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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2361-2366, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755978

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of oral care via the combined use of colostrum and sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of neonatal ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 120 infant patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from January to October of 2019 were selected and randomly divided into three groups (40 cases in each group), namely, colostrum combined with sodium bicarbonate nursing (experimental group), colostrum (control group I), and sodium bicarbonate (control group II) groups. The primary outcomes measured included incidence rates of VAP and oral infection, positive rate of pathogenic bacteria after sputum culture, mechanical ventilation time, and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: The incidence rates of VAP and oral infection and the positive rate of pathogenic bacteria after sputum culture of the experimental group, which were 6.67%, 10.00%, and 10.00%, respectively, were significantly different from those of control groups I and II (p < 0.05). The mechanical ventilation time of the experimental group was 156.07 ± 26.67 h, which was shortened by 9.79% and 9.43% compared with those of control groups I and II, respectively. The LOS of the experimental group was 17.6 ± 1.96 days, which was shortened by 17.74% and 17.50% compared with those of control groups I and II, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Oral care through the combined use of colostrum and sodium bicarbonate can lower the VAP incidence rate of infant patients and shorten their mechanical ventilation time and LOS.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Higiene Bucal , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/prevención & control , Bicarbonato de Sodio/farmacología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Embarazo
2.
J Anim Sci ; 95(7): 3103-3109, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727102

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of source (corn DDGS, rice bran, or soybean) or form of oil (extracted or intact) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) and fatty acids. The study determined and compared the ATTD or TTTD of AEE and fatty acids in extracted corn oil, rice oil, and soybean oil with intact oil in corn DDGS, full-fat rice bran, and full-fat soybean. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 47.2 ± 3.9 kg; Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were allotted to 1 of 13 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 barrows in each dietary treatment. The 13 experimental diets included 1 cornstarch-soybean meal basal diet (AEE, 0.56%) and 3 diets containing 6% extracted oils (corn oil, rice oil, and soybean oil) and 9 diets supplemented with 3 levels of corn DDGS (17%, 34%, and 51%), full-fat rice bran (14%, 28%, and 42%), and full-fat soybean (12%, 24%, and 36%). These diets provided about 2%, 4%, and 6% intact oil, respectively. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial BW per day. A 5-d total collection of feces followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The ATTD of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TTTD were calculated using regression methods. The ATTD of AEE were greater ( < 0.05) for extracted oil than for intact oil. Compared to extracted oil, intact oil had lower ( < 0.01) ATTD of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3). However, a source by form interaction ( < 0.01) was observed for ATTD of C18:0, C18:2, and C18:3. The ATTD of C18:0, C18:2, and C18:3 in extracted corn and rice oil were greater compared with intact corn DDGS and rice oil ( < 0.05), while there was no significant difference for the ATTD of C18:0, C18:2, and C18:3 between extracted soybean oil and intact oil in full-fat soybean. In conclusion, lipids that are extracted have a greater digestibility compared with intact lipids, and this is especially true regarding saturated fatty acids. The ATTD of AEE in 2 forms of rice oil (intact oil and extracted oil) was less than the values in corn oil and soybean oil. The TTTD of AEE in corn DDGS and full-fat soybeans were greater than in full-fat rice bran.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Heces , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays
3.
J Anim Sci ; 95(11): 4880-4892, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293716

