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1.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 25(7): 1109-1120, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815250

RESUMEN

The medicinal plant Sophora tonkinensis is a characteristic Chinese shrub of karst areas. The arid climate in karst areas produces high-quality S. tonkinensis; however, the mechanisms of drought tolerance are not clear, which restricts sustainable plantings of S. tonkinensis. This study involved a 20-day drought stress experiment with potted S. tonkinensis and threee soil water regimes: control (CK), mild drought (MDT), and severe drought (SDT). Plant morphology, biomass, physiological indicators, alkaloid content, and other changes under drought stress were monitored. The content of soluble sugars and proteins, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots were higher under drought than CK, indicating that S. tonkinensis is tolerant to osmotic stress in early drought stages. Content of matrine and oxymatrine increased gradually with increasing drought duration in the short term. The epidermis of S. tonkinensis leaves have characteristics of desert plants, including upper epidermal waxy layer, lower epidermal villi, and relatively sunken stomata, suggesting that S. tonkinensis has strong drought tolerance. In conclusion, drought stress changed the cell structure of S. tonkinensis, induced antioxidant enzyme activity and increased its resistance to drought.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Plantas Medicinales , Sophora , Sophora/química , Sequías , Antioxidantes , Alcaloides/análisis , Raíces de Plantas/química , Estrés Fisiológico , Adaptación Fisiológica
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102395, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571878

RESUMEN

The investigation aimed to explore the suitable amino acid (AA) supplementation pattern for goslings under low-protein diets. A total of 364 1-day-old male goslings were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, with 7 pens containing 13 goslings each. The 4 groups were control (CP, 18.55%), LPM (CP, 15.55% + major AA), LPA (CP, 15.55% + all AA), and LPR (CP, 15.55% + AA content reduced proportionally to the control's CP). The corn-soybean meal diets are formulated according to the ideal AA model of goose and its nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the ADG and BW were the lowest, and the F: G was the highest in LPR (P < 0.05); the other three groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The ADFI and mortality were not different among all the groups (P > 0.05). Among the AA content in serum and breast muscle, lysine in serum significantly decreased compared with the control (P < 0.05). The UREA content was approximately 2-fold higher in the LPR group than in the LPM and LPA groups (P < 0.05). No difference in IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE levels was observed among the groups (P > 0.05). The nitrogen excretion was decreased in LPM and LPA compared to the control and LPR (P < 0.05). Nitrogen deposition did not differ among groups (P > 0.05). Nitrogen utilization was highest in the LPA and LPM groups, followed by the control group and LPR (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the patterns of supplementation of major AA and all AA in low-protein diets (CP, 15.55%) had no adverse effect on the growth performance compared with the control (CP, 18.55%) of the goslings. Besides, the two patterns could decrease nitrogen excretion and increase nitrogen utilization. Furthermore, from the perspective of dietary cost and environmental protection, the pattern of supplementing major AA in a corn-soybean meal low-protein diet is suggested.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas , Animales , Masculino , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas/veterinaria , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Gansos/metabolismo , Pollos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Proteínas en la Dieta
3.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527437

RESUMEN

Objective: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to study the effect of aging on the neuroimaging characteristics of cerebral cortex in the process of speech perception. Method: Thirty-four adults with normal hearing were recruited from March 2021 to June 2021, including 17 in the young group, with 6 males, 11 females, age (32.1±5.0) years, age range 20-39 years. and 17 in the elderly group, with 6 males, 11 females, age (63.2±2.8) years, age range 60-70 years. The test material was the sentence table of the Mandarin Hearing Test in Noise (MHINT). The task state block experiment design was adopted, and the temporal lobe, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, motor cortex were used as regions of interest. Objective brain imaging technology (fNIRS) combined with subjective psychophysical testing method was used to analyze the activation area and degree of cerebral cortex related to auditory speech perception in the elderly and young people under different listening conditions (quiet, signal-to-noise ratio of 10 dB, 5 dB, 0 dB, -5 dB). SPSS 23 software was used for statistical analysis. Result: The activation area and degree of activation in the elderly group were lower than those in the young group under each task condition; The number of activation channels in the young group were significantly more than those in the old group, and the number of activation channels in the left hemisphere were more than those in the right hemisphere, but there was no difference in the number of activation channels. There were more channels affected by age in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. The activation degree of the young group when the signal-to-noise ratio was 0 dB was significantly higher than that of other signal-to-noise ratio conditions (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the old group under the five conditions (P>0.05). The speech recognition score of the young group was higher than that of the old group under all conditions. When the quiet and signal-to-noise ratio was 10 dB, the correct score of the two groups was equal or close to 100%. With the gradual decrease of signal-to-noise ratio, there was a significant difference between the two groups when the signal-to-noise ratio was 5 dB. The speech recognition accuracy of the young group decreased significantly when the signal-to-noise ratio was 0 dB, while that of the old group decreased significantly when the signal-to-noise ratio was 5 dB. Conclusions: With the increase of age, the speech perception in noisy environment and the activity of cerebral cortex gradually deteriorate, and the speech dominance hemisphere (left hemisphere) will be significantly affected by aging. The overall activation area and activation degree of the elderly under different speech tasks are lower than those of the young.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva , Percepción del Habla , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Tecnología , Adulto Joven
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(1): 856-865, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635354

