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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 809-818, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621885

RESUMEN

Scutellariae Radix extract is one of the important components in Shuganning Injection. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneously determining five components in Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in bile, urine, and feces of rats, so as to reveal the difference in the excretion process of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats and explore the law of the excretion process of the five components in vivo before and after the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix. Rats were injected with Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract(4.2 mL·kg~(-1)), respectively, and the excretion of baicalin, baicalein, oroxylin A, oroxylin A-7-O-ß-D-glucuronide, and scutellarin in bile, urine, and feces of rats in 24 h was observed. The results showed that except for baicalin, the other four index components were excreted as prototype components in a high proportion after intravenous injection of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats, respectively. The excretion of each component was relatively high in urine and less in feces and bile. After the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix extract, the accumulative excretion of five index components in rats all decreased. Among them, the cumulative excretion of baicalein in bile, urine, and feces significantly decreased by 26.67%, 48.11%, and 31.01%. The cumulative excretion of baicalin in bile, urine, and feces decreased significantly by 70.69%, 19.43%, and 31.22%. The result showed that the five index components in Scutellariae Radix extract were mainly excreted by the kidneys, and other components in Shuganning Injection delayed the excretion process and prolonged the residence time. This study is of great significance for elucidating the compatibility rationality of Shuganning Injection.


Asunto(s)
Bilis , Scutellaria baicalensis , Ratas , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Flavonoides , Heces , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118079, 2024 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513776

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. is mainly distributed in Shanxi, Gansu, and Sichuan province of China. It is also found in Korea and Japan. Its dried roots and rhizomes are used as medicinal herbs and have been used to treat hyperglycemia and various inflammatory disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the developments in the studies involving the extraction and purification, structure analysis, pharmacological effects, and potential applications of polysaccharides obtained from Polygonum cuspidatum. Additionally, the possible future research directions of this plant are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article used "Polygonum cuspidatum polysaccharide (PCP)" and "Polygonum cuspidatum" as the keywords and gathered relevant data on Polygonum cuspidatum using electronic databases (Elsevier, PubMed, ACS, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Web of Science), relevant books, and classic literature about Chinese herb. RESULTS: Excluding irrelevant and repetitive documents, 278 documents were finally included, of which 88 were in Chinese and 190 were in English. The CiteSpace software was used to visualize the trends and keywords in this research field. We concluded that the main extraction methods for Polygonum cuspidatum polysaccharide are water extraction and alcohol precipitation, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microjet extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography and column chromatography are also commonly used in the separation and purification of PCP. PCP has antitumor, immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, and antioxidant effects. This paper provides an updated and deeper understanding of PCP, serving as a theoretical foundation for the further optimization of polysaccharide structures and the development of PCP as a novel functional material for clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Fallopia japonica , Polisacáridos , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Fallopia japonica/química , Humanos , Animales , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/aislamiento & purificación
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117901, 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341112

