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1.
J Neurosci Methods ; 365: 109382, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637809

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a step towards clinical use of AAV-mediated gene therapy, brains of large animals are used to settle delivery parameters as most brain connections, and relative sizes in large animals and primates, are reasonably common. Prior to application in the clinic, approaches that have shown to be successful in rodent models are tested in larger animal species, such as dogs, non-human primates, and in this case, minipigs. NEW METHOD: We evaluated alternate delivery routes to target the basal ganglia by injections into the more superficial corona radiata, and, deeper into the brain, the thalamus. Anatomically known connections can be used to predict the expression of the transgene following infusion of AAV5. For optimal control over delivery of the vector with regards to anatomical location in the brain and spread in the tissue, we have used magnetic resonance image-guided convection-enhanced diffusion delivery. RESULTS: While the transduction of the cortex was observed, only partial transduction of the basal ganglia was achieved via the corona radiata. Thalamic administration, on the other hand, resulted in widespread transduction from the midbrain to the frontal cortex COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Compared to other methods, such as delivery directly to the striatum, thalamic injection may provide an alternative when for instance, injection into the basal ganglia directly is not feasible. CONCLUSIONS: The study results suggest that thalamic administration of AAV5 has significant potential for indications where the transduction of specific areas of the brain is required.


Asunto(s)
Convección , Tálamo , Animales , Dependovirus/genética , Perros , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vectores Genéticos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Porcinos , Porcinos Enanos/genética , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagen
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(6): 4365-4376, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365110

RESUMEN

To test the hypothesis that the metabolism of Cu in dairy cows is affected by basal forage and added S and Mo, 56 dairy cows that were 35 (standard error ± 2.2) days postcalving and yielding 38.9 kg of milk/d (standard error ± 0.91) were offered 1 of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design for a 14-wk period. The 4 diets contained approximately 20 mg of Cu/kg of dry matter (DM), and had a corn silage-to-grass silage ratio of 0.75:0.25 (C) or 0.25:0.75 (G) and were either unsupplemented (-) or supplemented (+) with an additional 2 g of S/kg of DM and 6.5 mg of Mo/kg of DM. We found an interaction between forage source and added S and Mo on DM intake, with cows offered G+ having a 2.1 kg of DM lower intake than those offered G-, but no effect on the corn silage-based diets. Mean milk yield was 38.9 kg/d and we observed an interaction between basal forage and added S and Mo, with yield being decreased in cows offered G+ but increased on C+. No effect of dietary treatment on milk composition or live weight was noted, but body condition was lower in cows fed added S and Mo irrespective of forage source. We found an interaction between forage source and added S and Mo on milk somatic cell count, which was higher in cows offered G+ compared with G-, but not in cows fed the corn silage-based diets, although all values were low (mean values of 1.72, 1.50, 1.39, and 1.67 log10/mL for C-, C+, G-, and G+, respectively). Mean plasma Cu, Fe, and Mn concentrations were 13.8, 41.3, and 0.25 µmol/L, respectively, and were not affected by dietary treatment, whereas plasma Mo was 0.2 µmol/L higher in cows receiving added S and Mo. The addition of dietary S and Mo decreased liver Cu balance over the study period in cows fed either basal forage, but the decrease was considerably greater in cows receiving the grass silage-based diet. Similarly, hepatic Fe decreased more in cows receiving G than C when S and Mo were included in the diet. We concluded that added S and Mo reduces hepatic Cu reserves irrespective of basal forage source, but this decrease is considerably more pronounced in cows receiving grass silage- than corn silage-based rations and is associated with a decrease in intake and milk performance and an increase in milk somatic cell count.