RESUMEN

Enhanced postruminal supply of methionine (Met) during the peripartal period alters protein abundance of insulin, AA, and antioxidant signaling pathways in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Whether SAT is directly responsive to supply of Met and can induce molecular alterations is unknown. Our objective was to examine whether enhanced Met supply during an oxidative stress challenge in vitro alters insulin, AA, inflammation, and antioxidant signaling-related protein networks. Four late-lactation Holstein cows (average 27.0 kg of milk per day) were used for SAT collection. Tissue was incubated in duplicate for 4 h in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 at 37°C according to the following experimental design: control medium with an "ideal" profile of essential AA (CTR; Lys:Met 2.9:1), CTR plus 100 µM H2O2 (HP), or CTR with greater Met supply plus 100 µM H2O2 (HPMET; Lys:Met 2.5:1). Molecular targets associated with insulin signaling, lipolysis, antioxidant nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2), inflammation, and AA metabolism were determined through reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and western blotting. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc.). Among proteins associated with insulin signaling, compared with CTR, HP led to lower abundance of phosphorylated AKT serine/threonine kinase (p-AKT) and solute carrier family 2 member 4 (SLC2A4; insulin-induced glucose transporter). Although incubation with HPMET restored abundance of SLC2A4 to levels in the CTR and upregulated abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and phosphorylated 5'-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), it did not alter p-AKT, which remained similar to HP. Among proteins associated with AA signaling, compared with CTR, challenge with HP led to lower abundance of phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (p-MTOR), and HPMET did not restore abundance to CTR levels. Among inflammation-related targets studied, incubation with HPMET led to greater protein abundance of nuclear factor kappa B subunit p65 (NFKB-RELA). The response in NFKB observed with HPMET was associated with a marked upregulation of the antioxidant transcription regulator NFE2L2 and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1). No effects of treatment were detected for mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines or antioxidant enzymes, underscoring the importance of post-transcriptional regulation. Overall, data indicated that short-term challenge with H2O2 was particularly effective in reducing insulin and AA signaling. Although a greater supply of Met had little effect on those pathways, it seemed to restore the protein abundance of the insulin-induced glucose transporter. Overall, the concomitant upregulation of key inflammation and antioxidant signaling proteins when a greater level of Met was supplemented to oxidant-challenged SAT highlighted the potential role of this AA in regulating the inflammatory response and oxidant status. Further studies should be conducted to assess the role of postruminal supply of Met and other AA in the regulation of immune, antioxidant, and metabolic systems in peripartal cow adipose tissue.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Tejido Adiposo , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Insulina , Lactancia
5.
Persoonia ; 49: 201-260, 2022 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38234377