RESUMEN

The DE and ME content (Exp. 1) as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of essential AA (EAA; Exp. 2) were compared between Chinese corn and U.S. sorghum. The effects of U.S. sorghum as a potential substitute for Chinese corn on growth performance of 114 weaned pigs (8.8 ± 1.0 kg BW; Exp. 3) and 60 growing pigs (23.4 ± 1.6 kg BW; Exp. 4) were evaluated, and the effect of protease supplementation on N utilization was determined in sorghum-based diets fed to growing pigs (Exp. 4). In Exp. 1, there was no difference in DE and ME content between corn and sorghum. In Exp. 2, the AID and SID of most EAA and the concentrations of standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met, Thr, and His were less in sorghum than in corn ( < 0.05). In Exp. 3, there was no difference in ADG and ADFI among treatments during the experimental period. The G:F and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was decreased for pigs fed diets with sorghum in the first 2 wk ( < 0.05) and for pigs fed diets containing 60% sorghum in the following 2 wk ( < 0.05). The fecal score for pigs fed diets with sorghum, regardless of the substitute level, was less ( < 0.05) or tended to be less ( = 0.086) than that for pigs fed diets containing 60% corn. In Exp. 4, no differences were observed in ADG and ADFI overall among pigs fed diets based on corn and soybean meal (CSBM) or sorghum and soybean meal (SSBM). Pigs fed CSBM or SSBM with protease supplementation had greater ( < 0.05) or tended to have greater ( = 0.062) G:F than pigs fed SSBM. Compared with CSBM, SSBM increased fecal N excretion by more than 25% and decreased the ATTD of CP by more than 7% during the whole experiment ( < 0.05). Protease supplementation reduced fecal N excretion by more than 12% and increased ATTD of CP by more than 6% ( < 0.05). In conclusion, based on optimal G:F and CP digestibility, diets for weaned pigs should contain less than 20% sorghum during the first 2 wk and no more than 40% during the subsequent 2 wk after weaning. Sorghum used as an alternative energy source for corn in diets fed to growing pigs decreases CP utilization by increasing manure N output, which might be partially offset by protease supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Metabolismo Energético , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , China , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Íleon/metabolismo , Masculino , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Sorghum , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estados Unidos , Destete , Zea mays
4.
J Anim Sci ; 93(7): 3458-70, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440015

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn­soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 ­ (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) ­ (39.70 × % ash), ­(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) ­ (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 ­ (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 ­ (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) ­ (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 ­ (42.08 × % NDF) ­ (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 ­ (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) ­ (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared residuals to compare the accuracy of the 3 groups of prediction equations revealed that separate equations for full-oil DDGS and reduced-oil DDGS each provided a better fit than a single equation for the entire set of DDGS sources. These results indicated that the DE and ME values in corn DDGS are related to the chemical composition, primarily the EE and fiber concentrations. Specific prediction equations derived from full-oil and reduced-oil DDGS are better than equations derived from the entire set of DDGS.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Fibras de la Dieta , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Digestión/fisiología , Heces , Aceites de Plantas/química , Zea mays/química
5.
J Anim Sci ; 90 Suppl 4: 266-8, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23365351

RESUMEN

Postweaning diarrhea is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in weanling piglets. Feeding sodium butyrate to weanling piglets decreased the incidence of diarrhea, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium butyrate on diarrhea in relation to wound healing of intestinal barrier using IPEC-J2 cell model. Cultured cells were scratched to induce wound and then were treated with 4 mM sodium butyrate. The results showed that supplementation of the cells with sodium butyrate significantly promoted the process of wound healing, indicating the protective effects of butyrate on the intestinal mucosa. Butyrate treatment enhanced mRNA expression of the intestinal mucosal tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occluden protein-1 (P < 0.05), which suggested that the promotion of wound healing by butyrate is related to the maintenance of the function of the intestinal barrier. In addition, in the butyrate-treated group, intestinal total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), two of the main antioxidant enzymes, as well as glutathione (P < 0.05), one of the nonenzymatic antioxidant components, were enhanced whereas the malondialdehyde level, a marker of free radical mediated lipid peroxidation injury, was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary sodium butyrate might, at least partly, play an important role in recovering the intestinal tight junctions having a positive effect on maintaining the gut integrity.


