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1.
Animal ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106900

RESUMEN

The development of digestive organs and the establishment of gut microbiota in pullets play an important role throughout life. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis (BS) on growth performance, intestinal function and gut microbiota in pullets from 0 to 6 weeks of age. Hy-line Brown laying hens (1-day-old, n = 504) were randomly allotted into four diets with a 2 × 2 factorial design: (1) basal diet group (control); (2) antibiotics group (AGP), the basal diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg Bacitracin Zinc and 4 mg/kg Colistin Sulphate; (3) BS group, the basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg BS and (4) mixed group, the basal diet supplemented with both AGP and BS. As a result, when BS was considered the main effect, BS addition (1) reduced the feed conversion ratio at 4 to 6 weeks (P < 0.05); (2) decreased duodenal and jejunal crypt depth at 3 weeks; (3) increased the villus height : crypt depth (V : C) ratio in the duodenum at 3 weeks and jejunal villus height at 6 weeks and (4) increased sucrase mRNA expression in the duodenum at 3 weeks as well as the jejunum at 6 weeks, and jejunal maltase and aminopeptidase expression at 3 weeks. When AGP was considered the main effect, AGP supplementation (1) increased the V : C ratio in the ileum at 3 weeks of age; (2) increased sucrase mRNA expression in the duodenum at 3 weeks as well as the ileum at 6 weeks, and increased maltase expression in the ileum. The BS × AGP interaction was observed to affect average daily feed intake at 4 to 6 weeks, and duodenal sucrase and jejunal maltase expression at 3 weeks. Furthermore, dietary BS or AGP addition improved caecal microbial diversity at 3 weeks, and a BS × AGP interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for the Shannon and Simpson indexes. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was found to be higher in the mixed group at 3 weeks and in the BS group at 6 weeks. Moreover, Anaerostipes, Dehalobacterium and Oscillospira were also found to be dominant genera in pullets with dietary BS addition. In conclusion, BS could improve intestinal morphology and change digestive enzyme relative expression and caecum microbiota, thereby increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization. Our findings suggested that BS might have more beneficial effects than AGP in the study, which would provide theoretical evidence and new insight into BS application in layer pullets.

2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(4): 394-400, 2018 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699025

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the implementation and impact of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: Both sociological and epidemiological methods were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data in November and December, 2016 in order to conduct on process and outcome evaluation of the above mentioned objective. In the meantime, case study was also conducted. Results: All the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were found well implemented across the country, with health education and health promotion, surveillance and safeguard measures in particular. A government-led and inter-sector coordination and communication mechanism had been well established, with more than 16 non-health departments actively involved. 28.7% of the residents living in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were aware of the key messages related to chronic diseases. Among the residents, 72.1% of them consumed vegetables and 53.6% consumed fruits daily, with another 86.9% walked at least 10 minutes per day. Over 70% of the patients with hypertension or diabetes reported that they were taken care of by the Community Health Centers, and above 50% of them were under standardized management. Residents, living in the National Demonstration Areas under higher ranking of implementation scores, were more likely to be aware of relevant knowledge on chronic disease control and prevention (OR=6.591, 95%CI: 5.188-8.373), salt reduction (OR=1.352, 95%CI: 1.151-1.589), oil reduction (OR=1.477, 95%CI: 1.249-1.746) and recommendation on physical activities (OR=1.975, 95%CI: 1.623- 2.403). Conclusion: The implementation of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases had served a local platform for the control and prevention of non-communicable diseases, and thus become an important 'carrier' for chronic disease prevention and control programs in China.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Vigilancia de la Población , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/organización & administración , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , China/epidemiología , Atención a la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/métodos , Salud Pública
3.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 37(12): 1282-1292, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658313

