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1.
J Anim Sci ; 94(6): 2637-47, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27285939

RESUMEN

Vitamin D (D3) supplementation may be used to increase tenderness in beef from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). The study was arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with fixed effects of ZH (no ZH or ZH fed at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal) and D3 (no D3 or 500,000 IU D3·steer·d for 10 d prior to harvest). Cattle ( = 466) were harvested in 2 blocks on the basis of BW with subsequent collection of carcass data. Full loins and inside rounds ( = 144 of each subprimal) were collected for fabrication of 5 steaks from the longissimus lumborum (LL), gluteus medius (GM), and semimembranosus (SM), which were aged for 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was used to evaluate mechanical tenderness of LL, GM, and SM steaks at all aging periods. Slice shear force (SSF) analysis was conducted on only 14- and 21-d LL steaks. No interactions ( > 0.05) between ZH and D3 occurred throughout the entire study. Supplementing ZH resulted in increased HCW ( < 0.01), larger LM area ( < 0.01), and improved calculated yield grades ( < 0.01) with decreases in fat thickness ( = 0.02) and marbling scores ( = 0.05). Supplementation with D3 increased calculated yield grade ( < 0.01) and decreased ( = 0.01) rib eye area. Feeding ZH increased ( ≤ 0.05) WBSF of LL steaks at each postmortem age interval, whereas D3 had no effect ( > 0.05) on WBSF or SSF of LL steaks. Like for WBSF, ZH supplementation increased SSF values at 14 and 21 d postmortem ( < 0.01) compared with those for non-ZH steaks. There was an interaction between ZH and postmortem age ( < 0.01) for WBSF of LL steaks. At 7 d LL steaks from ZH steers sheared over 0.6 kg greater than non-ZH steaks; however, by 21 d this difference was reduced to an average of 0.2 kg. Differences in distribution between LL steaks below 3.0 kg from non-ZH and ZH-fed cattle were also notable ( ≤ 0.05) through 21 d of aging. At 35 d postmortem a high proportion of LL steaks (68.5%) from ZH-fed steers required less than 3.0 kg to shear. Supplementation with ZH and D3 had no impact ( > 0.05) on WBSF values of GM steaks. Feeding ZH did not alter WBSF of SM steaks, but at 28 d D3 increased ( = 0.04) WBSF values. Shear force in ZH steaks was not effectively reduced by feeding D3 for 10 d to steers prior to harvest. Aging, however, was an effective method of reducing initially greater shear force values in LL steaks and, to a lesser degree, GM steaks from ZH-fed cattle.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Carne Roja/análisis , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo , Vitamina D , Animales , Bovinos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Resistencia al Corte
2.
J Anim Sci ; 94(12): 5341-5349, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28046158

RESUMEN

One hundred ninety-two steers (BW = 354 ± 23.5 kg) were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of ionophore and ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) supplementation strategies on performance and carcass characteristics. Twelve pens of 4 steers were assigned to each of the following treatments: unsupplemented control (CON), laidlomycin propionate (12.1 mg/kg DM) with or without RH (LPRH and LP, respectively), and monensin sodium (36.4 mg/kg DM) with RH (MSRH). Steers were fed for 151 d, of which respective treatments received RH (Actogain; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) at a rate of 300 mg/(animal · d) for the final 32 d. Laidlomycin was removed from the LPRH treatment during this period, as no combination feeding has been approved. Upon harvest, carcass data were collected by trained personnel, and subsequent analysis of the LM was conducted to estimate tenderness using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Prior to RH supplementation, both LP and LPRH had greater ADG ( ≤ 0.02) and G:F ( < 0.01) than CON, whereas MSRH was intermediate. During the final 32 d, MSRH improved G:F ( ≤ 0.02) compared to all other treatments and tended to increase ADG over unsupplemented controls ( = 0.05). Cattle receiving LP without RH had significantly greater BW at d 151 than CON ( = 0.02), whereas both RH treatments tended to improve final BW ( ≤ 0.09). Ionophores improved ADG ( ≤ 0.03) and G:F ( < 0.01) for the entire feeding period, and although LP-supplemented cattle had greater DMI for the final 32 d than both RH treatments ( ≤ 0.01), intakes for the 151-d trial were similar among treatments. Carcass weights were greater ( = 0.04) in cattle fed LP with no RH than CON, where cattle yielded an average of 12 kg more HCW. Ractopamine increased LM area in MSRH-supplemented cattle ( = 0.03) and tended to increase LM area for steers receiving LPRH ( = 0.07). Longissimus steaks of MSRH-supplemented cattle had greater WBSF values than CON ( = 0.04) after 7 d of postmortem aging and greater WBSF values than LPRH steaks after 28 d ( = 0.03). All other carcass and WBSF measurements were similar among treatments. The results of this study indicate that LP supplementation without RH may yield a performance similar to and carcass responses associated with the administration of a ß-agonist. These results also suggest that performance and carcass characteristics for cattle fed LP are similar to those of cattle fed monensin throughout the feeding period.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/fisiología , Ionóforos/farmacología , Monensina/análogos & derivados , Fenetilaminas/farmacología , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Masculino , Monensina/farmacología , Fenetilaminas/administración & dosificación , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/farmacología
3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 171(2): 315-327, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446862