RESUMEN

Rosa (Rosaceae) is an important ornamental and medicinal plant genus worldwide, with several species being cultivated in China. Members of Sporocadaceae (pestalotioid fungi) are globally distributed and include endophytes, saprobes but also plant pathogens, infecting a broad range of host plants on which they can cause important plant diseases. Although several Sporocadaceae species were recorded to inhabit Rosa spp., the taxa occurring on Rosa remain largely unresolved. In this study, a total of 295 diseased samples were collected from branches, fruits, leaves and spines of eight Rosa species (R. chinensis, R. helenae, R. laevigata, R. multiflora, R. omeiensis, R. rugosa, R. spinosissima and R. xanthina) in Gansu, Henan, Hunan, Qinghai, Shaanxi Provinces and the Ningxia Autonomous Region of China. Subsequently 126 strains were obtained and identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data. Based on these results 15 species residing in six genera of Sporocadaceae were delineated, including four known species (Pestalotiopsis chamaeropis, Pes. rhodomyrtus, Sporocadus sorbi and Spo. trimorphus) and 11 new species described here as Monochaetia rosarum, Neopestalotiopsis concentrica, N. subepidermalis, Pestalotiopsis tumida, Seimatosporium centrale, Seim. gracile, Seim. nonappendiculatum, Seim. parvum, Seiridium rosae, Sporocadus brevis, and Spo. spiniger. This study also represents the first report of Pes. chamaeropis, Pes. rhodomyrtus and Spo. sorbi on Rosa. The overall data revealed that Pestalotiopsis was the most prevalent genus, followed by Seimatosporium, while Pes. chamaeropis and Pes. rhodomyrtus were the two most prevalent species. Analysis of Sporocadaceae abundance on Rosa species and plant organs revealed that spines of R. chinensis had the highest species diversity. Citation: Peng C, Crous PW, Jiang N, et al. 2022. Diversity of Sporocadaceae (pestalotioid fungi) from Rosa in China. Persoonia 49: 201-260. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2022.49.07.

6.
J Biomech ; 129: 110783, 2021 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662757

RESUMEN

Laser therapy has been widely used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars (HPS), but whether the mechanical properties of HPS tissue after laser treatment can be restored to those of normal skin remains unclear. In this paper, the relationship between the evolution of compressive mechanical properties and histological changes of HPS tissues following three successive combined pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO2 laser (CO2) treatments was investigated by compression tests and histological analysis. The early HPS model of rabbit ear was established by CO2 laser ablation. The loading-unloading tests and strain creep tests under the compression forces of 1 N, 2 N, and 3 N were carried out for normal skin, untreated HPS and HPS after different treatment times, respectively. The results showed that the compression ratio λ of all tissues revealed force dependence and rose with the increasing compression force, which was similar to the trend of most biological soft tissues. The histological changes of HPSs following laser treatment have a significant influence on the compressive mechanical response. Compared with the normal skin, the toughness and anti-deformation ability of HPS reduced due to the proliferation of collagen fibers and the destruction of elastic fibers, resulting in higher energy dissipation, compression ratio λ, and stable creep rate D, and lower elastic modulus. After three successive combined PDL/ CO2 laser treatments, the compressive mechanical properties and creep properties of HPS gradually approached that of the normal skin owing to the gradual restoration of the amount and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers in HPS. The results provide a new method for evaluating the clinical efficacy of laser therapy for treatment of HPS tissue.


Asunto(s)
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Láseres de Colorantes , Láseres de Gas , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad , Animales , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patología , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/terapia , Conejos , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9340-9354, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985772