Asunto(s)
Cobre/administración & dosificación , Cobre/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Molibdeno/administración & dosificación , Ensilaje , Azufre/administración & dosificación , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Femenino , Leche/química , Leche/citología , Poaceae , Zea mays
3.
Plant Dis ; 101(8): 1500-1506, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678582

RESUMEN

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a disease of dicotyledonous crops such as potato and has a wide host range and persistent, long-term survival structures called microsclerotia that can persist in soil for up to 14 years. Some V. dahliae isolates are particularly aggressive on a specific plant host while retaining the ability to infect a wide range of other hosts. Weeds can serve as hosts for V. dahliae but whether they serve as sources of inoculum for aggressive isolates of V. dahliae to crop hosts is unknown. The goal of this research was to quantify V. dahliae microsclerotia obtained from 16 weeds which were grown in the greenhouse. Potting medium was infested with one of eight V. dahliae isolates from potato, mint, sugar beet, sunflower, tomato, and watermelon. The isolates from mint and potato were aggressive on the host from which they were originally isolated. All 16 weeds were infected by at least one V. dahliae isolate, although the number of microsclerotia produced from some infections was relatively low (≤5 microsclerotia/g of dry plant). Black nightshade yielded greater numbers of microsclerotia of the V. dahliae potato isolate than any other isolate in three of four trials in the greenhouse (second trial false discovery rate, adjusted P ≤ 0.0158; third trial, P ≤ 0.0264; and fourth trial, P ≤ 0.0193). Litchi tomato yielded greater numbers of microsclerotia of the V. dahliae potato isolate than any other isolate in one of four trials (first trial, P ≤ 0.0149). A V. dahliae isolate from tomato yielded greater numbers of microsclerotia in large crabgrass and wild oat in a second trial (P ≤ 0.0158). Weeds, depending on the species, grown during and between potato crop rotations may increase the number of microsclerotia of the potato-aggressive isolates of V. dahliae.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas , Solanum tuberosum , Verticillium , Productos Agrícolas/microbiología , Noroeste de Estados Unidos , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología , Verticillium/patogenicidad
5.
Phytopathology ; 105(7): 966-81, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760519

RESUMEN

Phytophthora infestans has been a named pathogen for well over 150 years and yet it continues to "emerge", with thousands of articles published each year on it and the late blight disease that it causes. This review explores five attributes of this oomycete pathogen that maintain this constant attention. First, the historical tragedy associated with this disease (Irish potato famine) causes many people to be fascinated with the pathogen. Current technology now enables investigators to answer some questions of historical significance. Second, the devastation caused by the pathogen continues to appear in surprising new locations or with surprising new intensity. Third, populations of P. infestans worldwide are in flux, with changes that have major implications to disease management. Fourth, the genomics revolution has enabled investigators to make tremendous progress in terms of understanding the molecular biology (especially the pathogenicity) of P. infestans. Fifth, there remain many compelling unanswered questions.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Phytophthora infestans/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/historia , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiología , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología , Genómica , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología
6.
J Neurosci Methods ; 219(1): 1-9, 2013 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23835009

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The optimisation of convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain is fundamentally reliant on minimising drug reflux. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel reflux-resistant CED catheter incorporating a recessed-step and to compare its performance to previously described stepped catheters. METHODS: The in vitro performance of the recessed-step catheter was compared to a conventional "one-step" catheter with a single transition in outer diameter (OD) at the catheter tip, and a "two-step" design comprising two distal transitions in OD. The volumes of distribution and reflux were compared by performing infusions of Trypan blue into agarose gels. The in vivo performance of the recessed-step catheter was then analysed in a large animal model by performing infusions of 0.2% Gadolinium-DTPA in Large White/Landrace pigs. RESULTS: The recessed-step catheter demonstrated significantly higher volumes of distribution than the one-step and two-step catheters (p=0.0001, one-way ANOVA). No reflux was detected until more than 100 ul had been delivered via the recessed-step catheter, whilst reflux was detected after infusion of only 25 ul via the 2 non-recessed catheters. The recessed-step design also showed superior reflux resistance to a conventational one-step catheter in vivo. Reflux-free infusions were achieved in the thalamus, putamen and white matter at a maximum infusion rate of 5 ul/min using the recessed-step design. CONCLUSION: The novel recessed-step catheter described in this study shows significant potential for the achievement of predictable high volume, high flow rate infusions whilst minimising the risk of reflux.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Catéteres , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Algoritmos , Animales , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Cateterismo/métodos , Colorantes , Medios de Contraste , Convección , Gadolinio DTPA , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Putamen , Sefarosa , Porcinos , Tálamo , Azul de Tripano
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(7): 4355-67, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23660145