RESUMEN

Providing cattle a more bioavailable zinc (Zn) source prior to administering a beta adrenergic agonist (ßAA) may enhance the metabolic pool of primary nutrients that will influence the magnitude of the ßAA response. Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a Zn methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO(®); Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115 ± 5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax(®); Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3-day withdrawal to evaluate the effects on growth and carcass performance together with gene and protein expression of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid depots. Steers (n = 1296; initial weight = 468.5 ± 0.5 kg) were sorted by weight, blocked by harvest date, and randomly assigned to pens (n = 12) and treatments: control (90 ppm Zn from ZnSO4) and ZnMet (Control plus 720 mg Zn from ZnMet/hd/d). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in growth performance or carcass characteristics. The ZnMet-fed cattle had reduced (P < 0.05) abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-IIX, ß1-adrenergic receptor (ßAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA in skeletal muscle tissue. The ZnMet cattle had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of MHC-II protein, increased MHC-IIA and IIX cross-sectional areas (P < 0.05), an increased percentage of MHC-I fibers (P < 0.05), and a decreased percentage of MHC-IIX fibers (P < 0.05). The combination of ZnMet and ZH had positive biological effects on musculoskeletal tissue; however, these molecular effects were not significant enough to impact overall feedlot and carcass performance.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Compuestos Organometálicos/administración & dosificación , Compuestos Organometálicos/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos , Masculino , Metionina/administración & dosificación , Metionina/farmacología , Músculo Esquelético/química , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , PPAR gamma/genética , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/genética , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/metabolismo
4.
J Anim Sci ; 93(9): 4532-44, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440352

RESUMEN

Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with ruminally protected AA was evaluated in a small-pen feeding trial. Crossbred steers ( = 180; initial BW = 366 kg) were blocked by weight and then randomly assigned to treatments (45 pens; 9 pens/treatment). Treatment groups consisted of no ZH and no AA (Cont-), ZH and no AA (Cont+), ZH and a ruminally protected lysine supplement (Lys), ZH and a ruminally protected methionine supplement (Met), and ZH and ruminally protected lysine and methionine (Lys+Met). Zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg DM) was fed for the last 20 d of the finishing period with a 3-d withdrawal period. Lysine and Met were top dressed daily for the 134-d feeding trial to provide 12 or 4 g·hd·d, respectively, to the small intestine. Carcass characteristics, striploins, and prerigor muscle samples were collected following harvest at a commercial facility. Steaks from each steer were aged for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined as an indicator of tenderness. Prerigor muscle samples were used for immunohistological analysis. Cattle treated with Met and Lys+Met had increased final BW ( < 0.3) and ADG ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- and Cont+. Supplementation of Lys, Met, and Lys+Met improved G:F ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- during the ZH feeding period (d 111 to 134) as well as the entire feeding period ( < 0.05). Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass ADG ( < 0.05) when compared to non-ZH-fed steers. Methionine and Lys+Met treatments had heavier HCW ( < 0.02) than that of Cont-. Yield grade was decreased ( < 0.04) for Cont+ steers compared to steers treated with Lys, Lys+Met, and Cont-. Tenderness was reduced ( < 0.05) with ZH regardless of AA supplementation. Lysine, Met, Lys+Met, and Cont+ had less tender steaks ( < 0.05) throughout all aging groups compared to Cont-. Steaks from Lys-treated steers were less tender ( < 0.05) than those of Cont+ during the 7- and 14-d aging periods. Nuclei density was the greatest with Cont- cattle compared to all other treatments suggesting a dilution effect of the nuclei in the larger muscle fibers with ZH feeding. Supplementation of Met in conjunction with ZH feeding increased ADG and HCW although this may lead to decreased tenderness even after aging for 28 d. These findings indicated that steers fed ZH may require additional AA absorbed from the small intestine to maximize performance.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/fisiología , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/farmacología , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacología , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Lisina , Metionina
5.
J Anim Sci ; 92(8): 3348-63, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24987078