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wuji Wan (WJW) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that can be found in the "Prescriptions of Taiping Benevolent Dispensary" that has been employed in treating gastric discomfort, burning epigastric pain, and gastric reflux for hundreds of years and has shown promise for treating gastric ulcers (GUs). However, the active components and mechanism of action against GUs remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the active components of WJW and elucidate the underlying mechanism involved in treating GUs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, cell viability was measured by a cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay to evaluate the efficacy of WJW-containing serum in vitro. The gastric ulcer index, ulcer inhibition rate, hematoxylin and staining (H&E), and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of WJW in vivo. Subsequently, the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress factors were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) on in vitro and in vivo samples. Additionally, UPLC-Q Exactive Plus Orbitrap HRMS was used to analyze the components that were absorbed into the blood of WJW and its metabolites. Network pharmacology and metabolomics were subsequently used to identify the targets and pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT‒qPCR) and Western blotting were used to verify the mRNA and protein levels of the key targets and pathways. Finally, the active components were identified by molecular docking to verify the binding stability of the components and key targets. RESULTS: WJW-containing serum ameliorated ethanol-induced damage in GES-1 cells and promoted cell healing. WJW-containing serum reduced IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and LDH levels while increasing IL-10, SOD, and T-AOC levels in the cells. Moreover, WJW treatment resulted in decreased IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels and increased IL-10, SOD, PGE2, and NO levels in GUs rats. In addition, eight components of WJW were absorbed into the blood. The network pharmacology results revealed 192 common targets for blood entry components and GUs, and KEGG analysis revealed that apoptosis signaling pathways were the main pathways involved in WJW activity against GUs. Metabolomic screening was used to identify 13 differential metabolites. There were 23 common targets for blood entry components, GUs, and differential metabolites, with the key targets TNF (TNF-α), AKT1, PTGS2 (COX2) and MAPK1. WJW significantly inhibited the expression of Bax, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3, TNF-α, COX2, and p-p44/42 MAPK while promoting the expression of Bcl-2 and p-AKT1. Molecular docking revealed that the active components of WJW for the treatment of GUs are berberine, palmatine, coptisine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, evocarpine, and paeoniflorin. CONCLUSIONS: WJW treatment reduces inflammation and oxidative stress injury and inhibits apoptosis signaling pathways. The main active components are berberine, palmatine, coptisine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, evocarpine, and paeoniflorin. In this paper, we provide a new strategy for exploring the active components of traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of diseases based on target mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Berberina , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Glucósidos , Monoterpenos , Úlcera Gástrica , Animales , Ratas , Úlcera Gástrica/inducido químicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Caspasa 3 , Caspasa 9 , Interleucina-10 , Ciclooxigenasa 2 , Interleucina-6 , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Farmacología en Red , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Superóxido Dismutasa , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico
4.
J Cancer ; 15(4): 889-907, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230219

RESUMEN

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that combining Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) with oxaliplatin plus tegafur (SOX) chemotherapy regimens improves clinical effectiveness and reduces adverse reactions in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). These RCTs highlight the potential applications of CHIs and their impact on AGC patient prognosis. However, there is insufficient comparative evidence on the clinical effectiveness and safety of different CHIs when combined with SOX. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to rank the clinical effectiveness and safety of different CHIs when combined with SOX chemotherapy regimens. This study aimed to provide evidence for selecting appropriate CHIs in the treatment of patients with AGC. Methods: We searched eight databases from their inception until March 2023. Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking Curve (SUCRA) probability values were used to rank the treatment measures, and the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMA) software assessed the grading of evidence. Results: A total of 51 RCTs involving 3,703 AGC patients were identified. Huachansu injections + SOX demonstrated the highest clinical effectiveness (SUCRA: 78.17%), significantly reducing the incidence of leukopenia (93.35%), thrombocytopenia (80.19%), and nausea and vomiting (95.15%). Shenfu injections + SOX improved Karnofsky's Performance Status (75.59%) and showed a significant reduction in peripheral neurotoxicity incidence (88.26%). Aidi injections + SOX were most effective in reducing the incidence of liver function damage (75.16%). According to CINeMA, most confidence rating results were classified as "low". Conclusion: The combination of CHIs and SOX shows promising effects in the treatment of AGC compared to SOX alone. Huachansu and Shenfu injections offer the greatest overall advantage among the CHIs, while Aidi injections are optimal for reducing the incidence of liver damage. However, further rigorous RCTs with larger sample sizes and additional pharmacological studies are necessary to reinforce these findings.

5.
Planta Med ; 90(2): 138-153, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37774754

RESUMEN

Ammopiptanthus nanus as a Kirgiz medicine is widely used for the treatment of frostbite and chronic rheumatoid arthritis. However, due to a lack of systematic research on the chemical components of A. nanus and their metabolites, the bioactive components in it remain unclear. Herein, a reliable strategy based on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was established to comprehensively analyze the chemical components and their metabolites in vivo. In total, 59 compounds were identified from A. nanus stem extract, among which 14 isoflavones, 10 isoprenylated isoflavones, 4 polyhydroxy flavonoids, 9 alkaloids and 1 polyol were characterized for the first time. After oral administration of A. nanus stem extract, 30 prototype constituents and 28 metabolites (12 phase I and 16 phase II metabolites) were speculated on and identified in rat serum, urine and feces. Furthermore, the metabolic pathways of the chemical components were systematically analyzed and proposed. In conclusion, the chemical components from A. nanus stem and their metabolites in vivo were first studied, which may provide useful chemical information for further study on the effective material basis and pharmacological mechanism of A. nanus.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Isoflavonas , Ratas , Animales , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Administración Oral
6.
Se Pu ; 41(12): 1115-1120, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093541