RESUMEN

The effect of inorganic (INORG) or organic (ORG) Cu, fed without (-) or with (+) additional S and Mo on Cu status and performance was examined using 56 early lactation dairy cows in a 2×2 factorial study design. Supplementary Cu was added as either CuSO4 or BioplexCu (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to provide an additional 10mg of Cu/kg of dry matter (DM), with S added at 1.5g/kg of DM and Mo at 6.8mg/kg of DM to reduce Cu bioavailability. The basal ration was composed of corn and grass silages (2:1 respectively, DM basis) and straight feeds. Cows commenced the study at wk 7 of lactation and remained on treatment for 16 wk. An interaction existed between Cu source and added S and Mo on DM intake, with cows offered INORG- Cu having an increased intake compared with those offered INORG+ or ORG- Cu. Milk yield averaged 35.4kg/d, and was 5% higher with milk fat content 6% lower in cows fed INORG compared with ORG Cu, but milk fat yield, energy-corrected milk yield, and milk protein content did not differ between treatments. A trend existed for cows to have a higher body weight gain when offered ORG compared with INORG Cu. Cows fed diets containing INORG Cu had a higher milk concentration of C17:0 and C18:3n-3 compared with those fed diets containing ORG Cu. Cows fed added S and Mo had a lower milk concentration of C17:0 and C18:0 compared with those that were not supplemented. No effect was observed of dietary treatment on plasma Cu concentration, which averaged 13.1 µmol/L, except during wk 12 when cows receiving added S and Mo had a lower concentration. No effect was observed of Cu source on mean plasma Mo concentrations, but during wk 16 cows offered INORG Cu had a higher concentration than those offered ORG Cu. Hepatic Cu levels decreased by approximately 0.9mg/kg of DM per day when fed additional S and Mo, but no effect of Cu source was observed. A trend existed for hepatic ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B) to be upregulated in cows when fed S and Mo along with ORG but not INORG Cu. In conclusion, the inclusion of an ORG compared with an INORG source of Cu reduced milk yield but increased milk fat concentration and body weight gain, with no effect on energy-corrected milk yield. Little effect was observed of dietary Cu supply on plasma mineral concentration, liver mRNA abundance, or milk fatty acid profile, whereas the addition of S and Mo reduced hepatic Cu concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Cobre/administración & dosificación , Hígado/química , Molibdeno/administración & dosificación , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Azufre/administración & dosificación , Animales , Cobre/análisis , Cobre/farmacocinética , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Leche/química , Estado Nutricional , Poaceae , Ensilaje , Zea mays
8.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 66(2): 152-9, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22813982

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of drug-related effects on cardiovascular function is part of the core battery described in the ICH S7A guideline. Anesthetized guinea-pigs are excellent models for the evaluation of drug-induced prolongation of ventricular repolarization; however less information is available regarding other cardio-hemodynamic parameters in this model. The current study aimed to document cardio-hemodynamic responses in anesthetized guinea-pigs after administration of a number of reference drugs with known pharmacological actions. METHODS: Experiments were carried out in closed chest pentobarbital anesthetized female guinea-pigs. Compounds were administered intravenously while arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure (LVP) and the electrocardiogram were measured continuously. The rate of LVP contraction (LV dP/dt(max)) was used to evaluate cardiac performance; and was compared to the QA interval; which has previously been proposed as an indirect measurement of cardiac function. RESULTS: Baseline values for heart rate and blood pressure were lower in anesthetized animals compared to literature data of conscious guinea-pigs. Heart rate increased after administration of adrenaline, isoprenaline and salbutamol, but not after L-phenylephrine. Verapamil and amiodarone decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Zatebradine infusion led to a decrease in heart rate with minimal effects on blood pressure. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) caused a reduction in mean blood pressure at higher doses followed by reflex tachycardia. Both adrenaline and L-phenylephrine increased arterial blood pressure. Furthermore, adrenaline, isoprenaline and salbutamol increased LV dP/dt(max) and decreased the QA interval. L-phenylephrine increased LV dP/dt(max), but transiently prolonged the QA interval. Both verapamil and amiodarone decreased LV dP/dt(max) and prolonged the QA interval, whereas zatebradine did not affect this parameter. DISCUSSION: In addition to its utility for the assessment of test compounds on ventricular repolarization the pentobarbital anesthetized guinea-pig model shows promise for early stage cardio-hemodynamic screening. Furthermore, the QA interval shows potential for prediction of adverse effects on cardiac contractility.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Pruebas de Toxicidad/métodos , Anestesia , Animales , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Electrocardiografía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Cobayas , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Contracción Miocárdica/efectos de los fármacos , Contracción Miocárdica/fisiología , Función Ventricular Izquierda/efectos de los fármacos
9.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 66(2): 125-34, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22516473

