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Mol Cancer Ther ; 15(7): 1472-84, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364904


New targeted approaches to ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) are needed, given the limited treatment options in this disease and the poor response to standard chemotherapy. Using a series of high-throughput cell-based drug screens in OCCC tumor cell models, we have identified a synthetic lethal (SL) interaction between the kinase inhibitor dasatinib and a key driver in OCCC, ARID1A mutation. Imposing ARID1A deficiency upon a variety of human or mouse cells induced dasatinib sensitivity, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this is a robust synthetic lethal interaction. The sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells to dasatinib was associated with G1-S cell-cycle arrest and was dependent upon both p21 and Rb. Using focused siRNA screens and kinase profiling, we showed that ARID1A-mutant OCCC tumor cells are addicted to the dasatinib target YES1. This suggests that dasatinib merits investigation for the treatment of patients with ARID1A-mutant OCCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1472-84. ©2016 AACR.

Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Dasatinib/farmacología , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Mutaciones Letales Sintéticas , Factores de Transcripción/antagonistas & inhibidores , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patología , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Apoptosis/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Unión al ADN , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Ratones , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ováricas/patología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Proteína de Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína de Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 135(2): 505-17, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22875744


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an enzyme involved in DNA repair. PARP inhibitors can act as chemosensitizers, or operate on the principle of synthetic lethality when used as single agent. Clinical trials have shown drugs in this class to be promising for BRCA mutation carriers. We postulated that inability to demonstrate response in non-BRCA carriers in which BRCA is inactivated by other mechanisms or with deficiency in homologous recombination for DNA repair is due to lack of molecular markers that define a responding subpopulation. We identified candidate markers for this purpose for olaparib (AstraZeneca) by measuring inhibitory effects of nine concentrations of olaparib in 22 breast cancer cell lines and identifying features in transcriptional and genome copy number profiles that were significantly correlated with response. We emphasized in this discovery process genes involved in DNA repair. We found that the cell lines that were sensitive to olaparib had a significant lower copy number of BRCA1 compared to the resistant cell lines (p value 0.012). In addition, we discovered seven genes from DNA repair pathways whose transcriptional levels were associated with response. These included five genes (BRCA1, MRE11A, NBS1, TDG, and XPA) whose transcript levels were associated with resistance and two genes (CHEK2 and MK2) whose transcript levels were associated with sensitivity. We developed an algorithm to predict response using the seven-gene transcription levels and applied it to 1,846 invasive breast cancer samples from 8 U133A/plus 2 (Affymetrix) data sets and found that 8-21 % of patients would be predicted to be responsive to olaparib. A similar response frequency was predicted in 536 samples analyzed on an Agilent platform. Importantly, tumors predicted to respond were enriched in basal subtype tumors. Our studies support clinical evaluation of the utility of our seven-gene signature as a predictor of response to olaparib.

Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Basocelulares/tratamiento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/farmacología , Piperazinas/farmacología , Inhibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribosa) Polimerasas , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Reparación del ADN/genética , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Poli(ADP-Ribosa) Polimerasa-1 , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Transcriptoma
Mod Pathol ; 23(10): 1334-45, 2010 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20543821


PPM1D (protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1δ) maps to the 17q23.2 amplicon and is amplified in ∼8% of breast cancers. The PPM1D gene encodes a serine threonine phosphatase, which is involved in the regulation of several tumour suppressor pathways, including the p53 pathway. Along with others, we have recently shown that PPM1D is one of the drivers of the 17q23.2 amplicon and a promising therapeutic target. Here we investigate whether PPM1D is overexpressed when amplified in breast cancers and the correlations between PPM1D overexpression and amplification with clinicopathological features and survival of breast cancer patients from a cohort of 245 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with therapeutic surgery followed by adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. mRNA was extracted from representative sections of tumours containing >50% of tumour cells and subjected to TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR using primers for PPM1D and for two housekeeping genes. PPM1D overexpression was defined as the top quartile of expression levels. Chromogenic in situ hybridization with in-house-generated probes for PPM1D was performed. Amplification was defined as >50% of cancer cells with >5 signals per nucleus/large gene clusters. PPM1D overexpression and amplification were found in 25 and 6% of breast cancers, respectively. All cases harbouring PPM1D amplification displayed PPM1D overexpression. PPM1D overexpression was inversely correlated with expression of TOP2A, EGFR and cytokeratins 5/6 and 17. PPM1D amplification was significantly associated with HER2 overexpression, and HER2, TOP2A and CCND1 amplification. No association between PPM1D gene amplification and PPM1D mRNA overexpression with survival was observed. In conclusion, PPM1D is consistently overexpressed when amplified; however, PPM1D overexpression is more pervasive than gene amplification. PPM1D overexpression and amplification are associated with tumours displaying luminal or HER2 phenotypes. Co-amplification of PPM1D and HER2/TOP2A and CCND1 are not random events and may suggest the presence of a 'firestorm' genetic profile.

Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatasas/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Femenino , Amplificación de Genes , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Hibridación in Situ , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Pronóstico , Proteína Fosfatasa 2C , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Análisis de Matrices Tisulares
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 7(4): 197-208, 2010 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20177404


The molecular and genetic subtyping of cancer has allowed the emergence of individualized therapies. This approach could potentially deliver treatments that have both increased efficacy as well as reduced toxicity. A well-defined subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by a deficiency in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. MMR deficiency not only contributes to the pathogenesis of a large proportion of CRC, but also determines the response to many of the drugs that are frequently used to treat this disease. In this Review we describe the MMR deficient phenotype and discuss how a deficiency in this DNA repair process may impact on the management of CRC, including surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and the choice of systemic agents for the palliation of advanced disease. We also discuss how the DNA repair defect in MMR deficient CRC could be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN/genética , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/cirugía , Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/genética , Intervalos de Confianza , Humanos , Mutación , Fenotipo , Compuestos de Platino/uso terapéutico , Pronóstico