RESUMEN

Calves born to multiparous Holstein cows fed during the last 30 d of pregnancy 2 different cobalt sources [cobalt glucoheptonate (CoPro) or cobalt pectin (CoPectin)], folic acid (FOA), and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) were used to study neonatal immune responses after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Groups were (n = 12 calves/group) CoPro, FOA+CoPro, FOA+CoPectin, and FOA+CoPectin+RPM. Calves were weighed at birth and blood collected at birth (before colostrum), 21 d of age, and 42 d of age (at weaning). Growth performance was recorded once a week during the first 6 wk of age. Energy metabolism, inflammation, and antioxidant status were assessed at birth through various plasma biomarkers. Whole blood was challenged with 3 µg/mL of LPS or used for phagocytosis and oxidative burst assays. Target genes evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR in whole blood samples were associated with immune response, antioxidant function, and 1-carbon metabolism. The response in mRNA abundance in LPS challenged versus nonchallenged samples was assessed via Δ = LPS challenged - LPS nonchallenged samples. Phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst activity were measured in neutrophils and monocytes, with data reported as ratio (percentage) of CD14 to CH138A-positive cells. Data including all time points were subjected to ANOVA using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc.), with Treatment, Sex, Age, and Treatment × Age as fixed effects. A 1-way ANOVA was used to determine differences at birth, with Treatment and Sex as fixed effects. Calf birth body weight and other growth parameters did not differ between groups. At birth, plasma haptoglobin concentration was lower in FOA+CoPro compared with CoPro calves. We detected no effect for other plasma biomarkers or immune function due to maternal treatments at birth. Compared with CoPro, in response to LPS challenge, whole blood from FOA+CoPectin and FOA+CoPectin+RPM calves had greater mRNA abundance of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). No effect for other genes was detectable. Regardless of maternal treatments, sex-specific responses were observed due to greater plasma concentrations of haptoglobin, paraoxonase, total reactive oxygen metabolites, nitrite, and ß-carotene in female versus male calves at birth. In contrast, whole blood from male calves had greater mRNA abundance of IRAK1, CADM1, and ITGAM in response to LPS challenge at birth. The longitudinal analysis of d 0, 21, and 42 data revealed greater bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) mRNA abundance in whole blood from FOA+CoPectin versus FOA+CoPro calves, coupled with greater abundance in FOA+CoPro compared with CoPro calves. Regardless of maternal treatments, most genes related to cytokines and cytokine receptors (IL1B, IL10, TNF, IRAK1, CXCR1), toll-like receptor pathway (TLR4, NFKB1), adhesion and migration (ICAM1, ITGAM), antimicrobial function (MPO), and antioxidant function (GPX1) were downregulated over time. Phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst activity in both neutrophils and monocytes did not differ due to maternal treatment. Regardless of maternal treatments, we observed an increase in the percentage of neutrophils capable of phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity over time. Overall, these preliminary assessments suggested that maternal supplementation with FOA and Co combined with RPM had effects on a few plasma biomarkers of inflammation at birth and molecular responses associated with inflammatory mechanisms during the neonatal period.


Asunto(s)
Metionina , Rumen , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Bovinos , Cobalto , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Ácido Fólico , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Embarazo
8.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(4): 438-444, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978980

RESUMEN

Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is currently grown in many tropical and subtropical areas countries and is a major traded commodity for the developing world. Coffee leaf blight, caused by Phomopsis heveicola, is one of the most important fungal diseases dangerous to coffee crops in China. This study aimed to develop a PCR-based diagnostic method for detecting P. heveicola in planta. Specific primers (CPHF/CPHR) were designed based on sequence data of region of internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) of P. heveicola. The efficiency and specificity of CPHF/CPHR were established by PCR analysis of DNA from P. heveicola strains isolated from China and fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 318 bp was detected from DNA P. heveicola isolates. No amplification product was observed with any of the other fungal isolates tested. The specific primers designed and employed in PCR detected P. heveicola up to 3 pg from DNA isolated. This is the first report on the development of a species-specific PCR assay for identification and detection of P. heveicola. Thus, the PCR-based assay developed was very specific, rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of pathogen P. heveicola.


Asunto(s)
Coffea/microbiología , ADN de Hongos/genética , Phomopsis/genética , Phomopsis/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , China , Café , Cartilla de ADN/genética , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Phomopsis/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos
9.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 39-42, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564536

RESUMEN

Euibangyoochui compiled by the Korean government was finished in 1445. This book is a collection of Korean medicine. It quoted some contents from Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women. This paper use the photocopy of the Japanese edition of the first year of Fumihisa(1861)printed in Korea as the master copy of Euibangyoochui, the microfilm of the edition of Qin You Shu Tang in Yuan Dynasty as the master copy of Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women, in order to compare the content of Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women quoted in Euibangyoochui. There are 42 direct citations from Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women in Euibangyoochui, 41 of which are in gynecology, and 1 of which is in pediatrics. The indirect citations are divided into two types: single line big characters and double line small characters, no obvious rules. Meanwhile, it is found that the direct quotation is adjusted according to the style and content, and the differences between the quotation and the yuan edition are mostly small, which can be corrected and supplemented each other, it is of great reference value for collating the Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women.


Asunto(s)
Libros/historia , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Filología , Femenino , Ginecología , Historia del Siglo XV , Humanos , Prescripciones , República de Corea
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7351-7363, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475670