Asunto(s)
Butiratos/farmacología , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/lesiones , Porcinos , Uniones Estrechas/efectos de los fármacos , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular , Células Cultivadas , Suplementos Dietéticos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Proteínas de Uniones Estrechas/genética , Proteínas de Uniones Estrechas/metabolismo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 88(5): 1741-51, 2010 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20081085

RESUMEN

This experiment was conducted to determine if CLA could be transferred from sows to their offspring through the umbilical cord or milk. Eighteen pregnant Dalland sows of mixed parity were used in a completely randomized block design based on parity and BW. The sows were allotted to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets containing 0, 0.5, or 1.0% CLA during the last 50 d of gestation and throughout a 26-d lactation (n = 6). Umbilical cord blood was sampled at parturition. Colostrum and milk were collected from each sow on d 2 and 15 after farrowing. Samples of blood, backfat, and the LM were obtained from piglets at 2 and 26 d of age. Sow reproductive performance and piglet growth were not altered by CLA supplementation during the late gestation and lactation periods. The CLA supplementation of sow diets had an impact on the fatty acid profiles in colostrum and milk. Dietary CLA increased the concentrations of total SFA (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), but reduced the total MUFA in the colostrum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01). Although dietary CLA increased the concentrations of total SFA (quadratic, P < 0.01), it had no influence on total MUFA concentrations in the milk. In addition, feeding sows diets supplemented with CLA resulted in increases (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) in the CLA content of plasma, backfat, and the LM in their offspring. However, trans-10, cis-12-18:2, rather than cis-9, trans-11-18:2, was detected in the umbilical cord blood, which indicates that CLA may be transported from the sow to the fetus in an isomer-specific manner.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacología , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tejido Adiposo/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Calostro/química , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Femenino , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Leche/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Embarazo , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal , Destete
7.
J Anim Sci ; 84(9): 2374-81, 2006 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16908640

RESUMEN

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of beta-glucan supplementation on pig performance and immune function. In Exp. 1, 100 weaned pigs (8.65 +/- 0.42 kg of BW and 28 +/- 2 d of age) were used in a 35-d experiment to determine the effects of graded levels of beta-glucan. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments containing beta-glucan supplemented at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 ppm. Each treatment was replicated using 5 pens containing 4 pigs per pen. The ADG of pigs between d 14 to 28 and d 0 to 28 responded to dietary beta-glucan in a quadratic fashion (P < 0.05), whereas beta-glucan had no effect on ADFI and G:F in any period. In Exp. 2, 80 crossbred pigs (8.23 +/- 0.56 kg of BW and 28 +/- 2 d of age) were used in a 35-d experiment. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (0 or 50 ppm of beta-glucan in the diet) using 10 pens with 4 pigs per pen. Pigs treated with beta-glucan had greater ADG in the 14- to 28-d (P = 0.05) and 0-to 28-d (P = 0.035) periods. The ADFI of pigs receiving beta-glucan was increased (P < 0.05) in the periods from 0 to 14, 0 to 28, and 28 to 35 d. The lymphocyte proliferation index in response to phytohemagglutinin (P = 0.051) and concanavalin A (P = 0.052) tended to decrease on d 14 in pigs supplemented with beta-glucan compared with pigs without supplementation. In Exp. 3, 24 barrows (8.89 +/- 0.20 kg of BW and 28 d of age) were used to investigate the immunological and somatotropic responses of pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial, with the main effects of LPS challenge (saline vs. LPS) and dietary addition of beta-glucan (0 vs. 50 ppm). Pigs were raised individually in metabolic cages. Pigs were fed 0 or 50 ppm of beta-glucan for 28 d and then challenged with LPS (25 microg/kg of BW) or saline. After LPS injection, blood was obtained at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 h to determine cytokine production and the somatotropic response. Dietary beta-glucan increased plasma interleukin-6 at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at 3 and 4.5 h and increased plasma interleukin-10 from 3 to 7.5 h after LPS challenge. The beta-glucan treatments had no effect on growth hormone. In conclusion, beta-glucan can selectively influence performance and partially offer benefits on somatotropic axis and immune function in weaned piglets challenged with LPS.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/inmunología , beta-Glucanos/farmacología , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Hormona del Crecimiento/sangre , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Lipopolisacáridos/metabolismo , Masculino , Porcinos/fisiología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanos/metabolismo
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 47(4): 516-22, 2006 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16905479