RESUMEN

The chemical constituents of volatile oils used in traditional Chinese medicine are highly complex. Thus, achieving the complete separation of volatile oils by one-dimensional chromatography is difficult owing to the low peak capacity of the technique. Although comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography provides an efficient means for separating volatile oils, it cannot be used to screen bioactive components because of its limitations. Therefore, developing a new method to separate volatile oils based on liquid chromatography is of great significance in efforts to obtain new approaches to screen bioactive components in volatile oil. The objectives of the present study are to establish an efficient method for separating the chemical constituents of Curcuma volatile oil using off-line comprehensive two-dimensional countercurrent chromatography-liquid chromatography (CCC-LC) and to investigate the two-dimensional peak capacity, orthogonality, and spatial coverage of this method. Both CCC and LC conditions were optimized. A biphasic n-hexane-methanol-water solvent system was selected via the colorimetric method, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase in gradient-elution mode: 0-55 min, n-hexane-methanol-water (5∶2∶3 v/v/v); 55-170 min, n-hexane-methanol-water (5∶3∶2, v/v/v); 170-290 min, n-hexane-methanol-water (5∶4∶1, v/v/v). After gradient elution, elution-extrusion elution mode was applied within 290-375 min. Good resolution was achieved by the CCC separation process. The HPLC separation process was carried out with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile (A)-water (B): 0-10 min, 50%A-65%A; 10-14 min, 65%A; 14-21 min, 65%A-85%A; 21-25 min, 85%A-95%A; 25-30 min, 95%A-55%A; 30-40 min, 55%A. Curcuma volatile oil was separated under the above optimized two-dimensional separation conditions, and the data obtained were drawn into a two-dimensional contour map using Matlab software. The calculated total peak capacity exceeded 954, which was 10 times more than that of one-dimensional chromatography. High orthogonality (r=0.17) and spatial coverage factor (68.1%) were also obtained. Our research provides a new methodology for separating volatile oils used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as an approach for evaluating the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs using two-dimensional chromatographic fingerprints.


Asunto(s)
Distribución en Contracorriente , Aceites Volátiles , Distribución en Contracorriente/métodos , Metanol , Curcuma/química , Cromatografía Liquida , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Agua
7.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(5): 1034-1039, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37679992

RESUMEN

This pilot study is to assess the feasibility and the effect of a combination therapy of rehabilitation treatment and contralateral needling, which is manipulated at the foot of the unaffected side, for the recovery of the paretic hand post-stroke. This prospective pilot clinical trial will recruit 72 stroke patients with paretic hands and a disease course of 14 to 90 d. Patients will be randomized into two groups: the control group will receive conventional Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture and basic treatment for the stroke; based on the control group, the observation group will receive the contralateral needling at the foot of the unaffected side combined with the rehabilitation movement of the paretic hand. 12 sessions will be administrated for 2 weeks. The primary outcome, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the secondary outcomes, the handgrip strength, the range of motion, the modified Barthel index, and the Brunnstrom recovery stages, will be measured the recovery of the hand motor function during the 2 weeks' intervention. This study aims to investigate the instant effect of contralateral needling at the foot of the unaffected side combined with the rehabilitation treatment movement for patients with the paretic hand of Poststroke motor dysfunction and provide the previous evidence for the future large sample studies.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Fuerza de la Mano , Estudios Prospectivos , Pie , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(13): 3623-3632, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37474995

RESUMEN

In the present study, the contents of seven active components [genipinic acid(GA), protocatechuic acid(PCA), neochlorogenic acid(NCA), chlorogenic acid(CA), cryptochlorogenic acid(CCA),(+)-pinoresinol di-O-ß-D-glucopyranosid(PDG), and(+)-pinoresinol 4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(PG)] of Eucommiae Cortex in aortic vascular endothelial cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) were simultaneously determined by ultra-high liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). The qualified SHR models were selected. The primary aortic endothelial cells(VECs) of rats were separated and cultured by ligation and adherence, followed by subculture. After successful identification, an UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determining the contents of GA, PCA, NCA, CA, CCA, PDG, PG in seven components of Eucommiae Cortex in VECs was established, including specificity, linearity, matrix effect, recovery, accuracy, precision and stability. The established method had the lo-west limit of quantification of 0.97-4.95 µg·L~(-1), accuracy of 87.26%-109.6%, extraction recovery of 89.23%-105.3%, matrix effect of 85.86%-106.2%, and stability of 86.00%-112.5%. Therefore, the established accurate UPLC-MS/MS method could rapidly and simultaneously determine the contents of the seven active components of Eucommiae Cortex in VECs of SHRs, which provided a refe-rence for the study of cellular pharmacokinetics of active components of Eucommiae Cortex extract.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Cromatografía Liquida , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(13)2023 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37445714