RESUMEN

This study assessed the effects of long-term, low-dose acrylamide (AA) administration in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: control, low-dose AA (0.2 mg/kg BW), middle-dose AA (1 mg/kg BW), and high-dose AA (5 mg/kg BW). AA was administered to rats via drinking water ad libitum. After 16-week treatment, rat serum was collected for metabonomic analysis. Biochemical tests were further conducted to verify metabolic alterations. Eleven metabolites were identified with significant changes in intensities (increased or reduced) as a result of treatment. These metabolites included citric acid, pantothenic acid, isobutyryl-l-carnitine, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, LysoPC(20:4), LysoPC(22:6), LysoPE(20:3), undecanedioic acid, and dodecanedioic acid. Results indicate that chronic exposure to AA at no observed adverse effect level does not exert a toxic effect on rats at the body metabolism level. AA disturbed the metabolism of lipids and energy, affected the nervous system of rats, and induced oxidative stress and liver dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Acrilamida/toxicidad , Metabolómica , Animales , Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Lisofosfolípidos/metabolismo , Masculino , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/metabolismo
4.
Anim Genet ; 47(5): 606-9, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329478

RESUMEN

Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P < 0.01). The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 (NPY5R) mRNA was higher in HRFI ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P < 0.05), whereas that of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was lower (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone) (GNRH1) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) was unchanged between LRFI and HRFI ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/genética , Patos/genética , Ingestión de Alimentos/genética , Hipotálamo/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/genética , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Patos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/genética , Neuropéptido Y/genética , Óvulo , Proopiomelanocortina/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/genética , Receptores de Neuropéptido Y/genética , Receptores de Prolactina/genética
5.
Animal ; 10(10): 1660-5, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27101736

RESUMEN

The present study investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment. The experimental study had a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diets (0% or 2% CLA) and immunosuppression treatments (CsA or saline injection). CsA injection significantly increased feed : gain (F : G) of piglets (P<0.05); however, dietary CLA significantly decreased F : G of piglets (P<0.05). Dietary CLA partly ameliorated the deterioration of the feed conversion rate caused by CsA treatment (P<0.01). CsA treatment significantly decreased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.01). Dietary CLA increased the percentages of CD4+ CD8+ double-positive and CD8+ single-positive T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.05), and had the trend to inhibit the decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the thymus after CsA injection (P=0.07). CsA treatment significantly depleted the peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P<0.01). Dietary CLA significantly increased the number of peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (P<0.05), and inhibited the decreases of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts (P<0.01) as well as IL-2 production (P<0.05) after CsA treatment. Dietary CLA partly rescued the decrease of lymphocyte proliferation after CsA injection (P<0.05). In summary, dietary CLA effectively ameliorated CsA-induced cellular immunosuppression in piglets.


Asunto(s)
Ciclosporina/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inmunidad Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacología , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Inyecciones Intramusculares/veterinaria
6.
Innate Immun ; 19(3): 242-52, 2013 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22904165

RESUMEN

The effects of l-arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal mucosal immune barrier function in weaned pigs after Escherichia coli LPS challenge were evaluated. Twenty-four weaned pigs were allotted to four treatments including: (i) non-challenged control; (ii) LPS-challenged control; (iii) LPS + 0.5% Arg; and (iv) LPS + 1.0% Arg. On d 16, pigs in the LPS, LPS + 0.5% Arg and LPS + 1.0% Arg groups were challenged by injection with 100 µg/kg of body mass LPS, whereas the control group were given sterile saline. At 48 h post-challenge, all pigs were sacrificed for evaluation of small intestinal morphology and mucosal immune barrier function. In the jejunum and ileum, LPS caused villous atrophy and intestinal morphology disruption, whereas 0.5% or 1.0% Arg supplementation mitigated villus atrophy and intestinal morphology impairment caused by LPS challenge. Arg (0.5%) supplementation increased the numbers of IgA-secreting cells, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in the ileum (P < 0.05). Arg supplementation prevented the elevation of mast cell numbers induced by LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of Arg caused a decreased lymphocyte apoptosis of Peyer's patches in pigs challenged by LPS (P < 0.05). These results indicated that Arg supplementation protects and enhances intestinal mucosal immune barrier function and maintains intestinal integrity in weaned pigs after E. coli LPS challenge.