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Assessment of the propensity of novel drugs to cause proarrhythmia is essential in the drug development process. It is increasingly recognized, however, that QT prolongation alone is an imperfect surrogate marker for Torsades de Pointes (TdP) arrhythmia prediction. In the present study we investigated the behavior of a novel surrogate marker for TdP, the electro-mechanical (E-M) window, prior to triggering of TdP episodes with sympathetic stimulation after administration of a number of reference compounds. METHODS: Experiments were carried out in closed chest pentobarbital anesthetized guinea pigs. Test compounds were administered intravenously together with a specific I(Ks) blocker (JNJ303; 0.2 mgkg(-1)min(-1) for 3 min) and adrenaline (0.06 mgkg(-1)min(-1) for 2 min) was applied to trigger TdP. ECG, blood- and left ventricular pressure signals were measured continuously throughout the experiments. The E-M window i.e. the duration of the mechanical systole (QLVP(end) interval) minus the duration of the electrical activity (QT interval) was assessed for individual beats. RESULTS: Drugs with documented TdP liability (quinidine, haloperidol, domperidone, terfenadine, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and dofetilide) produced TdP in the protocol after adrenaline infusion, whereas negative control compounds (verapamil, ranolazine, amiodarone and saline) did not cause TdP arrhythmia, even though increases in repolarization times were observed. TdP were typically preceded by large (greater than -50 ms) negative electro-mechanical windows and were accompanied by aftercontractions. DISCUSSION: The present study in anesthetized guinea pigs indicates that negative E-M windows are a prerequisite for sympathetically-driven TdP induction after the administration of various agents with known proarrhythmic potential. These data are a first step in the validation of this novel protocol; however we believe that this proarrhythmia model in small animals might be a valuable additional tool in the prediction of TdP risk of new chemical entities at the early stages of drug discovery.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/inducido químicamente , Torsades de Pointes/inducido químicamente , Pruebas de Toxicidad/métodos , Anestesia , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Antagonismo de Drogas , Electrocardiografía/efectos de los fármacos , Epinefrina/farmacología , Femenino , Cobayas , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/fisiopatología , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/efectos de los fármacos , Torsades de Pointes/fisiopatología
10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 5(1): 34-44, 2012 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21895996

RESUMEN

Two continuous-flow bench-scale bioreactor systems populated by mixed communities of acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were constructed and tested for their abilities to promote the selective precipitation of transition metals (as sulfides) present in synthetic mine waters, using glycerol as electron donor. The objective with the first system (selective precipitation of copper from acidic mine water containing a variety of soluble metals) was achieved by maintaining a bioreactor pH of ≈ 2.2-2.5. The second system was fed with acidic (pH 2.5) synthetic mine water containing 3 mM of both zinc and ferrous iron, and varying concentrations (0.5-30 mM) of aluminium. Selective precipitation of zinc sulfide was possible by operating the bioreactor at pH 4.0 and supplementing the synthetic mine water with 4 mM glycerol. Analysis of the microbial populations in the bioreactors showed that they changed with varying operational parameters, and novel acidophilic bacteria (including one sulfidogen) were isolated from the bioreactors. The acidophilic sulfidogenic bioreactors provided 'proof of principle' that segregation of metals present in mine waters is possible using simple online systems within which controlled pH conditions are maintained. The modular units are versatile and robust, and involve minimum engineering complexity.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos/metabolismo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Sulfuros/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Zinc/metabolismo , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Biodegradación Ambiental , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , Minería
11.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 34(4): 487-93, 2011 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21682754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Erosive oesophagitis appears to be more common in white vs. nonwhite patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate the association between race and erosive oesophagitis healing in patients with GERD treated with once-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: Data from five double-blind trials of once-daily treatment with esomeprazole 40mg vs. omeprazole 20mg or lansoprazole 30mg for erosive oesophagitis healing (evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 by endoscopy) were pooled and stratified by baseline race and Los Angeles (LA) severity grade. Multiple logistic regression models were fit with erosive oesophagitis healing (dependent variable) and race (independent variable), with adjustments for treatment, study, baseline LA grade, age, gender, BMI, Helicobacter pylori status, hiatal hernia and interactions of these factors with race. RESULTS: Of 11,027 patients, 91% were white. Nonwhite (n=978) and black (n=613) patients were less likely to have severe baseline erosive oesophagitis (LA grade C or D) than white patients [adjusted OR: 0.69 (95% CI, 0.61-0.79) and 0.67 (0.57-0.78), respectively; P<0.0001]. At week 8, nonwhite and black patients had lower healing rates than white patients [OR: 0.75 (0.63-0.89) and 0.67 (0.54-0.83), respectively; P≤0.001]. Greater odds of healing were associated with less severe baseline LA grade, increasing age, hiatal hernia, esomeprazole treatment (vs. lansoprazole or omeprazole) and lansoprazole treatment (vs. omeprazole) (all P≤0.0009); no factor interacted significantly with race. CONCLUSIONS: Nonwhite patients with GERD had less severe baseline erosive oesophagitis, but were less likely than white patients to have erosive oesophagitis healing after 8-week PPI therapy.