RESUMEN

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections that represent a severe public health problem. They are often caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumonia), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus). Among these, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the most common causative agent in both uncomplicated and complicated UTIs. The adaptive evolution of UPEC has been observed in several ways, including changes in colonization, attachment, invasion, and intracellular replication to invade the urothelium and survive intracellularly. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTIs, high recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly reduce the efficacy of these treatments. Furthermore, the gradual global emergence of multidrug-resistant UPEC has highlighted the need to further explore its pathogenesis and seek alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the clinical status and pathogenesis of UTIs and the advantages and disadvantages of antibiotics as a conventional treatment option could spark a surge in the search for alternative treatment options, especially vaccines and medicinal plants. Such options targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms of UPEC are expected to be a focus of UTI management in the future to help combat antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Infecciones Urinarias , Sistema Urinario , Escherichia coli Uropatógena , Humanos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
Cell Rep ; 42(2): 112102, 2023 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36774548

RESUMEN

Nutritional symbionts influence host reproduction, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. We previously found that the bacteriocyte symbiont Hamiltonella impacts the sex ratio of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Hamiltonella synthesizes folate by cooperation with the whitefly. Folate deficiency by Hamiltonella elimination or whitefly gene silencing distorted whitefly sex ratio, and folate supplementation restored the sex ratio. Hamiltonella deficiency or gene silencing altered histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) level, which was restored by folate supplementation. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analysis of H3K9me3 indicated mitochondrial dysfunction in symbiont-deficient whiteflies. Hamiltonella deficiency compromised mitochondrial quality of whitefly ovaries. Repressing ovary mitochondrial function led to distorted whitefly sex ratio. These findings indicate that the symbiont-derived folate regulates host histone methylation modifications, which thereby impacts ovary mitochondrial function, and finally determines host sex ratio. Our study suggests that a nutritional symbiont can regulate animal reproduction in a way that differs from reproductive manipulators.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Femenino , Hemípteros/genética , Razón de Masculinidad , Simbiosis/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Ácido Fólico
11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 305-309, 2023.
Artículo en Chino | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991625

RESUMEN

Objective:To investigate the iodine nutritional level of residents in iodine adequate areas in Henan Province, and provide basis for making policy of targeted guidance and rational iodine supplementation.Methods:In the 156 counties of Henan Province in 2020, one township was selected from each location (east, west, south, north and middle) in each county; one school was selected from each township; 40 children aged 8-10 years in the school and 20 pregnant women in the township were selected to collect their urine and salt samples to test urine and salt iodine levels. One third of the counties were selected to examine the thyroid gland of children. Individuals lived in villages with water iodine between 40 and 100 μg/L were included in the study.Results:In iodine adequate areas, a total of 2 097 salt samples were collected from children and tested, the consumption rate of qualified iodized salt was 93.6% (1 962/2 097). A total of 2 096 urine samples were collected from children and tested, and the median urinary iodine was 288.0 μg/L. The goiter rate of children was 0.7% (5/723). A total of 1 068 salt samples from pregnant women were tested, and the consumption rate of qualified iodized salt was 93.0% (993/1 068). A total of 1 068 urine samples from pregnant women were tested, with a median urinary iodine 232.7 μg/L. Stratified by water iodine (40-59, 60-79, 80-100 μg/L), the median urinary iodine of children was 273.8, 288.6, and 305.9 μg/L, respectively, statistically significantly different between groups ( H = 15.79, P < 0.001); the goiter rate of children was ≤2%, and the difference between groups was statistically significant (χ 2 = 7.31, P = 0.026); but the median urinary iodine of pregnant women was not significantly different ( H = 1.82, P = 0.402). Under different water iodine conditions, there was no significant difference in urinary iodine levels in children and pregnant women between the high salt iodine concentration group (≥21 mg/kg) and the low salt iodine concentration group (< 21 mg/kg, P > 0.05). Conclusions:The iodine nutrition level of children in iodine adequate areas in Henan Province is relatively high, and the iodine nutrition of pregnant women is appropriate. The goiter rate of children is at a relatively low level. Continuous surveillance should be conducted to comprehensively evaluate the iodine nutrition level. Various measures will be taken by regions and populations.