RESUMEN

1. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oligosaccharide stachyose enhances gastrointestinal tract health by fermentation and proliferation of desirable bacteria species and thus affects growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. 2. A total of 432 1-d-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allocated to one of 6 treatments, with 12 replicate pens per treatment and 6 birds per pen. Chicks were fed a maize-hamlet protein 300 (HP300) basal diet with 0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 or 16.0 g/kg stachyose. A sixth diet contained no HP300 but soybean meal (SBM) and provided 8.7 g/kg stachyose and 3.1 g/kg raffinose. The duration of the study was 42 d. 3. Stachyose contents above 12.0 g/kg depressed group body weights, average daily gain and feed/gain but not feed intake during the whole experimental period. Broiler growth decreased linearly and quadratically with increasing stachyose content. No differences were detected between diets supplemented with 12.0 g/kg stachyose and SBM. 4. Nutrient digestibility tended to decrease but not significantly with increasing stachyose. 5. Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.


Asunto(s)
Ciego/efectos de los fármacos , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Fermentación/efectos de los fármacos , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Ciego/microbiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Masculino
9.
J Anim Sci ; 83(12): 2775-82, 2005 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16282615

RESUMEN

A total of 108 crossbred piglets (7.75 +/- 0.24 kg of BW) weaned at 28 d was used to study the interactive effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weaned pigs. The treatments were in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement; main effects were level of Astragalus membranaceus glucan (AMG; 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg; as-fed basis) and presence of immunological challenge (with or without LPS). The experiment included six replicate pens per treatment and three pigs per pen. Lipopolysaccharide challenges were conducted on d 7 and 21 of the trial. Blood samples were obtained from the vena cava from one pig per pen at 3 h after LPS challenge to determine plasma responses. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio were unaffected by glucan. However, there was a quadratic effect on feed intake (P < 0.05): pigs fed 500 mg of glucan/kg had the highest feed intake. Immunological challenge with LPS decreased weight gain (P = 0.02). An interaction (P = 0.01 to 0.09) between AMG and LPS was observed for glucose, IL-1beta, PGE2, and cortisol. Astragalus membranaceus glucan had a quadratic effect on the plasma concentrations of glucose, IL-1beta, PGE2, and cortisol (P < 0.05) after both LPS challenges. Plasma concentrations of glucose, IL-1beta, PGE2, and cortisol (P < 0.05) were all increased in LPS-challenged pigs compared with the control pigs after both LPS challenges. The IGF-I concentrations were less for LPS-challenged pigs than for unchallenged pigs. The lymphocyte proliferation response of peripheral blood induced by 5 microg of concanavalin A/mL (P < 0.01) and IL-2 bioactivity (P < 0.05) increased linearly with increasing addition of glucan. Pigs challenged with LPS had greater T-lymphocyte proliferation (P = 0.06) and IL-2 bioactivity (P = 0.07) than unchallenged pigs after the first immunological challenge but not after the second. In conclusion, although glucan did not improve pig performance under the conditions of the present experiment, when included at 500 mg/kg, it decreased the release of inflammatory cytokine and corticosteroid and improved the lymphocyte proliferation response of weanling piglets via enhanced IL-2 bioactivity.


Asunto(s)
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/fisiología , beta-Glucanos/farmacología , Animales , Glucemia , Proliferación Celular , Dinoprostona/sangre , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Femenino , Hormona del Crecimiento/sangre , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/sangre , Interleucina-2/sangre , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Br Poult Sci ; 46(4): 516-9, 2005 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16268112