Asunto(s)
Esofagitis Péptica/tratamiento farmacológico , Esofagitis Péptica/etnología , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/uso terapéutico , Grupos Raciales/etnología , 2-Piridinilmetilsulfinilbencimidazoles/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Esomeprazol , Curación por la Fe , Femenino , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/tratamiento farmacológico , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/etnología , Humanos , Lansoprazol , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Omeprazol/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
Gait Posture ; 32(3): 374-7, 2010 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20663671

RESUMEN

Lateral ankle anesthesia has been used as a model to explore effects of ligament deafferentation related to ankle sprain on single limb postural control with conflicting results. Time-to-boundary (TTB) is a postural control measurement technique found to be sensitive in detecting subtle deficits in postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lateral ankle ligament anesthesia on TTB measures of single limb postural control in healthy adults. Twenty-two healthy adults with no history of lower extremity injury within the past 6 months or balance disorders participated in the study. All subjects received a lidocaine injection to the lateral ankle structures on one of two testing days. On both testing days, subjects performed 3 eyes open and 3 eyes closed, 10-s trials of barefoot single limb stance on a forceplate. The dependent variables were the mean of TTB minima(s) and standard deviation of TTB minima(s) in mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions. Separate condition (anesthesia, control) by vision (eyes open, eyes closed) ANOVAs with repeated measures were used for each TTB variable to determine the effects of anesthesia on postural control. Alpha level was set a priori at p≤0.05. The anesthesia day TTBAP magnitude (p=0.008) and variability (p=0.044) measures were significantly lower than the control day, regardless of vision. Anesthesia of the lateral ankle ligamentous structures significantly reduced the magnitude and variability of TTBAP measures. These findings are similar to deficits found in those with chronic ankle instability.


Asunto(s)
Articulación del Tobillo , Ligamentos Colaterales/fisiopatología , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Lidocaína/administración & dosificación , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Anestesia Local/métodos , Estudios de Cohortes , Ligamentos Colaterales/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiocepción/fisiología , Valores de Referencia , Esguinces y Distensiones/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
13.
Br J Dermatol ; 163(2): 334-9, 2010 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20545678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on pregnancy outcomes among women with psoriasis are lacking. However, there are several known comorbidities of psoriasis, including obesity, smoking and depression, each of which increases the risk for negative birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if pregnant women with psoriasis have an excess of potentially modifiable risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) Autoimmune Diseases in Pregnancy Project were analysed to compare the prevalence of selected risk factors between 170 pregnant women with psoriasis and 158 nondiseased controls. RESULTS: Women with psoriasis were more likely to be overweight/obese prior to pregnancy (P < 0.0001), to smoke (P < 0.0001), or to have a diagnosis of depression (P = 0.03), and were less likely to have been taking preconceptional vitamin supplements (P = 0.004). After controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, women with psoriasis were 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.45-3.87) times more likely to be overweight/obese as women without psoriasis. Duration of disease, age at onset, measures of disease impact during pregnancy, or use of biologics in pregnancy were not significant predictors of overweight/obesity in the subset of psoriatic women. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with psoriasis may be at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes due to comorbidities or other health behaviours associated with the disease. These should be taken into consideration during clinical treatment of women with psoriasis who are in their childbearing years.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Psoriasis/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Meat Sci ; 85(3): 379-84, 2010 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20416798