12.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 296-300, 2023.
Artículo en Chino | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991623

RESUMEN

Objective:To investigate the iodine content in drinking water of residents in Henan Province, and clarify the distribution characteristics of water iodine in Henan Province.Methods:In 2017, in all counties (cities and districts, hereinafter referred to as counties) of Henan Province, taking township (town, subdistrict office, hereinafter referred to as township) as the unit to carry out an investigation of iodine content in drinking water; and in the township with water iodine content of 10 μg/L or more, taking administrative village (neighborhood committee, hereinafter referred to as the administrative village) as the unit to carry out the drinking water iodine content investigation. Supplementary investigation was conducted from 2018 to 2020 in administrative villages where water iodine levels had never been tested or had not been tested after replacing water sources. At least 25 ml water samples were collected at each sampling site, and the water iodine content was determined by cerous sulfate catalytic spectrophotometry.Results:From 2017 to 2020, the median water iodine in Henan Province was 8.20 μg/L. A total of 50 124 administrative villages in 2 465 townships, 160 counties and 18 provincial-level cities were investigated for iodine content in drinking water, of which 65.5% (32 807/50 124) of the administrative villages had a median water iodine < 40 μg/L, belonging to iodine deficiency area; 16.9% (8 473/50 124) of the administrative villages had a median water iodine of 40-100 μg/L, suitable for iodine; and 17.6% (8 844/50 124) of the administrative villages had a median water iodine > 100 μg/L, belonging to water source high iodine area.Conclusions:Henan Province as a whole is at the state of iodine deficiency in the external environment. Most administrative villages are iodine deficiency areas. There are certain proportion of water source areas with high iodine and areas with suitable iodine.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285162

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the differences in the pharmacokinetics of Huangqi Liuyi decoction extract (HQD) under physiological and pathological conditions. The roles of liver cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes (Cyp450) and small intestinal transporters were also investigated. The cocktail probe drug method was used to investigate the effects of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and HQD on metabolic enzyme activity. The expression levels of liver Cyp450 metabolic enzymes (Cyp1A2, Cyp2C37, Cyp3A11, Cyp2E1, and Cyp2C11) and small intestinal transporters (breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), organic cation transporters (OCTs), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRPs) were determined using western blot. Compared to normal mice, the expression of OCT1, OCT2, MRP1, and MRP2 was increased in DN mice, while that of P-gp and BCRP (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) was inhibited. HQD inhibited expression of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A11 and increased the expression of P-gp and BCRP in normal mice. In DN mice, HQD induced expression of BCRP and inhibited expression of Cyp2C37, Cyp3A11, OCT2, MRP1, and MRP2. The activity of each Cyp450 enzyme was consistent with changes in expression. The changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of HQD in DN might, in part, be secondary to decreased expression of P-gp and BCRP. HQD varied in regulating transporter activities between health and disease. These findings support careful application of HQD-based treatment in DN, especially in combination with other drugs.

