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Animal ; 17(5): 100805, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149993


The physiological consequences of overstocking require more investigation, and no research has explored whether dietary supplements could mitigate the anticipated negative physiological effects. OmniGen AF (OG, Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ, USA) is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to support the immune system of cattle following internal and environmental stressors. This study aimed to determine if a 45-day period of OG feed supplementation would influence whole blood leukocyte messenger RNA abundance, energy metabolism and glucocorticoid concentration, during a two-week period of overstocking. Two stocking density treatments (control: one headlock and lying stall per cow; overstocked: 0.5 headlocks and 0.5 lying stalls per cow) and two diet treatments (control: no added supplement; and OG: 56 g/cow per day) were investigated. Four pens of 15 cows were fed their assigned diet (two pens per diet; control stocking density) for 45 days after which each stocking density treatment was applied for a 14-day period using a cross-over design; this study design was replicated twice. During each 14-day period, blood was collected on day four to measure whole blood leukocyte messenger RNA abundance (cluster of differentiation 80, interleukin 8 receptor-beta, interleukin 10 receptor-beta and L-selectin) and fecal samples were collected every two days to measure fecal cortisol metabolite concentration (11,17-dioxoandrostanes). At the end of each 14-day period, eight cows from each pen were selected for an intravenous glucose tolerance test; glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids were measured. There were no effects of diet or stocking density on leukocyte messenger RNA abundance. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations were highest for overstocked cows on the control diet on day four of the stocking density treatment; however, by day 10, overstocked cows fed OG had the highest fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations. Overstocked cows, regardless of diet, had an attenuated insulin response during the glucose tolerance test, represented by a lower area under the curve estimate. Cows fed OG but not overstocked, had a lower non-esterified fatty acid nadir during the glucose challenge, compared to all the other treatments. In conclusion, overstocking prompts a physiological stress response and alters energy metabolism by decreasing the insulin response to an intravenous glucose challenge. Feeding OG during overstocking delayed the increase in fecal cortisol metabolites by several days; however, it is unclear if this altered glucocorticoid response benefited the cow, as OG had no effect on insulin responses or immune parameters.

Glucocorticoides , Hidrocortisona , Femenino , Bovinos , Animales , Glucocorticoides/farmacología , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Leche/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Leucocitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Alimentación Animal
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6612-6626, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307158


Adrenal responsiveness was tested in nonpregnant, lactating Holstein dairy cows fed diets supplemented with OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ), an immune modulator, and in nonsupplemented control (CON) cows following bolus infusions of a combination of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg of BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg of BW) or ACTH (0.1 IU/kg of BW) in 2 environments: thermoneutral [TN; temperature-humidity index (THI) <60] for 24 h/d and heat stress (HS; THI >68 for 17 h/d). Cows (506) were initially fed OG (n = 254) or CON (n = 252) diets for 44 d before selection of a subgroup of cows (n = 12; 6 OG, 6 CON) for the study. The 2 subgroups were balanced for parity, milk yield, and days in milk. All cows were transported to and housed in 2 environmentally controlled rooms at the University of Arizona Agricultural Research Complex (Tucson). Cows were given 3 d to acclimate to the rooms and then underwent 12 d of TN conditions and then 8 d of HS conditions for a total of 24 d on experiment. Cows were infused with CRH-VP on d 9 of TN and on d 1 of HS and with ACTH on d 10 of TN and on d 2 of HS. Hormone infusions took place at 1000 h (0 h) on each infusion day. Blood samples, taken in 30-min intervals, were first collected at 0800 h (-2 h) and were drawn until 1800 h (8 h). Before infusion, serum progesterone was elevated in OG cows compared with CON cows. Infusion of releasing factors (CRH-VP or ACTH) caused increases in serum cortisol and progesterone, but cortisol release was greater in CON cows than in OG cows during HS, whereas progesterone did not differ between the 2 treatments. Serum ACTH increased following infusion of releasing factors, but this increase was greater following CRH-VP infusion than ACTH infusion. Serum bovine corticosteroid-binding globulin also increased following infusion of releasing factors in both treatment groups, but this increase was greater during HS in cows fed OG. The free cortisol index (FCI) increased following CRH-VP and ACTH and was higher in HS than in TN for both OG and CON cows. However, the FCI response was blunted in OG cows compared with CON cows during HS. Heat stress enhanced the adrenal response to releasing factors. Additionally, the adrenal cortisol and FCI response to releasing factors was reduced during acute heat stress in cows fed OG. Collectively, these data suggest that OG supplementation reduced the adrenal responsiveness to factors regulating cortisol secretion during acute HS.

Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/farmacología , Bovinos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Leche/metabolismo , Vasopresinas/farmacología , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Humedad , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Lactancia , Paridad , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre
Res Vet Sci ; 127: 11-17, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670050


Enhancing immunological responses to vaccination is an important goal in many herd health management systems. OmniGen-AF®(OG) is an immunomodulatory feed additive that has been shown to enhance innate immune function in ruminants and its effects on adaptive immunity require additional study. The objective of this study was to evaluate post-vaccine antibody titers and circulating cellular memory development in heifers fed OG and administered a commercially available modified-live bovine respiratory disease (BRD) vaccine. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two diets for 170 days: Control TMR (CON; n = 11), or TMR plus OG (TRT; 9 g/100 kg BW/day; n = 13). Samples for hematology, serology, and cellular assays were collected on D-110, 0, 21, 42, and 60 of the trial. Heifers were administered two priming doses of a modified-live BRD vaccine, with a third dose given on D0. There were no significant differences in total WBC and absolute number or the percentage of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, RBC, or platelets on D-110 through D21. On D42 and D60, CON had significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes. On D0, mean serum neutralizing (SN) titer to BHV-1 was significantly higher for CON compared to TRT. SN titers were not significantly different between CON and TRT at any other time point for BHV-1, BVDV type 1, or BVDV type 2. TRT mounted a significantly stronger recall proliferative response to 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of BHV-1, BVDV type 1 and BVDV type 2 on D42 and D60; 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 on D21 and D42; and 0.25 MOI BVDV type 2 on D42 compared to CON. IL-4 production induced by 0.5 and 1.0 MOI BHV-1 (D42 and D60); 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 (D21); and 0.25 and 0.5 MOI of BVDV type 2 (D60) were significantly higher for TRT than CON. IL-17 production induced by 0.25 MOI of BVDV type 1 was significantly higher on D60 for TRT compared to CON. IFN-gamma and IL-10 were not significantly different between treatments. These data indicate feeding OG has a beneficial effect on responses to vaccine antigens in Holstein dairy heifers.

Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 1/inmunología , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 2/inmunología , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/inmunología , Factores Inmunológicos/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Complejo Respiratorio Bovino/inmunología , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 186-190, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909121


A trial was conducted to determine if feeding OmniGen-AF® (OG) to 22 late lactation cows 60 days prior to and during the early dry period, a time of increased susceptibility to mastitis, could reduce disease incidence in a dairy herd experiencing major health issues. Treated cows (n = 11) consumed a ration containing OG [9 g/100 kg of body weight/day] beginning 60 days before dry-off, during the dry period, and through 30 days in milk (DIM). Control cows received the same ration during the dry period through 30 DIM only. Body weights, body condition scores (BCS), intramammary infection (IMI) prevalence, new IMI rates, somatic cell counts (SCC), milk yield, and adverse health events were measured. No differences were found between treatments for body weight or BCS. Adverse health event data at calving showed no differences between treatments except for percentage of cows with hyperketonemia, which was lower among treated cows (63.6% vs 100%). Prevalence of IMI from calving through 30 DIM for treated cows (6.1%) was lower than controls (11.05%); likewise, new IMI rate during this time for treated cows (0.61%) was lower than controls (5.81%). The SCC from calving through 30 DIM for treated cows (215,000/ml) was lower than controls (493,000/ml). Average production/day at the first DHIA test (~33 DIM) showed that treated cows produced more milk (39.9 kg) than controls (35.34 kg). In conclusion, feeding OG 60 days prior to dry-off reduced hyperketonemia and mastitis, lowered SCC, and numerically increased milk yield in a dairy herd experiencing major health issues.

Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/inmunología , Mastitis Bovina/prevención & control , Leche/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Recuento de Células/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Mastitis Bovina/epidemiología , Prevalencia
J Dairy Sci ; 101(11): 9915-9925, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219430