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the effects of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) supplementation on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and tenderness. Thirty-four steers (2 groups, 4 replicates) were fed RAC or carrier for 28 days prior to harvest. Seventy-two hours postmortem, the Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gracilis (GRA), Vastus lateralis (VL), Rectus femoris (RF), Semimembranosus (SM), and Adductor (ADD) were dissected from each carcass. Commodity weight, denuded weight, and muscle dimensions were collected. RAC supplementation tended to affect dressing percentage (P=0.15) and muscle firmness (P<0.15), and significantly affected lean maturity (P<0.05) and marbling score (P<0.05). With the exception of the LL and GRA (P<0.05), RAC had no effect on muscle dimensions. RAC did not influence the tenderness of vacuum-packaged, aged steaks as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Muscle fiber size within the six muscles was unchanged (P>0.05) by RAC. Thus, RAC improves carcass parameters without a negative impact on tenderness.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Tecnología de Alimentos , Carne , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Fenetilaminas/farmacología , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Cadáver , Bovinos , Ácido Clorhídrico , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/química , Músculo Esquelético/anatomía & histología , Músculo Esquelético/química , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estrés Mecánico
15.
Phytopathology ; 100(3): 271-8, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20128701

RESUMEN

Vegetative compatibility of 94 isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes from Australia originating from potato, soil, and a weed (Solanum esuriale) was tested using nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Isolates distributed to six vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), five of them multimember (24.5, 23.4, 13.8, 12.8, and 7.5% distribution) and only one composed of two isolates (2.1%); 15.9% of them were not assigned to any of the VCGs. Aggressiveness of 51 isolates representing all six VCGs was tested by mature green tomato bioassay: isolates assigned to AUS-VCG-4 were the most aggressive and those in AUS-VCG-3 the least (P < 0.05). Isolates from warmer climates and lower latitudes were more aggressive (P < 0.05). In addition, we report for the first time complementations between isolates from Australia (AUS); North America (NA); and Israel, The Netherlands, Scotland, France, Germany (EU/I). Isolates assigned to AUS-VCG-4 anastomosed with isolates assigned to EU/I-VCG-7 and NA-VCG-5 (which also anastomosed with each other). Isolates assigned to EU/I-VCG-6 anastomosed with isolates assigned to NA-VCG-2 and isolates assigned to AUS-VCG-2 anastomosed with isolates assigned to EU/I-VCG-2. The linkage between subpopulations could result from the limited exchange of seed tubers among continents, or could be due to, for instance, gene flow, selection, or a limited number of polymorphic vegetative incompatibility genes.


Asunto(s)
Colletotrichum/genética , Colletotrichum/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Australia , Europa (Continente) , Variación Genética , Israel , Mutación , América del Norte , Microbiología del Suelo , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología
16.
Hear Res ; 256(1-2): 58-63, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19573584

RESUMEN

High-speed imaging with a CMOS camera was used to track the motion of multiple hair bundles of the bullfrog sacculus. To maintain the natural degree of intercell coupling, the overlying otolithic membrane was left intact atop the in vitro preparation. Effects of an incoming mechanical signal were mimicked by laterally deflecting the membrane with a glass probe at physiological amplitudes. The motion evoked in the underlying hair bundles was found to be highly phase-locked, yielding an entrained response across hundreds of cells. We imaged significant portions of the saccular epithelium, up to 40 x 350 microm(2), and observed a high degree of correlation over those scales.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Celular , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/fisiología , Mecanotransducción Celular , Membrana Otolítica/fisiología , Rana catesbeiana/fisiología , Sáculo y Utrículo/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Animales , Comunicación Celular , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopía , Factores de Tiempo , Vibración
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 102(6): 2192-7, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20069848