14.
Phytomedicine ; 107: 154425, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137328

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Shenfu decoction (SFD) is a classic Chinese medicine prescription that has a strong cardiotonic effect. The combination of ginseng (the dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and Fuzi (processed product of sub-root of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx), the main constituents of SFD, has been reported to improve the pharmacological effect of each other. Moreover, research has shown that the main active components of SFD, ginseng total saponins (GTS) and Fuzi total alkaloids (FTA), have antidepressant activity. However, the effects of these ingredients on depressive-like behavior induced by ovariectomy, a model of menopausal depression, have not been studied. PURPOSE: Our research aims to elucidate the antidepressant-like effects of GTS and FTA compatibility (GF) in ovariectomized mice and the potential mechanisms. METHODS: To elucidate the antidepressant-like effects of GF in mice in ovariectomy condition, behavioral tests were performed after 7 days of intragastric administration of different doses of GF. Underlying molecular mechanisms of CREB-BDNF, BDNF-mTORC1 and autophagy signaling were detected by western blotting, serum metabolites were examined by UPLC-QE plus-MS and dendritic spine density was determined by Golgi-Cox staining. RESULTS: GF remarkably decreased the immobility time in the forced swim test. GF also increased levels of pCREB/CREB, BDNF, Akt, mTORC1 and p62 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as decreased LC3-II/LC3-I in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized mice. Furthermore, 15 serum differential metabolites (9 of which are lipids and lipid molecules) were identified by metabonomics. Next, the antidepressant-like effects of GF was blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1. The antidepressant actions of GF on levels of pCREB, mTORC1, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ and p62 in the prefrontal cortex and the levels of BDNF, Akt, mTORC1 and p62 in the hippocampus were inhibited by rapamycin, and the dendritic spines density was also regulated. CONCLUSION: GF has antidepressant effects in ovariectomized mice, and like other antidepressants, these effects involve activation of BDNF-mTORC1, autophagy regulation and consequent effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Moreover, metabolomic results suggest that GF also has effects on peripheral lipid profiles that may provide potential biomarkers for these antidepressant-like effects. These results indicate that GF is worthy of further exploration as a promising pharmaceutical treatment for depression. This study provides a new direction for the development of new indications for traditional Chinese medicine compounds.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Panax , Saponinas , Alcaloides/farmacología , Animales , Antidepresivos/farmacología , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Autofagia , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Depresión/metabolismo , Diterpenos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Femenino , Hipocampo , Lípidos , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/metabolismo , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Ratones , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacología , Sirolimus/farmacología
15.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1616-1624, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980105

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Aidi injection (ADI), a traditional Chinese medicine antitumor injection, is usually combined with doxorubicin (DOX) for the treatment of malignant tumours. The cardiotoxicity of DOX is ameliorated by ADI in the clinic. However, the relevant mechanism is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ADI on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, ADI-L, ADI-H, DOX, DOX + ADI-L and DOX + ADI-H. DOX (i.p., 0.03 mg/10 g) was administered in the presence or absence of ADI (i.p., 0.1 or 0.2 mL/10 g) for two weeks. Heart pathology and levels of AST, LDH, CK, CK-MB and BNP were assessed. H9c2 cells were treated with DOX in the presence or absence of ADI (1, 4, 10%). Cell viability, caspase-3 activity, nuclear morphology, and CBR1 expression were then evaluated. DOX and doxorubicinol (DOXol) concentrations in heart, liver, kidneys, serum, and cells were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: High-dose ADI significantly reduced DOX-induced pathological changes and the levels of AST, LDH, CK, CK-MB and BNP to normal. Combined treatment with ADI (1, 4, 10%) improved the cell viability, and IC50 increased from 68.51 µM (DOX alone) to 83.47, 176.9, and 310.8 µM, reduced caspase-3 activity by 39.17, 43.96, and 61.82%, respectively. High-dose ADI inhibited the expression of CBR1 protein by 32.3%, reduced DOXol levels in heart, serum and H9c2 cells by 59.8, 72.5 and 48.99%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: ADI reduces DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting CBR1 expression, which provides a scientific basis for the rational use of ADI.


Asunto(s)
Carbonil Reductasa (NADPH) , Cardiotoxicidad , Animales , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Cardiotoxicidad/metabolismo , Caspasa 3 , Cromatografía Liquida , Forma MB de la Creatina-Quinasa , Doxorrubicina/toxicidad , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
16.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014541

RESUMEN

Ophiorrhiza japonica Bl. is a traditional Chinese materia medica widely used to treat several diseases. Chemical and pharmacological studies on O. japonica have been carried out; however, neither of them has been fully explored. In this study, an array of compounds was isolated from the title plant, including a new anthraquinone, ophiorrhizaquinone A (1), three alkaloids 2-4 and seven other compounds 5-11 with diverse structural types. Additionally, compounds 2, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 were isolated from the genus of Ophiorrhiza for the first time. Antioxidant bioassays in vitro using DPPH and ABTS were performed, and the results showed that compound 3 exhibited modest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.0321 mg/mL and 0.0319 mg/mL, respectively. An in silico study of PPARα agonistic activities of compounds 2 and 3 was conducted by molecular docking experiments, revealing that both of them occupied the active site of PPARα via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions effectively. This study enriched both the phytochemical and pharmacological profiles of O. japonica.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Rubiaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , PPAR alfa , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Rubiaceae/química
17.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 24(4): 661-670, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907166