Asunto(s)
Arginina/administración & dosificación , Atrofia/tratamiento farmacológico , Atrofia/inmunología , Escherichia coli/inmunología , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Atrofia/microbiología , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/patología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/patología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inmunidad Mucosa/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/inmunología , Intestinos/patología , Lipopolisacáridos/inmunología , Mastocitos/patología , Porcinos
7.
Br Poult Sci ; 52(2): 255-63, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21491249

RESUMEN

1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of an esterified glucomannan (EGM), a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and a compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Mould-contaminated diets were prepared by replacing half of the non-contaminated maize in the basal diets with mould-contaminated maize, which contained 450·6 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1, 68·4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A and 320·5 µg/kg of T-2 toxin. 2. The mould-contaminated diet significantly decreased body weight gain (BWG) between 10 and 21 d, feed intake (FI) between 35 and 42 d, the apparent retention of crude lipid and phosphorus, and the lightness (L*) value of breast and thigh muscle. It also significantly increased the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) value in breast muscle and the b* value in thigh muscle. 3. The addition of 0·2% HSCAS significantly increased FI between 35 and 42 d and the apparent retention of phosphorus. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly improved BWG from 10 to 21 d, and increased FI from 35 to 42 d and from 10 to 42 d. CMA also significantly increased the apparent retention of crude lipid, crude protein, ash and phosphorus. All three mycotoxin-adsorbent treatments significantly improved the L* values of breast and thigh muscle when compared with the mould-contaminated group. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly decreased b* value and improved tenderness in thigh muscle. 0·05% EGM significantly decreased b* value of thigh muscle compared to mould-contaminated group. 4. The results indicated that mycotoxins in contaminated feed retard growth, nutrient retention and meat quality, whereas the addition of 0·05% EGM, 0·2% HSCAS or 0·1% CMA prevents the adverse effects of mycotoxins to varying extents, with 0·1% CMA being the most effective adsorbent treatment.


Asunto(s)
Silicatos de Aluminio/farmacología , Alimentación Animal/microbiología , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mananos/farmacología , Micotoxinas/toxicidad , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Adsorción , Animales , Pollos/metabolismo , Pollos/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos , Masculino , Carne , Micotoxicosis/prevención & control , Micotoxicosis/veterinaria , Micotoxinas/química , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control
8.
Clin Nephrol ; 72(1): 15-20, 2009 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19640383

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Abnormality of bone mineral metabolism is a common complication in chronic liver disease and/or chronic renal disease patients. We designed this study to evaluate the relationship between chronic hepatitis B infection and bone mineral metabolism in peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum calcium[adj], phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product (Ca x P), along with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were compared in peritoneal dialysis patients with and without chronic hepatitis B infection. RESULTS: A total of 220 patients (142 female, 78 male) with a mean age of 56.30 +/- 14.28 (range 19 - 86) years old were recruited, 23 showed chronic hepatitis B infection and 197 showed none. No statistically significant difference in serum calcium[adj] levels (9.90 +/- 0.85 mg/dl vs. 10.08 +/- 0.80 mg/dl, p = 0.354), phosphorus levels (5.26 +/- 1.58 mg/dl vs. 5.21 +/- 1.35 mg/dl, p = 0.879) and calcium and phosphorus product (Ca x P) (52.23 +/- 17.54 mg(2)/dl(2) vs. 52.42 +/- 14.16 mg(2)/dl(2), p = 0.960) between groups with and without chronic hepatitis B infection was observed. Serum iPTH levels were significantly lower in chronic hepatitis B patients (median 143 pg/ml, range 3.42 - 889) than in the control group (median 235 pg/ml, range 3 - 2381) (p = 0.035). As analyzed by multi-variable linear regression, chronic hepatitis B was a predictor of lower serum iPTH levels (beta = -0.271; p = 0.030) after adjustments for age, gender, serum calcium and phosphorus levels and diabetes. CONCLUSION: No significant difference in serum calcium[adj]), phosphorus and calcium and phosphorus product (Ca x P) levels appeared between peritoneal dialysis patients with and without chronic hepatitis B infection. Serum iPTH levels proved to be definitely lower in chronic hepatitis B infection patients.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Huesos/metabolismo , Hepatitis B Crónica/complicaciones , Diálisis Peritoneal , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Calcio/metabolismo , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hormona Paratiroidea/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 33(7): 775-85, 2009 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19488048