RESUMEN

British × Continental steers (n = 168; 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17ß (E2) and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on serum urea-N (SUN), NEFA, IGF-I, and E2 concentrations and LM mRNA expression of the estrogen (ER), androgen (ANR), IGF-I (IGF-IR), ß1-adrenergic (ß1-AR), and ß2-adrenergic (ß2-AR) receptors and IGF-I. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Main effects were implant (no implant [NI], Revalor-S [REV-S; 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2], and Revalor-XS [REV-X; 200 mg TBA + 40 mg E2]) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal). Steers were fed for 153 or 174 d. Blood was collected (2 steers/pen) at d -1, 2, 6, 13, 27, 55, 83, 111, and 131 relative to implanting; LM biopsies (1 steer/pen) were collected at d -1, 27, 55, and 111. Blood and LM samples were collected at d -1, 11, and 19 relative to ZH feeding. A greater dose of TBA + E2 in combination with ZH increased ADG and HCW in an additive manner, suggesting a different mechanism of action for ZH and steroidal implants. Implanting decreased (P < 0.05) SUN from d 2 through 131. Feeding ZH decreased (P < 0.05) SUN. Serum NEFA concentrations were not affected by implants (P = 0.44). There was a day × ZH interaction (P = 0.06) for NEFA; ZH steers had increased (P < 0.01) NEFA concentrations at d 11 of ZH feeding. Serum E2 was greater (P < 0.05) for implanted steers by d 27. Serum trenbolone-17ß was greater (P < 0.05) for implanted steers by d 2 followed by a typical biphasic release rate, with a secondary peak at d 111 for REV-X (P < 0.05) implanted steers. Implanting did not affect mRNA expression of the ANR or ER, but the IGF-IR and the ß1-AR and ß2-AR were less (P < 0.05) for REV-S than NI at d 55 and ß2-AR mRNA was less (P < 0.05) for REV-S than for REV-X. Expression of the IGF-IR and the ß1-AR at d 111 was greater (P< 0.05) for REV-X than for REV-S and NI at d 111, and the ß2-AR was less (P< 0.05) for REV-S than for REV-X. Feeding ZH did not affect mRNA expression of the ß1-AR and ß2-AR. Both implanting and feeding ZH decreased SUN, but a greater dose of TBA + E2 did not result in further decreases. In addition, feeding ZH increased serum NEFA concentrations. Metabolic changes resulting from implanting and feeding ZH may aid in explaining steer performance and carcass responses to these growth promotants.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estradiol/farmacología , Estrógenos/sangre , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacología , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/farmacología , Animales , Biopsia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Implantes de Medicamentos , Estradiol/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Esteroides/administración & dosificación , Esteroides/farmacología , Acetato de Trembolona/administración & dosificación , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/administración & dosificación
6.
J Anim Sci ; 91(5): 2091-8, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23463571

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, food intake, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), food intake (P = 0.04), and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest(09)) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small(55)). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 pL) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or LM, but decreased (P ≤ 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Aceite de Soja/metabolismo , Grasa Subcutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ionización de Llama/veterinaria , Lipogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aceite de Palma , Aceites de Plantas/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria , Aceite de Soja/administración & dosificación , Grasa Subcutánea/crecimiento & desarrollo
7.
J Anim Sci ; 90(13): 4857-65, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23048144

RESUMEN

Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed for 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) would alter glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. Cattle were fitted with jugular catheters on d 52. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin sensitivity test (IST) were conducted on d 53. Blood samples were collected from -60 to 150 min relative to each infusion. Serum was isolated to determine glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations. Throughout GTT, no differences were detected in glucose concentrations, glucose clearance rates (k), or preinfusion insulin concentrations (P > 0.50), but insulin concentrations postinfusion tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for the Cr-supplemented steers. This caused an increase in the insulin to glucose ratio (I:G) from 0 to 150 min postinfusion for the Cr-supplemented steers (P = 0.03). In addition, NEFA concentrations during GTT were lower (P ≤ 0.01) for Cr-supplemented steers both preinfusion and postinfusion. During IST, there was no treatment effect on glucose concentrations preinfusion (P = 0.38), but postinfusion glucose concentrations were greater (P< 0.01) in the Cr-supplemented steers. The k of Cr-supplemented steers tended (P = 0.06) to be faster than Con steers from 30 to 45 min postinfusion. During the same test, there was no treatment effect detected for insulin concentrations (P > 0.33). The I:G were not affected by treatment (P > 0.40).Concentrations of NEFA were reduced (P < 0.01) both preinfusion and postinfusion during IST for Cr-supplemented steers. Results of this study indicate that supplementation of Cr can significantly alter lipid metabolism. This suggests that these steers had less dependence on lipid metabolism for energy or sensitivity of adipose tissue to antilipolytic signals was reduced. Results of glucose and insulin metabolism were inconsistently modified after a GTT and an IST.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Propionatos/administración & dosificación , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa/veterinaria , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino
8.
J Anim Sci ; 90(10): 3584-95, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22851240