RESUMEN

The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of supplementing a blend of probiotic bacteria (Provida Calf, MB Nutritional Sciences, Lubbock, TX) on the pathophysiological response to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in neonatal Jersey calves. Twenty-four Jersey bull calves within 24 h of birth were acquired from a local calf ranch, blocked by total serum protein and initial body weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 8). Calves were assigned to either (1) Control (CON); base milk replacer, (2) Control + Salmonella Typhimurium (CON+ST); base milk replacer and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7; or (3) Provida Calf probiotics + Salmonella Typhimurium (PRO+ST); same milk replacer supplemented with a proprietary blend of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecium strains and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7. The PRO+ST calves were supplemented for the first 3 d with 2 × 1010 cfu/d and then with 2 × 109 cfu/d for the remainder of the study. The CON+ST and PRO+ST calves were each challenged with approximately 5 × 106 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC# 14028), which was a mild challenge that did not cause scours in the calves. Peripheral blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21 and analyzed for hematology; serum was collected and analyzed for haptoglobin, glucose, and urea N. Rectal temperatures were collected daily from d 6 to 21, when all calves were killed, so that persistent colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and histomorphology of both the duodenum and ileum could be determined. Serum haptoglobin and urea N concentrations were increased among CON+ST on d 10. In contrast, the peak rectal temperature on d 10 in PRO+ST calves was 40.4°C, which was greater than that for CON and CON-ST (38.9°C and 39.7°C, respectively). The neutrophil percentage in peripheral circulation in PRO+ST calves was 55.4%, which was greater than that for CON and CON+ST (34.8 and 41.8%, respectively). Seven of the 8 PRO+ST calves had elevated neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7, whereas 4 of the 8 CON+ST calves had reduced neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7. Villus height-to-crypt depth ratios in the duodenum were greater among CON and PRO+ST calves, being 1.38, 0.84, and 1.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively. In the ileum, the PRO+ST calves had greater villus height-to-crypt depth ratios than both the CON and CON+ST calves (1.64, 1.53, and 2.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively). These data indicate that supplementing neonatal calves with the blend of probiotic bacteria used in the current study can influence the pathophysiological response to a mild enteric Salmonella Typhimurium challenge.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Probióticos , Salmonelosis Animal/prevención & control , Salmonella typhimurium , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Masculino , Leche , Neutrófilos
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 207-213, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416803

RESUMEN

Cottonseed meal (CSM), which is an unconventional protein material with abundant sources, high protein content, and a relatively cheap price, can be used in poultry diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CSM on slaughter performance, meat quality and meat chemical composition in Jiangnan White goslings. A total of 300 healthy 28-day-old male goslings were randomly divided into 5 treatments, with 6 pens containing 10 geese each. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated such that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, control), 25% (CSM25), 50% (CSM50), 75% (CSM75), and 100% (CSM100) protein from soybean meal was replaced with CSM (corresponding to 0, 6.73, 13.46, 20.18, and 26.91% CSM in the feed, respectively). On day 70, 1 goose from each pen (6 geese per treatment) was randomly selected and killed to measure the slaughter performance, meat quality, and the meat amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) compositions. The results showed that dietary CSM did not affect the slaughter performance or meat quality of geese (P > 0.05). The fat content of breast muscle in the CSM100 group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). A concentration of 13.46% or more dietary CSM increased the threonine content but decreased the cysteine content, and 20.18% dietary CSM also decreased the valine content (P < 0.05). Dietary CSM concentration had no effect on the content of total saturated FAs (SFAs, P > 0.05), but 20.18 and 26.91% dietary CSM increased the content of total monounsaturated FAs and decreased the content of total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and PUFA/SFA in the breast muscle of geese (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary CSM did not affect the slaughter performance or meat quality of geese, but the replacement of soybean meal with CSM in whole or high proportion altered the composition of AAs and FAs in breast muscle.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Aceite de Semillas de Algodón , Gansos , Carne/análisis , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Semillas
12.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(4): 211-215, 2019 Jul 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495160

RESUMEN

This article explores the development process of Japanese kampo medicine granules, which may be related to the popularization of convenience coffee in Japan in the 1940s. The development achievements were made mainly by two people: Itakura Takeshi and Watanabe Takeshi.Itakura Takeshi made the granule in 1944, and Watanabe Takeshi published an article about granule in 1947. In 1950, the granules were applied to clinic by Hosoya Shirou. In 1957, Kotaro pharmaceutical Co. Ltd was the first to sell granules in the market. Ten years later, in 1967, five classes and six kinds of drugs entered the Japanese medical insurance system, which has epoch-making significance in the history of the development of kampo medicine. Later, the guidelines of application and management for granules-The Handbook of Kampo Medicine Prescriptions for General Use-were formulated by experts convened by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, it had a great influence on clinical application. At the same time, Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association played a good coordinating role in the process of drug production and marketing.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Kampo , Japón
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5530-5541, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954259