RESUMEN

1. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan on growth performance, energy availability and protein retention in broilers. 2. Experiment 1 was a 42-d growth assay, in which 294 1-d-old male broilers were given one of 7 dietary treatments. A control feed was supplemented with 5 levels of chitosan (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 g/kg) or 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline (CTC). 3. Increasing chitosan inclusion gave a nonlinear increase (P< 0.001) in feed conversion efficiency (FCE). Optimal growth and feed conversion were obtained with 0.5-1.0 g/kg chitosan. 4. In experiment 2, 42 1-d-old male broilers (6/treatment) were individually housed but fed on the same diets as in experiment 1. Excreta were collected from d 19-21 and d 40-42. 5. The addition of 0.5-1.0 g/kg chitosan increased nitrogen retention compared with the control group (P< 0.01), while apparent metabolisable energy in the diets was not altered.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/metabolismo , Quitosano/farmacología , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Quitosano/administración & dosificación , Clortetraciclina/farmacología , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Masculino , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Poult Sci ; 84(6): 875-81, 2005 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15971523

RESUMEN

A growth trial and a metabolism trial were conducted as 2 experiments to investigate the effects of dietary enzyme supplementation (primarily xylanase and beta-glucanase) on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, digestive organ size, and volatile fatty acid profiles in the hindgut of broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets. The experimental diets in both trials consisted of a wheat-based control diet supplemented with 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, or 1,000 mg/kg enzyme. Diets were given to the birds from d 7 to 42 of age. In the growth trial, enzyme supplementation improved performance of the broilers; daily gain and feed conversion increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing levels of enzyme supplementation. Enzyme inclusion decreased the size of the digestive organs and the gastrointestinal tract to some extent. The relative length of each intestinal segment decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The relative weight of the anterior intestine on d 21 and ileum on d 42 also decreased linearly (P < 0.01). On d 21 and 42, there were negative linear (P < 0.05) relationships between increasing enzyme supplementation and the relative weight of the liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in total volatile fatty acid content in ileum on d 21 and in the cecum on d 21 and 42. During each period of the metabolism trial, apparent crude protein digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas no differences were detected (P > 0.05) in AME.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/fisiología , Dieta , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Enzimas/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Tracto Gastrointestinal/anatomía & histología , Envejecimiento , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Endo-1,4-beta Xilanasas/administración & dosificación , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glicósido Hidrolasas/administración & dosificación , Hígado/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Páncreas/anatomía & histología , Triticum , Aumento de Peso
12.
Poult Sci ; 84(12): 1886-92, 2005 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16479945

RESUMEN

A total of 216 Brown Dwarf laying hens (1.62 +/- 0.06 kg BW and 60 wk old) were fed 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic aicd (CLA) to explore its effects on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, plasma, and liver as well as hepatic stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity and its mRNA gene expression. Four hens were placed in wired-floored cages (45 x 40 x 45 cm) and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. The experimental diets were fed for 54 d, and then eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolk. Four eggs were randomly selected from the total day's production for each replicate, and the contents were pooled prior to analysis. On d 56, one randomly chosen hen from each replicate (6 hens per replicate and a total of 18 hens) was bled via heart puncture and then killed in order to collect liver samples to measure the fatty acid profile of plasma and liver tissue as well as hepatic SCD-1 activity and its mRNA abundance. Dietary supplementation of CLA resulted in a significant deposition of CLA in egg yolk, plasma, and liver lipids (P < 0.01). As the dietary level of CLA increased, the concentration of saturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver also increased (P < 0.05). However, the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids in these same tissues decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the control, the activity of SCD-1 was reduced by feeding 2.5% CLA (P < 0.05) without a change in SCD-1 mRNA gene expression. However, feeding 5% CLA reduced both SCD-1 activity and mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver might be modulated directly at hepatic mRNA gene expression levels, or may be indirectly regulated at the downstream post-transcriptional levels.