RESUMEN

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride mM supplementation (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg on a DM basis for 20 d) and calcium chloride injection [CaCl(2), 200 at 5% (wt/wt) at 72 h postmortem] on palatability traits of beef (Bos taurus) strip loin steaks. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from control (no ZH = 19) and ZH-supplemented carcasses (n = 20). Right and left sides were selected alternatively to serve as a control (no INJ) or CaCl(2)-injected (INJ) and stored at 4°C. Before injecting the subprimals (72 h postmortem), 2 steaks were cut for proximate, sarcomere length, and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) analyses. At 7 d postmortem each strip loin was portioned into steaks, vacuum packaged, and aged for the appropriate period for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem), trained sensory analysis (14 and 21 d postmortem), purge loss (7 d), and MFI (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem). Results indicated steaks from both ZH supplementation and INJ had reduced WBSF values as days of postmortem aging increased. The WBSF values of ZH steaks were greater (P < 0.05) than no ZH steaks at each postmortem aging period. The INJ steaks had lower WBSF values (P < 0.05) than non-injected steaks. A greater percentage (91 vs. 71%) of steaks had WBSF values < 4.6 kg from steers with no ZH supplementation at 7 d postmortem, but the percentage did not differ (P > 0.05) due to ZH at 14, 21, or 28 d or due to INJ at any aging period. Trained panelists rated tenderness less in ZH steaks than steaks with no ZH at 14 d and 21 d. However, INJ improved (P < 0.05) the tenderness ratings and flavor intensity of the trained panelists, compared with their non-injected cohorts at 21 d. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) MFI values, but INJ resulted in greater (P < 0.05) MFI values compared with no INJ. Subprimals from ZH and INJ showed greater purge loss (P < 0.05). Although no interactions were found with ZH and CaCl(2), injecting USDA Select strip loins from ZH-fed cattle can help reduce the normal WBSF variation as it does in steaks from non-ZH-fed cattle.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Cloruro de Calcio/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne/normas , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/metabolismo , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/administración & dosificación
9.
J Anim Sci ; 90(11): 3879-88, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22665638

RESUMEN

Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 ± 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; 9 pens/treatment; 5 steers/pen) was used. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con), 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/kg of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. No differences were detected on d 0 or after the first 14 d on feed. From d 0 to d 28, DMI (P = 0.07) and ADG increased linearly (P = 0.04) as Cr concentrations increased. From d 0 to d 56, BW (P = 0.08) displayed a tendency to increase linearly, and consequently ADG and G:F increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as Cr concentrations increased. The number of steers treated at least once for respiratory symptoms tended (P = 0.07) to linearly decrease as Cr concentrations increased. Twenty additional steers (235 ± 4 kg) were fed 56 d to determine if supplementing Cr (Con or 0.2 mg/kg Cr) would alter the metabolic response of newly-received cattle to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cattle were fitted with jugular catheters on d 52. On d 55, blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h, and again at 24 h relative to a LPS challenge (0.5 µg/kg BW) at 0 h. Serum glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations were determined from blood samples. Steer BW was also measured at cannulation, and 24 h and 8 d post-LPS. Steer BW did not differ at cannulation (P = 0.37), but 24 h post-LPS, Cr-supplemented steers had lost less BW (P = 0.03). Pre-LPS glucose concentration did not differ (P = 0.97). Post-LPS, there was a time × treatment interaction (P < 0.01) such that glucose concentration peaked earlier (0.5 h) and at a greater concentrations in Cr-supplemented steers (P < 0.01). Insulin concentration did not differ between treatments pre- or post-LPS (P > 0.13). Concentration of NEFA did not differ pre-LPS (P = 0.54); but 0.5 h post-LPS Cr-treated steers produced a greater peak NEFA concentration (P < 0.04). Results of this study indicate that supplementation of Cr to the basal diet can have beneficial effects on the performance and health of newly-received steers. These data also suggest that supplementation of Cr attenuated BW loss and allowed for a quicker recovery after a LPS challenge.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Cromo/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inmunomodulación , Masculino , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Transportes
10.
J Anim Sci ; 87(3): 994-1002, 2009 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18997072