RESUMEN

Enhancing the supply of rumen-protected Met (RPM) during the peripartum period alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress status in dairy cows. We tested the hypothesis that RPM could increase abundance of genes and proteins related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Multiparous Holstein cows were fed a basal diet [control prepartum diet = 1.47 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM) and 15.3% crude protein; control postpartum diet = 1.67 Mcal/kg of DM and 17.7% crude protein] or the control plus ethyl-cellulose RPM at a rate of 0.09 and 0.10% of DM intake before expected calving and after calving, respectively. Sixty cows were assigned to treatments based on parity, previous 305-d milk yield, and body condition score at 28 d from parturition. Diets were fed from -28 to 30 d. Biopsies of subcutaneous adipose tissue collected on d -10, 10, and 30 relative to parturition from 7 cows in each group were used for measuring concentrations of GSH, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and mRNA and protein abundance (Western blotting). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistics. The statistical model included the random effect of block and fixed effects of treatment, time, and its interaction. There was a diet × time effect for reactive oxygen species due to lower concentrations in Met versus control cows specifically at d -10. Cows fed Met also had lower concentrations of malondialdehyde in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Compared with controls, overall mRNA abundance of the GSH metabolism-related genes cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), glutathione reductase (GSR), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) was greater in cows fed Met. Furthermore, supply of Met resulted in an overall upregulation of protein abundance of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 1, GPX3, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), and glutathione S-transferase α 4 (GSTA4), all related to GSH metabolism. There was a diet × time effect for protein abundance of NFE2L2 and its repressor Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1) due to lower values at 30 d in cows fed Met versus controls. The abundance of phosphorylated NFE2L2 was lower at 30 d in response to Met. Overall, the data suggest that exogenous Met may play a role in activating GSH metabolism and the antioxidant NFE2L2 pathways in subcutaneous adipose tissue.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Glutatión/metabolismo , Inflamación/veterinaria , Metionina/administración & dosificación , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Celulosa/análogos & derivados , Celulosa/química , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Inflamación/prevención & control , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch/metabolismo , Metionina/química , Leche/metabolismo , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Periodo Periparto , Fosforilación , Periodo Posparto/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Rumen/metabolismo
14.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(6): 355-365, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564528

RESUMEN

In the early 20th century, the Chinese Society of Medical History was the only specialty society accepting members with traditional Chinese medicine background in the Chinese medical association. Therefore, it is of special significance to study the TCM members of the early Chinese Society of Medical History. By combing the medical journals of this period and referring to the researches today, this paper makes a comprehensive investigation on the life stories and academic works of the early 14 TCM doctors and scholars of the Chinese Society of Medical History, so as to understand their contributions to the development of Chinese medicine and the institute of medical history in this special historical period.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional China/historia , Médicos , Academias e Institutos , China , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429181

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin on the expression of prestin protein in the inner ear of mice following a single dose radiation therapy, so as to provide the basis for the mechanism study of radiation induced inner ear injury and its prevention. Methods: Sixty 4-week-old male mice were randomly divided into six groups, including the control group (A group), 50 mg/kg MLT group (B group), 5 mg/kg MLT group (C group), 50 mg/kg MLT + radiotherapy group (D group), 5 mg/kg MLT+ radiotherapy group (E group), and 16 Gy radiotherapy group (F group). Each experimental group was randomly subdivided into two subgroups, which were killed to harvest the cochlea on the 3rd and 7th days following 16 Gy radiation. The specimens were used for immunostaining and Western blot to detect the expression of prestin protein. SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prestin protein mainly distributed in the lateral membrane above the outer hair cell nucleus. When compared with A, B and C group, the expression of prestin protein in the inner ear was significantly up-regulated in F group (P<0.05). However, D and E group reduced the abnormal expression of prestin following radiotherapy when compared with F group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), and the effect of D group was more significant than E group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The prestin protein of cochlea is mainly distributed in the lateral membrane above the outer hair cell nucleus. Following the high-dose radiotherapy, the prestin expression is upregulated, and melatonin can control the abnormal expression of prestin protein induced by radiotherapy with dose dependent.