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic control of energy balance is regulated by a complex network of neuropeptide-releasing neurons. Although the effect of these neuropeptides on individual aspects of energy homoeostasis has been studied, the coordinated response of these effects has not been comprehensively investigated. We have simultaneously monitored a number of metabolic parameters following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of 1 and 3 nmol of neuropeptides with established roles in the regulation of feeding, activity and metabolism. Ad libitum- fed rats received the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexin-A. Overnight-food-deprived rats received an ICV injection of the anorectic peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or neuromedin U (NMU). RESULTS: Our results reveal the temporal sequence of the effects of these neuropeptides on both energy intake and expenditure, highlighting key differences in their function as mediators of energy balance. NPY and AgRP increased feeding and decreased oxygen consumption, with the effects of AgRP being more prolonged. In contrast, orexin-A increased both feeding and oxygen consumption, consistent with an observed increase in activity. The potent anorexigenic effects of CRF were accompanied by a prolonged increase in activity, whereas NMU injection resulted in significant but short-lasting inhibition of food intake, ambulatory activity and oxygen consumption. alpha-MSH injection resulted in significant increases in both ambulatory activity and oxygen consumption, and reduced food intake following administration of 3 nmol of the peptide. CONCLUSION: We have for the first time, simultaneously measured several metabolic parameters following hypothalamic administration of a number of neuropeptides within the same experimental system. This work has shown the interrelated effects of these neuropeotides on activity, energy expenditure and food intake, thus facilitating comparison between the different hypothalamic systems.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Animales , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropéptidos/administración & dosificación , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
10.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 53(8): 1094-6, 2009 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19397498

RESUMEN

Two patients developed the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome after having absorbed mannitol 5% during TUR of the prostate. Both developed pulmonary edema and became severely hypoatremic (lowest serum sodium 99 and 97 mmol/l, respectively). Hypertonic saline was infused to raise the serum sodium level and plasma volume expansion used to combat hypotension. One patient also required positive-pressure ventilation and intravenous administration of norepinephrine. Both patients recovered completely.


Asunto(s)
Diuréticos/efectos adversos , Manitol/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico , Edema Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Resección Transuretral de la Próstata , Diuréticos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Hiponatremia/inducido químicamente , Soluciones Hipotónicas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Manitol/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Norepinefrina/uso terapéutico , Soluciones Farmacéuticas , Respiración con Presión Positiva , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirugía , Sodio/sangre , Síndrome , Vasoconstrictores/uso terapéutico
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 63(3): 387-93, 2009 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18410348

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anaemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is commonly treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), often in combination with an adjuvant iron supplement. There is much evidence that rHuEPO can influence the immune response by its effect on lymphocytes. Also, iron catalyses the formation of radicals and increases the risk of major infections by negatively affecting the immune system. The relationship between antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) responsiveness after hepatitis B vaccination and rHuEPO/adjuvant iron supplementation has not been reported before. AIM: To determine the effects of subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous (i.v.) iron therapy on the responsiveness of anti-HBsAg after quadruple hepatitis B vaccination among ESRD patients. METHODS: Retrospective medical records were reviewed in a hospital with a tertiary teaching facility. Eighty-three ESRD patients, including 51 who underwent haemodialysis and 32 who underwent peritoneal dialysis therapy, received a quadruple recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. We investigated anti-HBsAg titres in those patients who either received rHuEPO alone (n = 50) or rHuEPO in combination with i.v. iron (n = 33). RESULTS: We found that the postvaccination anti-HBsAg titre was significantly lower in the rHuEPO plus i.v. iron group when compared with the group with rHuEPO alone (p < 0.05). The increment of anti-HBsAg between the initial month and the seventh month was positively correlated with therapeutic rHuEPO dosages in the group with rHuEPO alone (r = 0.303, p = 0.033). This relationship was not present in the rHuEPO with i.v. iron group (r = -0.289, p = 0.229). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of anti-HBsAg after hepatitis B vaccination are positively correlated with the dose of rHuEPO treatment during the vaccinated period among ESRD patients without i.v. iron supplementation. Also, i.v. iron negatively impacts the responsiveness of anti-HBsAg titre after hepatitis B vaccination in ESRD patients who have undergone rHuEPO therapy.