RESUMEN

Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P < 0.05) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6n-3) in their fetuses (5.23 vs. 4.04 +/- 0.078 mg/g) compared with gilts fed the control diet. Both the flax and PFA diets increased (P < 0.05) DHA (0.60, 0.82, and 0.85 +/- 0.078 mg/g for the control, flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P < 0.001; P < 0.05), whereas gilts receiving PFA had increased DHA (P < 0.001). The flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on d 11 to 19 of pregnancy. Plasma samples indicated that PFA increased (P < 0.005) circulating concentrations of EPA and DHA. Endometrial EPA was increased (P < 0.001) for gilts fed the PFA diet. In extraembryonic tissues, PFA more than doubled (P < 0.001) the EPA (0.13 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.013 mg/g) and DHA (0.39 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.05 mg/g). In embryonic tissue on d 19, DHA was increased (P < 0.05) by PFA (0.20 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.023 mg/g). Supplementing n-3 PUFA, beginning 30 d before breeding, affected endometrial, conceptus, and fetal fatty acid composition in early pregnancy. Dynamic day effects in fatty acid composition indicate this may be a critical period for maternal fatty acid resources to affect conceptus development and survival.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/análisis , Porcinos/fisiología , Útero/química , Animales , Endometrio/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Femenino , Feto/química , Masculino , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 92(6): 660-7, 2008 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19012611

RESUMEN

We investigated the influence of supplemental L-carnitine on foetal blood metabolites, litter characteristics, L-carnitine concentration in skeletal muscle and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis components in foetal hepatic and skeletal muscle tissues at day 40, 55 and 70 of gestating gilts. A total of 59 gilts (body weight = 137.7 kg) received a constant feed allowance of 1.75 kg/day and a top-dress containing either 0 or 50 ppm of L-carnitine starting on the first day of breeding through the allotted gestation length. Foetuses from the gilts fed diets with L-carnitine tended to be heavier (p = 0.06) and the circulating IGF-II tended to be lower (p = 0.09) at day 70, compared with the foetuses from the control gilts. Insulin-like growth factor-I messenger RNA (mRNA) was lower (p = 0.05) in hepatic tissue in the foetuses collected from gilts fed L-carnitine. Free and total carnitine concentration increased (p < 0.05) in the skeletal muscle from the foetuses collected from gilts fed supplemental L-carnitine. This study showed that L-carnitine had beneficial effects on the average foetal weight at day 70 of gestation, associated with changes in the foetal IGF system.


Asunto(s)
Carnitina/administración & dosificación , Desarrollo Fetal/efectos de los fármacos , Preñez/metabolismo , Somatomedinas/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Edad Gestacional , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Embarazo , Preñez/sangre , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/sangre , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/metabolismo
12.
J Anim Sci ; 85(11): 3062-71, 2007 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17785601

RESUMEN

Forty crossbred wethers (BW = 28.7 kg) were used to evaluate the effects on LM lipid composition of diets containing high and low levels of vitamin A. Four treatments arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with a completely random design were investigated: backgrounding (BG) and finishing (FN) with no supplemental vitamin A (LL); BG with no supplemental vitamin A and FN with high vitamin A (6,600 IU/kg of diet, as fed) supplementation (LH); BG with high vitamin A supplementation and FN with no vitamin A supplementation (HL); and BG and FN with high vitamin A (HH) supplementation. Diets included cracked corn (62.4%), soybean meal (16.0%), cottonseed hull pellets (14.8%), and supplement (7%), and contained <100 IU of vitamin A/kg (as fed) from carotenes before vitamin A was added. During the BG period (d 1 to 56), feed intake was restricted to achieve 0.22 kg of ADG. During the FN period (d 57 to 112), lambs consumed the same diet ad libitum. Lambs were weighed every 14 d, and blood was sampled every 28 d to evaluate changes in serum fatty acids and vitamin A levels. Lambs were slaughtered after 112 d. Lipid composition was determined for liver and LM. There were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) in feed intake, ADG, or final BW. Carcass weights were not affected by vitamin A treatment (P > 0.20), although backfat thickness tended to be different between HL and LL lambs (0.80 vs. 0.64 cm, respectively; P = 0.08). Carcasses from the HH group had greater (P < 0.05) marbling scores than those from the LL group (514 vs. 459) and had 25.8% more extractable intramuscular lipids (3.88 vs. 3.08% for HH and LL, respectively; P < 0.05); the LH and HL treatments were intermediate. Interestingly, the LL group had the greatest increase in serum fatty acids throughout the experimental period (change of 127 vs. 41 microg/g for LL and HH, respectively; P < 0.01). The degree of saturation of fatty acids was not affected by treatment (P = 0.18) in the serum but was affected in the longissimus thoracis fat. Oleic acid increased and linoleic acid decreased in the longissimus thoracis of HH-treated lambs (P < 0.02). These data suggest that increases in total intramuscular lipids may be achieved with high levels of vitamin A supplementation for 112 d in young lambs.