Asunto(s)
Oído Interno/metabolismo , Oído Interno/efectos de la radiación , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacología , Proteínas Motoras Moleculares/metabolismo , Animales , Cóclea/efectos de los fármacos , Cóclea/efectos de la radiación , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas/efectos de la radiación , Masculino , Ratones , Distribución Aleatoria
16.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 47(5): 595-602, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366529

RESUMEN

The medial upper arm has previously been proposed as a potential free flap donor site, but the clinical application of such flaps in head and neck reconstruction has not been popular. The preliminary results of the clinical application of medial upper arm free flaps in oral cavity reconstruction are reported here. Five patients with oral cancer underwent surgical resection and neck dissection, with simultaneous reconstruction using a medial upper arm free flap. Functional outcomes were investigated using the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. Sensory-motor functions of the upper arm donor site were recorded before and after surgery. Four flaps were successfully transferred. One flap was abandoned during surgery because of a lack of perforators, and a forearm flap was used instead. All patients survived without loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Functional outcomes, especially swallowing and speech, were satisfactory. The donor site scar was well hidden, with no functional impairment. This initial experience shows that the medial upper arm free flap represents an alternative perforator flap for oral cavity microsurgical reconstruction. The well-hidden scar and better texture match compared with other flaps make it suitable for oral cavity reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Brazo/irrigación sanguínea , Carcinoma Adenoide Quístico/cirugía , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirugía , Colgajos Tisulares Libres/irrigación sanguínea , Neoplasias de la Boca/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Orales/métodos , Procedimientos de Cirugía Plástica/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Disección del Cuello , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 56(5): 363-367, 2017 May 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460508

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the effect of febuxostat on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of kidney tubules and the levels of serum IL-6 nad transforming growth factor (TGF)ß(1) in hyperuricemic rats. Methods: Forty male SD rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group (NC group), oteracil potassium group (OP group), oteracil potassium with febuxostat group (OF group) and oteracil potassium with benzbromarone group (OB group). Each group had 10 rats and balanced in body weights. To induce hyperuricemia, rats were given oteracil potassium by gastric gavage once a day for eight weeks. Rats in OF group and OB group were given either febuxostat or benbromarone starting with oteracil potassium, and rats in NC group was given saline only. Blood samples were taken before, and at the end of 4 and 8 weeks of the treatments and serum uric acid, creatinine, blood usea nitrogen(BUN), IL-6 and TGFß(1) contents were measured at each time point. Renal pathological changes were observed via HE and Masson staining, and the expression of α-SMA and E-cadherin were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with those in NC group, the levels of serum uric acid, creatinine, BUN, IL-6 and TGFß(1) in the another three groups were increased significantly (all P<0.01). However, the IL-6 and TGFß(1) contents in OF group were much lower than those in OP group (P<0.01). HE and Masson staining showed that OF group had less damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis than OP group and OB group (P<0.01). Moreover, the expression of α-SMA was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) and that of E-cadherin was significantly up-regulated in OF group compared with those in OP group. Conclusion: Febuxostat treatment significantly inhibited EMT and reduced the levels of IL-6 and TGFß(1) in hyperuricemia rats.


Asunto(s)
Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efectos de los fármacos , Febuxostat/farmacología , Hiperuricemia , Interleucina-6/sangre , Túbulos Renales/efectos de los fármacos , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/farmacología , Animales , Antígenos CD , Cadherinas/metabolismo , Chalcona/farmacología , Creatinina/sangre , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Supresores de la Gota , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Túbulos Renales/metabolismo , Túbulos Renales/patología , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Ácido Úrico
18.
J Anim Sci ; 95(3): 1132-1143, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380517