Asunto(s)
Eritropoyetina/administración & dosificación , Compuestos Férricos/administración & dosificación , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B , Diálisis Renal , Administración Cutánea , Femenino , Humanos , Infusiones Intravenosas , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proteínas Recombinantes
12.
Amino Acids ; 37(2): 263-70, 2009 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18622730

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 +/- 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments (20 pigs/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin (antibiotic), or 0.1% APS to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed/gain ratio (F/G) were measured weekly. Blood samples were obtained from five pigs selected randomly from each treatment for the measurement of serum free AA concentrations on days 7, 14, and 28. In Exp. 2, 12 pigs were weaned at 21 day of age (BW 7.64 +/- 0.71 kg), assigned to three treatment groups as in Exp. 1, and surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Ileal digesta samples were obtained for the measurement of AID of AA on days 7, 14 and 28. Dietary APS did not affect ADFI, but enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG by 11 and 4.4%, and improved F/G by 5.6 and 8.4%, respectively, compared with the control and antibiotic groups. Addition of APS to the diet increased AID and serum concentrations of most nutritionally essential and non-essential AA (including arginine, proline, glutamate, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine) on days 14 and 28. Circulating levels of total AA were affected by the age of pigs and treatment x time interaction. Collectively, these findings indicate that APS may ameliorate the digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation, which provide a mechanism to explain the growth-promoting effect of APS in early weaned piglets.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/fisiología , Íleon/metabolismo , Polisacáridos , Porcinos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Destete
13.
Amino Acids ; 37(4): 643-51, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18821052

RESUMEN

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine (Arg) on performance and immune function in cyclophosphamide (CY) immunosuppressed weaned pigs. The weaned pigs were allotted randomly into one of three treatments, including: (1) non-challenged control; (2) CY-challenged group; and (3) CY + 0.5% Arg. On days 14 and 21 of the trial, pigs were injected with CY or sterile saline. Blood samples were obtained on days 21 and 28 of the trial for further analysis. On day 28, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was evaluated. Arg alleviated the decrease of average daily gain (P < 0.05) induced by CY challenge from days 21 to 28. Arg mitigated the CY-induced decrease of total white blood cell numbers (P < 0.05) on day 28 and improved the lymphocyte percentage on day 21 (P < 0.05). Arg increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (P < 0.05), and attenuated the decrease of bovine serum albumin antibody level caused by CY treatment (P < 0.05) on day 28. In addition, Arg elevated the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma (P < 0.05) on day 28, and mitigated the decrease of serum interferon-gamma level on day 21 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that Arg supplementation has beneficial effects in attenuating the immunosuppressive effects of CY challenge, therefore improving growth performance of young pigs.


Asunto(s)
Arginina/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Tolerancia Inmunológica/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Sus scrofa/inmunología , Animales , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Concanavalina A/farmacología , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Ciclofosfamida/farmacología , Hipersensibilidad Tardía/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad Tardía/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunosupresores/administración & dosificación , Inmunosupresores/farmacología , Interferón gamma/inmunología , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/inmunología , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Mitógenos/farmacología , Fitohemaglutininas/farmacología , Sus scrofa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Destete
14.
Regul Pept ; 148(1-3): 33-8, 2008 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18455814

RESUMEN

Chemotherapy treatment can lead to delayed gastric emptying, early satiety, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, described collectively as the cancer-associated dyspepsia syndrome (CADS). Administration of ghrelin (GHRL), an endogenous orexigenic peptide known to stimulate gastric motility, has been shown to reduce the symptoms of CADS induced in relevant animal models with the potent chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. We examined the effects in the rat of cisplatin (6 mg/kg i.p.) treatment on the expression of GHRL and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) mRNAs in the hypothalamus and the stomach at a time-point (2 days) when the effects of cisplatin are pronounced. In addition, plasma levels of GHRL (acylated and total including des-acyl GHRL) were measured and the effect on these levels of treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (2 mg/kg s.c. bd.) was investigated. Cisplatin increased GHSR mRNA expression in the stomach (67%) and hypothalamus (52%) but not GHRL mRNA expression and increased the percentage of acylated GHRL (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 11.38+/-2.40%) in the plasma. Dexamethasone reduced the plasma level of acylated GHRL and the percentage of acylated GHRL to values below those in animals treated with saline alone (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 2.60+/-0.49%). Our findings support the hypothesis that an adaptive upregulation of the ghrelin receptor may occur during cancer chemotherapy-associated dyspepsia. This may have a role in defensive responses to toxic challenges to the gut. In addition, our results provide preliminary evidence for glucocorticoid modulation of plasma ghrelin levels.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Ghrelina/sangre , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores de Ghrelina/genética , Animales , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Cisplatino/administración & dosificación , Cisplatino/efectos adversos , Dexametasona/farmacología , Dispepsia/sangre , Dispepsia/inducido químicamente , Dispepsia/genética , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Vaciamiento Gástrico/efectos de los fármacos , Glucocorticoides/farmacología , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Masculino , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Estómago/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Arriba/genética
15.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 83(1): 9-20, 2006 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16443263