Eighty-two multiparous Holstein cows were enrolled 28 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of feeding a neutral or acidogenic diet varying in Ca concentration on prepartum and postpartum intake, blood mineral and metabolite concentrations, and postpartum milk production. Prepartum diets were formulated to provide a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of -21 (negative, NEG) or -2 (neutral, NEU) mEq/100 g of dry matter with either 1.3% or 1.8% Ca. After calving, cows remained on trial through 63 d in milk (DIM) and were fed a common lactation diet. Urine pH was lower for NEG compared with NEU and tended to be lower for 1.8% Ca compared with 1.3% Ca. Fractional excretion of Ca and Mg in urine was greater for NEG than for NEU. Prepartum plasma bicarbonate was lower and P was higher for NEG compared with NEU. Prepartum plasma P and blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio was higher for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. Postpartum, concentrations of plasma total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, Mg, and ionized Mg (iMg) were higher and Na was lower for NEU compared with NEG. An interaction of DCAD and Ca was observed for plasma creatinine, which was highest for cows fed NEU and 1.3% Ca compared with all other treatments. Interactions of DCAD and DIM were observed for plasma bicarbonate and iMg. Bicarbonate was higher at 3 DIM and lower at 14 DIM for NEU compared with NEG. Concentrations of iMg were higher at 1, 2, and 14 DIM for NEU compared with NEG. Interactions of Ca and DIM were observed for plasma Ca, Cl, and anion gap. Compared with cows fed 1.5% Ca, those fed 1.3% Ca had lower Ca and anion gap and higher Cl at 1 DIM and lower Cl and higher anion gap at 14 DIM. No differences were observed in body weight or body condition score due to DCAD or Ca. Prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) was lower for NEG compared with NEU and lower for 1.8% compared with 1.3% Ca. Postpartum DMI was not different among treatments. An interaction was observed for DCAD and DIM due to higher milk yield after 45 DIM for NEG compared with NEU. No differences were observed in milk component percentage or yield among treatments. There was an interaction of DIM and Ca for milk urea concentrations, which were higher at 5 wk and lower at 6 wk for 1.3% Ca compared with 1.8% Ca. These results suggest that feeding NEG prepartum alters plasma and urine mineral concentrations compared with feeding NEU and supports increased milk yield after 45 DIM. Feeding 1.8% Ca prepartum only improved plasma Ca at 1 DIM. Feeding either NEG or 1.8% Ca reduced DMI prepartum compared with NEU or 1.3% Ca.

Alimentación Animal , Calcio de la Dieta/farmacología , Bovinos , Leche/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Industria Lechera , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Lactancia , Minerales/metabolismo , Paridad , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9048-9051, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077447


Eighty-two multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and Ca concentrations in a randomized block design experiment beginning 4 wk before anticipated calving to determine the effects on colostrum yield and quality and acid-base balance and mineral status of newborn calves. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial to provide 2 DCAD [-22 mEq/100 g of dry matter (NEG) or -3 mEq/100 g of dry matter (NEU)] and 2 supplemental Ca concentrations (1.3 or 1.8% of dry matter). After calving, cows were milked within 2 to 8 h and colostrum yield was recorded. Calves were fed 200 g of IgG of a commercial colostrum replacer within 4 h of birth. No differences were observed in birth weight or dystocia score among treatments, which averaged 42.7 kg and 1.12, respectively. Colostrum yield was not different among treatments and averaged 8.75 kg. Colostrum quality, as measured using a Brix refractometer, was not affected by DCAD but was higher for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca: 21.58% and 19.87%, respectively. Colostrum IgG concentrations were higher for NEG compared with NEU and for 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. No differences were observed in concentrations of serum IgG, Ca, P, K, Cl, anion gap, or whole-blood pH, partial pressure of O2, or SO2 of calves among treatments. Serum Mg and lactate concentrations were higher and CO2 tended to be lower for calves born to cows fed 1.3% compared with 1.8% Ca. Interactions of DCAD and Ca were observed for serum Na and Cl, which were higher for NEU-1.3% Ca and NEG-1.8% Ca compared with NEU-1.8% Ca and NEG-1.3% Ca. Whole-blood partial pressure of CO2, and HCO3 exhibited an interaction of DCAD and Ca and tended to be lower for NEU-1.3% Ca and NEG-1.8% Ca compared with NEU-1.8% Ca and NEG-1.3% Ca. Results of this trial indicate that feeding prepartum diets with 1.8% compared with 1.3% supplemental Ca reduced colostrum quality and serum concentrations of Mg and lactate in calves immediately after birth. Feeding NEG supported higher colostrum IgG concentrations. Blood mineral concentrations and blood gas balance tended to differ, but the effects were not consistent across DCAD and Ca.

Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre/veterinaria , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Calcio/sangre , Bovinos/metabolismo , Calostro/química , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Aniones , Cationes , Dieta , Femenino , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Minerales , Embarazo