RESUMEN

Salmon is a rich source of health-promoting omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). The LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in Atlantic salmon is one of the most studied compared to other teleosts. This has largely been due to the massive replacement of LC-PUFA-rich ingredients in aquafeeds with terrestrial plant oils devoid of these essential fatty acids (EFA) which ultimately pushed dietary content towards the minimal requirement of EFA. The practice would also reduce tissue content of n-3 LC-PUFA compromising the nutritional value of salmon to the human consumer. These necessitated detailed studies of endogenous biosynthetic capability as a contributor to these EFA. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive and concise overview of the current knowledge about the molecular genetics of PUFA biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon, highlighting the enzymology and nutritional regulation as well as transcriptional control networks. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of genome duplication on the complexity of salmon LC-PUFA pathway and highlight probable implications on endogenous biosynthetic capabilities. Finally, we have also compiled and made available a large RNAseq dataset from 316 salmon liver samples together with an R-script visualization resource to aid in explorative and hypothesis-driven research into salmon lipid metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Salmo salar , Animales , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Humanos , Salmo salar/genética , Salmo salar/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010194, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687595

RESUMEN

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is the most valuable farmed fish globally and there is much interest in optimizing its genetics and rearing conditions for growth and feed efficiency. Marine feed ingredients must be replaced to meet global demand, with challenges for fish health and sustainability. Metabolic models can address this by connecting genomes to metabolism, which converts nutrients in the feed to energy and biomass, but such models are currently not available for major aquaculture species such as salmon. We present SALARECON, a model focusing on energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism that links the Atlantic salmon genome to metabolic fluxes and growth. It performs well in standardized tests and captures expected metabolic (in)capabilities. We show that it can explain observed hypoxic growth in terms of metabolic fluxes and apply it to aquaculture by simulating growth with commercial feed ingredients. Predicted limiting amino acids and feed efficiencies agree with data, and the model suggests that marine feed efficiency can be achieved by supplementing a few amino acids to plant- and insect-based feeds. SALARECON is a high-quality model that makes it possible to simulate Atlantic salmon metabolism and growth. It can be used to explain Atlantic salmon physiology and address key challenges in aquaculture such as development of sustainable feeds.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Salmo salar , Aminoácidos/genética , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Acuicultura , Salmo salar/genética
19.
Int J Anal Chem ; 2022: 7602992, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663235

RESUMEN

Huangqi Liuyi decoction is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been widely used in China for the management of diabetes since the Song Dynasty. Today, it is commonly used for treating diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous experimental studies have suggested that the mixture HQD, containing astragalus saponin, astragalus flavone, astragalus polysaccharide, and glycyrrhetinic acid, could be used for the treatment of DN and to improve renal function. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantitation of astragaloside IV, calycosin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, calycosin-glucuronide, ononin, formononetin, and glycyrrhizic acid, which are the main active constituents in HQD, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active constituents in control and DN mice orally treated with HQD. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic parameters of HQD were significantly different between the control and DN mouse groups. The absorption of HQD in the DN mice was greater than that in control mice.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(10): 2676-2680, 2022 May.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718486

RESUMEN

The chemical constituents from the roots of Thalictrum cultratum and T. baicalense were investigated. By various isolation methods, such as silica gel, aluminium oxide, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and semi-preparative HPLC, 11 simple isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of these two plants, including a new compound, named dehydrothalflavine(1), and ten known ones(2-11): N-methylcorydaline(2), N-methylthalidaldine(3), thaliflavine(4), oxyhydrastinine(5), noroxyhydrastinine(6), dimethoxyisoquinolone(7), thalactamine(8), dehydronoroxyhydrastinine(9), 6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline(10), and isopicnarrhine(11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of HR-ESI-MS and 1 D and 2 D NMR techniques. Compound 1 was a new isoquinoline alkaloid. Compound 11 was obtained from Tha-lictrum plant for the first time. All compounds did not show cytotoxic activities against HL-60, U937, HCT116, Caco-2, and HepG2 cancer cell lines.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Thalictrum , Alcaloides/análisis , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacología , Raíces de Plantas/química , Thalictrum/química
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