RESUMEN

Many cancer patients receiving chemotherapy experience fatigue, disturbed circadian rhythms, anorexia and a variety of dyspeptic symptoms including nausea. There is no animal model for this 'chemotherapy-related malaise' so we investigated the behavioural and molecular effects of a potent chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (CP, 6 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Dark-phase horizontal locomotor activity declined post-CP reaching a nadir on day 3 (P < 0.001), before recovering after 7 days. CP's effect was most marked in the late part (05.00-07.00) of the dark-phase. Food intake reached a nadir (P > 0.001) at 2 days, coincident with an increase in gastric contents (cisplatin 9.04+/-0.8 vs. saline 2.32+/-0.3 g; P < 0.001). No changes occurred in hypothalamic mRNA expression for AGRP, NPY, HCRT, CRH, IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, ABCG1, SLC6A4, PPIA and HPRT mRNA but tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA was decreased (47%, P < 0.05) at day 21 post-CP. This shows that despite marked behavioural effects of cisplatin, only a discrete change (TPH) was found in hypothalamic mRNA expression and that occurred when the animals' behaviour had recovered. Findings are discussed in relation to the neuropharmacology of chemotherapy-induced malaise.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Cisplatino/efectos adversos , Cisplatino/farmacología , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ingestión de Líquidos/efectos de los fármacos , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Contenido Digestivo/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , ARN Mensajero/biosíntesis , ARN Mensajero/genética , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
16.
J Anim Sci ; 81(11): 2758-65, 2003 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14601879

RESUMEN

Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.30 kg BW) weaned at 28 +/- 3 d of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and on immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The main factors consisted of diet (7% corn oil [CO] or 7% fish oil [FO]) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). On d 14 and 21, pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 microg/kg BW of LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Blood samples were collected 3 h after injection for analysis of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. On d 2 after LPS challenge, peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was determined. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased ADG (487 vs. 586 g; P < 0.05) and ADFI (as-fed, 776 vs. 920 g; P < 0.05) from d 14 to 21 and ADG (587 vs. 652 g; P < 0.10) from d 21 to 28. Fish oil improved ADG (554 vs. 520 g; P < 0.10) and ADFI (891 vs. 805 g; P < 0.10) from d 14 to 21. On d 14, LPS challenge x diet interactions were observed for IL-1beta (P < 0.10), PGE2 (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.05) such that these measurements responded to the LPS challenge to a lesser extent (IL-1beta: 93 vs. 114 pg/mL, P < 0.05; PGE2: 536 vs. 1,285 pg/mL, P < 0.001; cortisol: 143 vs. 206 ng/mL, P < 0.05) in pigs receiving the FO diet than in pigs fed the CO diet. In contrast, among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed the FO diet had higher IGF-I (155 vs. 101 ng/mL; P < 0.10) than those fed the CO diet. On d 21 among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed FO had lower IL-1beta (70 vs. 84 pg/mL; P < 0.10) and cortisol (153 vs. 205 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than those fed CO. Pigs fed FO had lower PGE2 (331 vs. 444 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and higher IGF-I (202 vs. 171 ng/mL; P < 0.10) compared with those fed CO. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased GH (0.27 vs. 0.33 ng/mL; P < 0.05) on d 14, whereas it had no effect on GH on d 21. During both LPS challenge periods, the challenge increased PBLP when these cells were incubated with 8 (1.46 vs. 1.32; P < 0.10) or 16 microg/mL (1.46 vs. 1.30; P < 0.05) of concanavalin A. Fish oil had no effect on PBLP. These results suggest that FO alters the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which might lead to improved pig performance during an immunological challenge.


