 concentration decreased in rapeseed embryos treated with SNP. Proteomics and transcriptome analysis revealed that three S-nitrosated proteins and some key genes involved in oil synthesis, were differentially regulated in SNP-treated embryos. Therefore, regulating NO content could be a novel approach to increasing seed oil content in cultivated oil crops.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Óxido Nítrico , Nitrosación , Aceites de Plantas , Proteína S , Semillas
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