Asunto(s)
Yema de Huevo/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Pollos , Dieta , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administración & dosificación , Hígado/química , Hígado/enzimología , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/genética
13.
Poult Sci ; 83(10): 1688-95, 2004 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15510554

RESUMEN

Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of albumen with increasing CLA. This study suggests that the greater firmness of CLA-fed eggs might be related to the change of pH, water content, and ion concentrations during refrigerated storage.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/fisiología , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administración & dosificación , Óvulo/química , Albúminas , Animales , Cromatografía de Gases , Suplementos Dietéticos , Cáscara de Huevo , Yema de Huevo/química , Electrólitos/análisis , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Femenino , Liofilización , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Oviposición/fisiología , Refrigeración
14.
J Anim Sci ; 82(9): 2615-22, 2004 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15446478

RESUMEN

Freeze-dried ileal effluent (1% wt/vol) from cannulated pigs fed rice-based diets with the inclusion of either animal protein (CON), animal protein plus potato starch (PS), animal protein plus sugar beet pulp (SBP), or animal protein plus wheat bran (WB) was incubated anaerobically at pH 6.0 in fermenters containing 5% (wt/vol) fecal slurry comprising mineral salts medium and 50 g/L of fresh feces from pigs fed the same diets as the cannulated pigs. Samples were collected from the fermenters at 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h during in vitro fermentation for measuring nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), starch, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Results showed that the major SCFA produced were acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The inclusion of soluble dietary fiber (diet SBP) caused the highest concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA, whereas the increase in the production of propionate resulting from the addition of insoluble dietary fiber (diet WB) only occurred at the initial stages during 48 h in vitro fermentation. At all sampling occasions (except for 4 h), the levels of butyrate were increased (P < 0.01) by resistant starch compared with fiber sources, showing that a higher level of butyrate can be achieved through microbial fermentation by potato starch. Lowered (P < 0.05) butyrate concentrations were observed with diet WB during in vitro fermentation. With the inclusion of fiber sources, the energy originating from SCFA was similar to that from NSP disappearance, whereas the values were lower (P < 0.05) from NSP disappearance than for SCFA generated without fiber sources supplemented. We conclude that more substrate is available in ileal effluent with the addition of soluble dietary fiber, and an increased level of butyrate could be achieved through microbial fermentation by resistant starch.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/biosíntesis , Íleon/metabolismo , Almidón/metabolismo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Animales , Bacterias Anaerobias/metabolismo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Digestión , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Heces/microbiología , Fermentación , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Almidón/análisis
15.
Poult Sci ; 83(4): 683-8, 2004 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15109067

RESUMEN

True amino acid availability (TAAA) was determined in conventional corn (CC) and in 2 Chinese high-oil corn varieties (CHOC1; CHOC2). The CC, CHOC1, and CHOC2 contained 3.7, 6.6, and 7.5% oil (ether extract) on a dry matter basis, respectively. The CP content (% dry matter) of the corn increased from 8.6 to 12.2% as oil increased from 3.7 to 7.5%. Birds (Hy-Line roosters or Arbor Acres broilers) were given 1 of the 3 corn varieties as the sole dietary ingredient in a conventional (intubation method) TAAA assay. There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of bird type on gut metabolic (endogenous) amino acid excretion values with the broilers having higher excretions. For all amino acids, there was also a significant (P < 0.05) effect of bird type on TAAA with the Hy-Line roosters having higher TAAA values. The mean value for TAAA calculated over all of the amino acids showed a 9.8% unit higher digestibility for roosters compared with the broilers. Differences in TAAA between the corn varieties were statistically significant for alanine and valine only. Overall, the present results indicate that TAAA is equal to or superior to that in CC and that the TAAA content is higher in CHOC compared with CC. Bird type has an important effect on TAAA results and should be considered when developing TAAA assays and interpreting TAAA values.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Pollos/metabolismo , Aceite de Maíz , Grasas de la Dieta/farmacología , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Pollos/genética , Masculino , Especificidad de la Especie
16.
J Anim Sci ; 81(11): 2758-65, 2003 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14601879