Asunto(s)
Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dinoprostona/sangre , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales/veterinaria , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/sangre , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/inmunología , Destete , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Brain Res Bull ; 54(4): 395-8, 2001 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11306191

RESUMEN

The effects of serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on the spontaneous discharge of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons were investigated using rat hypothalamic slice. It was found that: (1) the SCN neurons showed a persistent rhythm in the spontaneous discharge rate, which was higher during the light phase than during the dark phase; (2) the effects of 5-HT on SCN neurons was inhibitory in nature and the sensitivity of SCN neurons to 5-HT during the light phase was lower than that during the dark phase; (3) both 5-HT and 5-HT(1/7) receptor agonist, (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(DL-N-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide, could inhibit the spontaneous discharge of SCN neurons. This inhibitory effect could be blocked by 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist ritanserin and putative 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists clozapine, but neither by selective 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserin, nor by 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist pindolol. It was suggested that the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the spontaneous discharge of SCN neurons in rat hypothalamic slice is mediated by 5-HT(7) receptor subtype.


Asunto(s)
Receptores de Serotonina/efectos de los fármacos , Antagonistas de la Serotonina/farmacología , Agonistas de Receptores de Serotonina/farmacología , Serotonina/farmacología , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/fisiología , Masculino , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/fisiología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptores de Serotonina/fisiología , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiología
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 26(3): 166-9, 2001 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12525034

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To choose the optimization conditions for the formation of baicalin complex with phospholipid. METHOD: A reasonable criterion of accurate evaluation was established, by which such factors as temperature, the ratio of baicalin to phospholipid and the concentration of reactants were examined and the orthographic design was used. RESULT: The best conditions were obtained through statistical analysis and proof test. CONCLUSION: The formation of baicalin complex with phospholipid was greatly influenced by the solvent, concentration and reactant ratio.


Asunto(s)
Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Tecnología Farmacéutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos , Fosfolípidos
19.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 52(2): 175-82, 2000 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10922087

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Late stent blockage is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion for malignant obstructive jaundice. Stents block as a result of bacterial infection and biofilm formation. We report a randomized but unblinded study using an animal model to evaluate the effect of prophylactic ciprofloxacin, which selectively suppresses gram-negative bacteria, in an attempt to prolong stent patency. METHOD: Ten adult cats underwent surgical implantation of 5F polyethylene stents through common bile duct strictures created around the choledochotomy, with the tip of the stent left in the duodenum. Five animals received intravenous ciprofloxacin perioperatively and were then maintained on oral ciprofloxacin 25 mg twice daily. Control cats were not given antibiotics. The animals were sacrificed when signs of biliary obstruction or cholangitis persisted for more than 3 days or at the end of the 16-week study period. Stents were removed and examined for patency. In addition, the stents were cultured to recover the adherent bacteria. RESULTS: All control animals developed stent blockage within 4 weeks. Two ciprofloxacin-treated cats developed stent blockage at 21 and 42 days, respectively, whereas the other 3 cats had patent stents for the entire study period. There was a significant difference between the median stent patency of 112 days for the ciprofloxacin group versus 16 days for the control group (p < 0.02). Bacteriologic cultures showed that the bile and blocked stents from the control group had predominantly gram-negative bacteria, whereas the bile and stents of the ciprofloxacin group had gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria, with an absence of gram-negative bacteria (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis eliminates gram-negative bacterial infection in bile and minimizes sludge formation and may have a potential benefit in delaying stent blockage.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades del Conducto Colédoco/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Stents , Administración Oral , Animales , Gatos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Esquema de Medicación , Seguridad de Equipos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infusiones Intravenosas , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Valores de Referencia , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
20.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 32(4): 301-4, 1997 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11499034

RESUMEN

A new isoflavone, named eurycarpin A and a new natural product isoflavone named eurycarpin B have been isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa P. C. Li. Their structures were determined to be 7,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-(3,3-dimethylallyl) isoflavone(I) and 7,2'-dihydroxy-6",6"-dimethylpyrano-(2",3":4',3') isoflavone(II) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (UV, EI-MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, NOE difference and HMBC). In addition, three known isoflavones, licoisoflavone A, calycosin and formononetin, were obtained for the first time from this plant.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Isoflavonas/aislamiento & purificación , Plantas Medicinales , Isoflavonas/química , Estructura Molecular
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