Asunto(s)
Lípidos/sangre , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Ovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vitamina A/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Hígado/química , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Ovinos/sangre , Ovinos/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso
13.
J Anim Sci ; 85(7): 1687-94, 2007 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17371786

RESUMEN

A total of 59 gilts (BW = 137.7 kg) from 3 breeding groups were used to assess the effects of feeding l-carnitine during gestation on gilt growth characteristics, blood metabolites, and uterine and chorioallantoic expression of IGF axis components at d 40, 55, and 70 of gestation. Experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial, with main effects of added l-carnitine (0 or 50 ppm) and day after initial breeding (d 40, 55, or 70 of gestation). All gilts received a constant feed allowance of 1.75 kg/d and a top-dress containing 0 or 50 ppm of l-carnitine beginning on the first day of breeding through the assigned day of gestation. No dietary treatment differences were observed for gilt BW, backfat, or estimated protein or fat mass at any day of gestation. No differences were observed in circulating total and free carnitine at breeding, but concentrations increased (P < 0.01) as day of gestation increased for gilts fed diets containing l-carnitine compared with those fed the control diet. Maternal IGF-I concentration decreased (P < 0.01) from d 0 to 70 for all gilts, with no differences between treatments. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 mRNA (P = 0.05) and IGFBP-5 mRNA (P = 0.01) increased in the endometrium of gilts supplemented with l-carnitine. These data demonstrate that l-carnitine supplementation and day of gestation alter the expression of the IGF axis by changing the expression of IGFBP at the fetal-maternal interface in swine. These changes in the IGF axis at the fetal maternal interface may aid in determining the reasons for the effects of l-carnitine on reproductive traits.


Asunto(s)
Carnitina/administración & dosificación , Endometrio/metabolismo , Preñez/metabolismo , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Complejo Vitamínico B/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Animales , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Carnitina/farmacología , Femenino , Proteína 3 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Proteína 5 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Embarazo , Preñez/sangre , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/sangre , Complejo Vitamínico B/farmacología
14.
J Anim Sci ; 83(8): 1824-31, 2005 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16024700

RESUMEN

The effects of L-carnitine on porcine fetal growth traits and the IGF system were determined. Fourth-parity sows were fed a gestation diet with either a 50-g top dress containing 0 (control, n = 6) or 100 mg of L-carnitine (n = 6). At midgestation, fetuses were removed for growth measurements, and porcine embryonic myoblasts (PEM) were isolated from semitendinosus. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in the uterus, placenta, muscle, hepatic tissue, and cultured PEM. A treatment x day interaction (P = 0.02) was observed for maternal circulating total carnitine. Sows fed L-carnitine had a greater (P = 0.01) concentration of total carnitine at d 57 than control sows. Circulating IGF-I was not affected (P = 0.55) by treatment. Supplementing sows with L-carnitine resulted in larger (P = 0.02) litters (15.5 vs. 10.8 fetuses) without affecting litter weight (P = 0.07; 1,449.6 vs. 989.4 g) or individual fetal weight (P = 0.88) compared with controls. No treatment effect was found for muscle IGF-I (P = 0.36), IGF-II (P = 0.51), IGFBP-3 (P = 0.70), or IGFBP-5 (P = 0.51) mRNA abundance. The abundance of IGF-I (P = 0.72), IGF-II (P = 0.34), and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.99) in hepatic tissue was not influenced by treatment. Uterine IGF-I (P = 0.46), IGF-II (P = 0.40), IGFBP-3 (P = 0.29), and IGFBP-5 (P = 0.35) mRNA abundance did not differ between treatments. Placental IGF-I (P = 0.30), IGF-II (P = 0.18), IGFBP-3 (P = 0.94), and IGFBP-5 (P = 0.42) mRNA abundance did not differ between treatments. There was an effect of side of the uterus for IGF-I (P = 0.04) and IGF-II (P = 0.007) mRNA abundance; IGF-I mRNA abundance was greater in the left uterine horn than in the right uterine horn (0.14 and 0.07 relative units, respectively). Placental IGF-II mRNA abundance was greater (P = 0.007) in the left than in the right uterine horn (483.5 and 219.59, respectively). The abundance of IGFBP-3 was not affected by uterine horns in either uterine (P = 0.66) or placental (P = 0.13) tissue. There was no treatment difference for IGF-I (P = 0.31) or IGFBP-5 (P = 0.13) in PEM. The PEM isolated from sows fed L-carnitine had decreased IGF-II (P = 0.02), IGFBP-3 (P = 0.03), and myogenin (P = 0.04; 61, 59, and 67%, respectively) mRNA abundance compared with controls. These data suggest that L-carnitine supplemented to gestating sows altered the IGF system and may affect fetal growth and development.