RESUMEN

Heat stress (HS) is devastating to poultry production worldwide, yet its biology and molecular responses are not well defined. Although advances in management strategy have partially alleviated the negative impact of HS, productivity still continues to decline when the ambient temperature rises. Therefore, identifying mechanism-based approaches to decrease HS susceptibility while improving production traits is critical. Recently, we made a breakthrough by applying a surface wetting strategy and showing that it improves growth performance compared with the current conventional cooling system. In the present study, we aimed to further define molecular mechanisms associated with surface wetting in ameliorating HS productivity loss in broilers. Five-week-old broiler chickens were exposed to acute HS (35°C for 2 h) alone or in combination with surface wetting. A control group was maintained at thermoneutral conditions (25°C). Core body temperature (BT) and feed intake were recorded. Blood was collected and hypothalamic tissues (main site involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis) were harvested to determine the expression profile of stress- and metabolic-related genes. Surface wetting prevents HS from increasing BT and plasma corticosterone levels ( < 0.05) and improves feeding and drinking behaviors. At molecular levels, surface wetting blocks the activation of hypothalamic heat shock protein and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein-induced by HS and significantly modulates the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides (agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, orexin, orexin receptor, and leptin receptor). Taken together, our data represent the first evidence that surface wetting alleviates systemic and intracellular stress induced by HS and preserves the intracellular energy status, which, in turn, may result in improved broiler well-being and growth performance.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/veterinaria , Calor/efectos adversos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/metabolismo , Animales , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Vivienda para Animales , Neuropéptidos/genética , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/etiología
19.
Haemophilia ; 23(3): 466-475, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28205396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Thrombin generation test (TGT) is a global haemostasis assay with a potential to predict bleeding tendencies and treatment effects in patients with haemophilia. Despite 15 years of clinical research, the diagnostic value of TGT remains controversial, possibly due to suboptimal sensitivity to coagulation deficiencies, robustness and reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) concentration on the TGT's response to intrinsic coagulation factors (F) VIII, IX and XIa. METHODS: Normal and factor-deficient plasmas supplemented with lacking coagulation factor and different CaCl2 levels were tested by calibrated thrombinography assay. RESULTS: Thrombin peak height (TPH) was strongly CaCl2 dependent, increasing sharply from no TG at 5 mm to a peak at 13.8 mm of CaCl2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.0, 14.5) in normal and normalized deficient plasmas and at 11.9 mm (CI: 9.7, 14.2) in deficient plasmas, and then decreasing slowly to a complete inhibition at 30-40 mm. In contrast, TG lag time, time to peak and endogenous thrombin potential were nearly insensitive to CaCl2 concentrations between 10 and 20 mm. The maximal difference between the TPH in deficient and supplemented plasmas was observed at 15.5 mm (CI: 12.8, 18.1). CONCLUSION: Variations in CaCl2 concentration in the assay mixture and sodium citrate concentrations in patient plasma samples may affect TGT responses, sensitivity and result in increased inter- and intra-laboratory variance. Implementation of TGT by clinical and quality control laboratories may require optimization of CaCl2 concentration.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Químico de la Sangre/métodos , Cloruro de Calcio/farmacología , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Trombina/biosíntesis , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Hemofilia A/complicaciones , Hemorragia/sangre , Hemorragia/complicaciones , Trombina/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 15(4): 709-720, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28109042

RESUMEN

Essentials Recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) is known to be expressed at a low level in cell culture. To increase expression, we used codon-optimization of a B-domain deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII). This resulted in 7-fold increase of the expression level in cell culture. The biochemical properties of codon-optimized BDD-FVIII were similar to the wild-type protein. SUMMARY: Background Production of recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) is challenging because of its low expression. It was previously shown that codon-optimization of a B-domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII) cDNA resulted in increased protein expression. However, it is well recognized that synonymous mutations may affect the protein structure and function. Objectives To compare biochemical properties of a BDD-FVIII variants expressed from codon-optimized and wild-type cDNAs (CO and WT, respectively). Methods Each variant of the BDD-FVIII was expressed in several independent Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, generated using a lentiviral platform. The proteins were purified by two-step affinity chromatography and analyzed in parallel by PAGE-western blot, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance, and chromogenic, clotting and thrombin generation assays. Results and conclusion The average yield of the CO was 7-fold higher than WT, whereas both proteins were identical in the amino acid sequences (99% coverage) and very similar in patterns of the molecular fragments (before and after thrombin cleavage), glycosylation and tyrosine sulfation, secondary structures and binding to von Willebrand factor and to a fragment of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. The CO preparations had on average 1.5-fold higher FVIII specific activity (activity normalized to protein mass) than WT preparations, which was attributed to better preservation of the CO structure as a result of considerably higher protein concentrations during the production. We concluded that the codon-optimization of the BDD-FVIII resulted in significant increase of its expression and did not affect the structure-function properties.


Asunto(s)
Codón , Factor VIII/genética , Ingeniería de Proteínas , Animales , Células CHO , Línea Celular , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , ADN Complementario/metabolismo , Factor VIII/metabolismo , Vectores Genéticos , Glicosilación , Humanos , Lentivirus , Mutación , Fragmentos de Péptidos/genética , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Tirosina/química
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