RESUMEN

Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.30 kg BW) weaned at 28 +/- 3 d of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and on immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The main factors consisted of diet (7% corn oil [CO] or 7% fish oil [FO]) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). On d 14 and 21, pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 microg/kg BW of LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Blood samples were collected 3 h after injection for analysis of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. On d 2 after LPS challenge, peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was determined. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased ADG (487 vs. 586 g; P < 0.05) and ADFI (as-fed, 776 vs. 920 g; P < 0.05) from d 14 to 21 and ADG (587 vs. 652 g; P < 0.10) from d 21 to 28. Fish oil improved ADG (554 vs. 520 g; P < 0.10) and ADFI (891 vs. 805 g; P < 0.10) from d 14 to 21. On d 14, LPS challenge x diet interactions were observed for IL-1beta (P < 0.10), PGE2 (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.05) such that these measurements responded to the LPS challenge to a lesser extent (IL-1beta: 93 vs. 114 pg/mL, P < 0.05; PGE2: 536 vs. 1,285 pg/mL, P < 0.001; cortisol: 143 vs. 206 ng/mL, P < 0.05) in pigs receiving the FO diet than in pigs fed the CO diet. In contrast, among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed the FO diet had higher IGF-I (155 vs. 101 ng/mL; P < 0.10) than those fed the CO diet. On d 21 among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed FO had lower IL-1beta (70 vs. 84 pg/mL; P < 0.10) and cortisol (153 vs. 205 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than those fed CO. Pigs fed FO had lower PGE2 (331 vs. 444 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and higher IGF-I (202 vs. 171 ng/mL; P < 0.10) compared with those fed CO. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased GH (0.27 vs. 0.33 ng/mL; P < 0.05) on d 14, whereas it had no effect on GH on d 21. During both LPS challenge periods, the challenge increased PBLP when these cells were incubated with 8 (1.46 vs. 1.32; P < 0.10) or 16 microg/mL (1.46 vs. 1.30; P < 0.05) of concanavalin A. Fish oil had no effect on PBLP. These results suggest that FO alters the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which might lead to improved pig performance during an immunological challenge.


Asunto(s)
Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dinoprostona/sangre , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales/veterinaria , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/sangre , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/inmunología , Destete , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Arch Tierernahr ; 57(4): 297-306, 2003 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14533868

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to compare the nutritional value of normal and high-oil corn for pigs. The normal corn and the two varieties (high-oil corns A and B) of high-oil corn contained 4.41, 7.35 and 8.86% ether extract, on DM basis, respectively. In experiment 1, six non-littermate crossbred barrows (37.8 +/- 1.3 kg BW) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and used in a double replicated Latin Square digestion trial. Three diets were formulated containing 96.6% of one of the three varieties of corn as the only protein source. Chromic oxide (0.4%) was added as a digestibility marker. Additional vitamins and minerals were added to meet requirements. The digestible energy concentrations for normal corn and high-oil corn A and B were 16.53, 16.99 and 17.07 MJ/kg while the metabolizable energy values were 15.82, 16.32 and 16.36 MJ/kg, on DM basis, respectively. The ileal amino acid digestibility of high-oil corn was generally higher than that of normal corn with significant differences being observed for the essential amino acids isoleucine and phenylalanine. In experiment 2, 96 pigs (8.01 +/- 0.14 kg BW) were used to evaluate four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial design conducted over a 35-day period. Corn variety (high-oil vs. normal corn) and nutrient density (high content of protein and ME vs. low content of protein and ME) were set as the two main effects. During the first 14 days, pigs fed high-oil corn diets consumed more feed and tended to get higher daily gain than pigs fed normal corn. Over the entire 35-day experiment, increasing dietary nutrient density increased daily gain and tended to increase feed conversion, while variety of corn had no significant effects on performance. Overall, the present results indicate that the energy concentration and ileal amino acid digestibility of high-oil corn varieties were equal or superior to those in normal corn and therefore they should be able to be effectively utilized in diets fed to swine.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aceite de Maíz/metabolismo , Digestión , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Íleon/metabolismo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Compuestos de Cromo , Aceite de Maíz/administración & dosificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Poult Sci ; 82(6): 1017-23, 2003 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12817459