Asunto(s)
Carnitina/farmacología , Desarrollo Fetal/efectos de los fármacos , Somatomedinas/efectos de los fármacos , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Complejo Vitamínico B/farmacología , Animales , Carnitina/sangre , Femenino , Hígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Embarazo , Preñez/sangre , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Somatomedinas/biosíntesis , Somatomedinas/fisiología
15.
J Anim Sci ; 82(6): 1868-75, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15217016

RESUMEN

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerols into monoacylglycerol and fatty acids, which are taken up by tissues and used for energy. Glycogenin is the core protein on which glycogen molecules are synthesized. There is one molecule of glycogenin per molecule of glycogen in skeletal muscle; therefore, glycogen storage is limited by the amount of glycogenin present in muscle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed, a source of PUFA, and administering a growth promoter on steady-state LPL and glycogenin mRNA content of muscle in finishing cattle. Sixteen crossbred steers (initial BW = 397 kg), given ad libitum access to a 92% concentrate diet for 28 d, were used in a four-treatment, 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with flaxseed supplementation (0 or 5% of dietary DM) and implanting (not implanted or implanted with Revalor-S) as the main effects. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the LM at 0, 14, and 28 d, and used to quantify LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations using real-time quantitative PCR. Implanting with Revalor-S did not affect LPL (P = 0.13) or glycogenin (P = 0.98) mRNA concentrations. A day x flaxseed interaction (P < 0.001) was observed for both LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed between 0 and 5% flaxseed supplemented steers; however, at 28 d, nonflaxseed-fed steers had 4.1- and 5.7-fold increases (P < 0.001) over flaxseed steers for LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LA) on LPL and glycogenin mRNA concentrations, muscle satellite cells were isolated from five finishing steers, and different alpha-LA concentrations were applied in culture. The RNA was isolated from the bovine satellite cells. Addition of alpha-LA numerically increased (P = 0.16) the LPL mRNA concentration 48% at 1 microM alpha-LA compared with the control. The expression of glycogenin was increased (P < 0.05) 50% at 1 microM alpha-LA compared with the control. These results suggest that flaxseed supplementation to finishing steers for 28 d decreased gene expression of both LPL and glycogenin compared with not feeding flaxseed. Alterations in local concentrations of these two proteins could affect the ability of muscle to use fatty acids and glucose for energy, and, ultimately, affect carcass quality.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacología , Lino , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lipoproteína Lipasa/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Acetato de Trembolona/análogos & derivados , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Combinación de Medicamentos , Implantes de Medicamentos , Estradiol/administración & dosificación , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glucosiltransferasas , Glicoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteína Lipasa/genética , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , ARN Mensajero/análisis , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Acetato de Trembolona/administración & dosificación , Ácido alfa-Linolénico/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 81(12): 3028-34, 2003 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14677858