RESUMEN

Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were evaluated for ovipositional preferences among four turfgrasses common in northwestern Arkansas. Choice assays revealed females preferred to oviposit in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), and that they avoided oviposition in common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) and hybrid bermudagrass (C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis Pers.). Significantly fewer eggs were oviposited in hybrid bermudagrass in a no-choice assay, suggesting that chemical and/or physical plant characteristics deter oviposition in that grass. The percentage of turfgrass cores with evidence of female activity (presence of female or eggs, or signs of female digging) in choice assays revealed no differences among treatments, yet significantly fewer hybrid bermudagrass cores had eggs. These results suggest that many females did not initially reject hybrid bermudagrass based on aboveground plant characteristics, but rather they left without ovipositing. Therefore, resistance in hybrid bermudagrass is likely expressed below ground. Our results suggest that the use of hybrid bermudagrass as a means of cultural control in an integrated pest management program may discourage Japanese beetle oviposition and subsequent grub infestations in lawns, golf courses, or sports fields.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/fisiología , Cynodon/parasitología , Festuca/parasitología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Oviposición , Animales , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Estaciones del Año
18.
Fitoterapia ; 79(2): 132-41, 2008 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17881152

RESUMEN

This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales , México
19.
Orthopedics ; 31(3): 288, 2008 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19292221

RESUMEN

An 8-year-old girl sustained closed fracture of the right ulna 10 weeks prior to presentation. She was taken to a traditional bone setter who applied a tight splint. The patient reported pain, but the splint was not removed. A week after application of the splint, a foul odor was detected and removal of the splint showed extensive exposure of the forearm bones. Above elbow amputation was rejected by the patient's parents when she was taken to hospital, where she was admitted for 8 weeks by a second traditional bone setter. A trained nurse applied herbal concoctions and dressed the wound daily in anticipation that the skin would cover the exposed bone fragments. She was brought to our hospital for wound dressing so that the skin would cover the exposed bones fragments. Examination revealed a grossly shortened right forearm--by 7 cm compared with her left--extensive exposure of both radius and ulna at the anterior aspect of the forearm, and loss of sensation and movement of the fingers. Radiographs showed sequestrated radius and ulna with involucrum around the olecranon process. Above elbow amputation was offered to the patient but the parents again declined. The forearm bones detached while scrubbing the wound for review and removal of the sequestrated bone. The wound healed within one and a half weeks of dressing, resulting in an acquired boneless forearm.


Asunto(s)
Antebrazo/anomalías , Gangrena/etiología , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Restricción Física/efectos adversos , Férulas (Fijadores)/efectos adversos , Fracturas del Cúbito/complicaciones , Fracturas del Cúbito/terapia , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
20.
J Environ Qual ; 36(2): 498-507, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17332254

RESUMEN

High in situ concentrations of inorganic N and P have been reported in overland/litter interflow from Sierran forests, indicating that these nutrients are derived from the forest floor O horizons. To test this hypothesis, forest floor monoliths consisting of the combined O(e) and O(i) horizons were collected near the South Shore of Lake Tahoe, Nevada, for leaching experiments. Three monoliths were left intact, and three were hand-separated according to horizon for a total of three treatments (combined O(e)+O(i), O(e) only, and O(i) only) by three replications. Samples were randomized and placed into lined leaching bins. Initial leaching consisted of misting to simulate typical early fall precipitation. This was followed by daily snow applications and a final misting to simulate spring precipitation. Leachate was collected, analyzed for NH(4)(+)-N, NO(3)(-)-N, and PO(4)(3-)-P, and a nutrient balance was computed. There was a net retention of NH(4)(+)-N, but a net release of both NO(3)(-)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P, and a net release of inorganic N and P overall. Total contributions (mg) of N and P were highest from the O(e) and O(e)+O(i) combined treatments, but when expressed as per unit mass, significantly (p < 0.05) higher amounts of NO(3)(-)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P were derived from the O(i) materials. The nutrients in forest floor leachate are a potential source of biologically available N and P to adjacent surface waters. Transport of these nutrients from the terrestrial to the aquatic system in the Lake Tahoe basin may therefore play a part in the already deteriorating clarity of the lake.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Árboles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Nevada , Nitratos/análisis , Fosfatos/análisis , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/análisis , Lluvia , Suelo/análisis , Movimientos del Agua
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