RESUMEN

TME, true amino acid availability (TAAA), AME, and apparent amino acid availability (AAAA) were determined in Chinese high oil corn (CHOC) and conventional corn (CC). The CC and CHOC contained 4.58 and 8.44% ether extract (DM basis), respectively. A precision-fed rooster assay was used in which each corn sample was tube-fed (50 g) to 16 roosters and excreta were collected for 48 h. A N-free diet and fasting methods were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid (AA) losses. Endogenous losses of 10 AA were different (P < 0.05) with the N-free and fasting methods; in most cases the mean value for the N-free treatment was greater (P < 0.05) than for the fasting treatment. The TME value for CHOC was greater than for CC (4,193 vs. 3,961 cal/g DM; P < 0.05). The true availability of aspartic acid, threonine, isoleucine, and leucine of CC and CHOC was higher (P < 0.05) for the N-free method than for the fasting method. When compared within the N-free or within the fasting method, the true availabilities of lysine, methionine, and proline were higher (P < 0.05) in CHOC than in CC, but the true availability of phenylalanine was lower (P < 0.05) in CHOC than in CC. The AAAA values, although lower, followed similar patterns as the TAAA values. The results of this study indicated that availability of AA in CHOC is equal or superior to that in CC and that the available energy for poultry is higher in CHOC than in CC.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/farmacocinética , Alimentación Animal , Aceite de Maíz , Metabolismo Energético , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Pollos , China , Dieta , Masculino
19.
Poult Sci ; 82(5): 760-6, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12762398

RESUMEN

Lentinan (LEN) is an intensively studied beta-glucan that has been shown to have immunostimulating and antitumor functions. However, it currently is not used in veterinary practice and animal production. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of LEN on broiler splenocyte proliferation, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, and to explore its effects on receptor signal transduction by determining signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic-free Ca2+, cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The results showed that compared to the control all three measured doses, including 40, 80, and 160 microg/mL LEN, increased splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production (P < 0.05). Lentinan increased splenocyte NO production and cytosolic-free calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). After incubating splenocytes for 20 min, LEN increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP concentrations at a dose of 80 and 160 microg/mL, respectively. However, after incubating the splenocytes for 60 min, LEN had no effect on cytosolic cAMP and cGMP concentration irrespective of the LEN dosage. Those results indicated that LEN had immunostimulatory effects on splenocytes by increasing splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production and by activating splenocyte receptor signal transduction.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Lentinano/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , División Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Pollos , AMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , GMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Activación de Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biosíntesis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/inmunología
20.
Poult Sci ; 82(3): 364-70, 2003 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12705395

RESUMEN

Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides [achyranthan (ACH), a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide, and astragalan (APS), a high-molecular-weight polysaccaride] on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Trial 1 was a 28-d growth assay, in which 7-d-old broilers (n = 240) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments, with eight replicate pens per treatment and ten chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included a control corn-soy-fishmeal (Treatment 1), a diet with 200 mg/kg APS (Treatment 2), and a diet with 200 mg/kg ACH (Treatment 3). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for determination of serum parameters, and chickens were killed on Day 28 to measure immune organ indexes. Trial 2 was an in vitro trial to study the effects of different concentrations of polysaccharides on broiler splenocyte functions. In Trial 1, feeding either APS or ACH had no significant effects on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, feeding ACH significantly increased microhemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, bursa of Fabricius index, serum albumin, serum calcium, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at Day 28 (P < or = 0.05). In Trial 2, both polysaccharides showed significant immunostimulating effects. They increased NO and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of splenocytes and enhanced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Those results indicate that the immunostimulating effects of APS are not as pronounced as those of ACH. Achyranthan showed immunostimulating effects in both the growth assay and in vitro studies. Therefore, ACH may be a Chinese herbal polysaccharide that has the potential to be used as a feed additive to improve broilers' immunity.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/inmunología , Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Quempferoles , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Anticuerpos/sangre , Bolsa de Fabricio/inmunología , Calcio/sangre , División Celular , Concanavalina A/farmacología , Dieta , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/sangre , Albúmina Sérica/análisis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/metabolismo
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