RESUMEN

We evaluated effects of a 5% (dry matter basis) ground flaxseed supplement (flax) and a trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17beta implant, Revalor-S, on circulating IGF-I and muscle IGF-I messenger RNA (mRNA). Sixteen crossbred yearling steers (initial BW = 397 kg) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments: 1) flax/implant; 2) nonflax/implant; 3) flax/nonimplant; and 4) nonflax/nonimplant. Serum was harvested from blood collected on d 0 (before implant or flax addition), 14, and 28, and used in subsequent analyses of circulating IGF-I. Biopsy samples (0.5 g) were obtained from the longissimus muscle on d 0, 14, and 28. Total RNA was isolated from the muscle samples, and real-time quantitative-PCR was used to assess relative differences in IGF-I mRNA. Flax supplementation had no effect (P > 0.10) on circulating IGF-I concentrations. Following implantation, sera from implanted steers had 52 and 84% greater (P < 0.05) IGF-I concentrations than sera from nonimplanted steers on d 14 and 28, respectively. On d 28, local muscle IGF-I mRNA levels increased 2.4-fold (P < 0.01) in biopsy samples obtained from implanted compared with nonimplanted steers. Muscle biopsy samples from nonflax cattle had 4.4-fold higher (P < 0.01) levels of IGF-I mRNA than those from flax cattle on d 28. To determine whether a component of flax, alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLA), was directly responsible for IGF-I mRNA down-regulation, we incubated primary cultures of bovine satellite cells, from implanted and nonimplanted steers, in two concentrations of alphaLA (10 nM and 1 microM). An implant x dose interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for IGF-I mRNA concentrations in bovine satellite cells cultured for 72 h with alphaLA. Satellite cells from nonimplanted steers had similar (P > 0.10) IGF-I mRNA concentration regardless of the level of alphaLA exposure; however, satellite cells from implanted steers exposed to 10 nM and 1 microM alphaLA had 2.5- and 2.0-fold greater IGF-I mRNA levels, respectively, than cells from implanted steers that were not exposed to alphaLA (P < 0.05). Administration of a Revalor-S implant increased circulating IGF-I and local muscle IGF-I mRNA concentrations in finishing cattle. However, muscle IGF-I mRNA levels were decreased by flax supplementation. Muscle cell culture experiments suggested that alphaLA was not responsible for the IGF-I mRNA down-regulation.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacología , Lino , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Acetato de Trembolona/análogos & derivados , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacología , Anabolizantes/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos/sangre , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Combinación de Medicamentos , Implantes de Medicamentos , Estradiol/administración & dosificación , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/genética , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Acetato de Trembolona/administración & dosificación , Ácido alfa-Linolénico/farmacología
18.
Curr Eye Res ; 5(2): 93-9, 1986 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3082600

RESUMEN

The present study examined the anti-herpetic effect of the glycoprotein inhibitors, hydroxynorvaline and 2-deoxyglucose, alone and in combination with trifluridine on murine ocular herpes. Following ocular inoculation with a large dose of HSV-1 RE strain (10(6) pfu), ICR mice were treated during the acute infection with different therapeutic regimens, and their efficacy was evaluated by ocular virus titers, clinical grading of blepharo-conjunctivitis and histological evaluation of stromal keratitis and iridocyclitis. The results following a large dose HSV-1 inoculum demonstrated that trifluridine was the best single therapeutic agent. Hydroxynorvaline and 2-deoxyglucose had no effect at all. Combination therapy of the glycoprotein inhibitors with trifluridine was no better than trifluridine alone. The mouse HSV-1 keratitis model proved to be an effective, economical alternative to the rabbit model for the evaluation of new antiviral agents.


Asunto(s)
Desoxiazúcares/uso terapéutico , Desoxiglucosa/uso terapéutico , Queratitis Dendrítica/tratamiento farmacológico , Treonina/análogos & derivados , Timidina/análogos & derivados , Trifluridina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Conjuntivitis/patología , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ojo/patología , Queratitis Dendrítica/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Treonina/uso terapéutico
19.
Gastroenterology ; 76(2): 272-8, 1979 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-759259

RESUMEN

An 125I- or 131I-labeled bile salt derivative, cholylglycyliodohistamine, has been synthesized and purified. The bile salt derivative is rapidly cleared from the circulation when injected intravenously into rats and rabbits. Ten minutes after injection, approximately 50% of the recovered bile salt derivative was in the jejunum and ileum, and 36% was found in the liver. Sixty minutes after injection, 99% of the recovered radioactivity was found in the luminal gastrointestinal tract. The isotope was cleared from the circulation of rabbits with a t1/2 of approximately 2 min. Hepatic scintigraphy using rabbits demonstrated rapid uptake by the liver and excretion into the intestine. Quantitative analysis of scintigraphy showed an uptake rate of 14%/min and a subsequent excretory rate of 4.6/min.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos y Sales Biliares , Ácido Glicocólico/análogos & derivados , Radioisótopos de Yodo , Pruebas de Función Hepática/métodos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Ácidos y Sales Biliares/metabolismo , Colecistoquinina , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Ácido Glicocólico/metabolismo , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Hígado/metabolismo , Métodos , Cintigrafía , Ratas , Rosa Bengala , Tecnecio , Distribución Tisular
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