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1.
J Med Chem ; 59(11): 5356-67, 2016 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167608

RESUMEN

Elevated levels of human lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) are associated with cardiovascular disease and dementia. A fragment screen was conducted against Lp-PLA2 in order to identify novel inhibitors. Multiple fragment hits were observed in different regions of the active site, including some hits that bound in a pocket created by movement of a protein side chain (approximately 13 Å from the catalytic residue Ser273). Using structure guided design, we optimized a fragment that bound in this pocket to generate a novel low nanomolar chemotype, which did not interact with the catalytic residues.


Asunto(s)
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Pirazoles/farmacología , Tiazoles/farmacología , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterasa/metabolismo , Sitios de Unión/efectos de los fármacos , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/síntesis química , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estructura Molecular , Pirazoles/síntesis química , Pirazoles/química , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Tiazoles/síntesis química , Tiazoles/química
2.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 116(2-3): 82-91, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268064

RESUMEN

Screening methods seek to sample a vast chemical space in order to identify starting points for further chemical optimisation. Fragment based drug discovery exploits the superior sampling of chemical space that can be achieved when the molecular weight is restricted. Here we show that commercially available fragment space is still relatively poorly sampled and argue for highly sensitive screening methods to allow the detection of smaller fragments. We analyse the properties of our fragment library versus the properties of X-ray hits derived from the library. We particularly consider properties related to the degree of planarity of the fragments.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/farmacología
3.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 25(7): 663-7, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21614595

RESUMEN

A key challenge in many drug discovery programs is to accurately assess the potential value of screening hits. This is particularly true in fragment-based drug design (FBDD), where the hits often bind relatively weakly, but are correspondingly small. Ligand efficiency (LE) considers both the potency and the size of the molecule, and enables us to estimate whether or not an initial hit is likely to be optimisable to a potent, druglike lead. While size is a key property that needs to be controlled in a small molecule drug, there are a number of additional properties that should also be considered. Lipophilicity is amongst the most important of these additional properties, and here we present a new efficiency index (LLE(AT)) that combines lipophilicity, size and potency. The index is intuitively defined, and has been designed to have the same target value and dynamic range as LE, making it easily interpretable by medicinal chemists. Monitoring both LE and LLE(AT) should help both in the selection of more promising fragment hits, and controlling molecular weight and lipophilicity during optimisation.


Asunto(s)
Lípidos/química , Fragmentos de Péptidos/química , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/química , Técnicas Químicas Combinatorias , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligandos
4.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 20(4): 497-507, 2010 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20471246

RESUMEN

Fragment-based ligand screening is now established as an emerging paradigm for drug discovery. Here we examine the recent literature looking at how structural biology has been used in a variety of successful fragment-screening applications. We argue that the determination of experimental binding modes has proved to be one of the mainstays of successful fragment-based approaches and that this reflects the difficulty in optimising a fragment to a lead molecule in the absence of structural information. We focus on antimicrobial research where fragment-based drug discovery allows control of the physical properties of the emerging lead molecule.


Asunto(s)
Biología/métodos , Diseño de Fármacos , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética
5.
Nat Chem ; 1(3): 187-92, 2009 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21378847

RESUMEN

The search for new drugs is plagued by high attrition rates at all stages in research and development. Chemists have an opportunity to tackle this problem because attrition can be traced back, in part, to the quality of the chemical leads. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a new approach, increasingly used in the pharmaceutical industry, for reducing attrition and providing leads for previously intractable biological targets. FBDD identifies low-molecular-weight ligands (∼150 Da) that bind to biologically important macromolecules. The three-dimensional experimental binding mode of these fragments is determined using X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, and is used to facilitate their optimization into potent molecules with drug-like properties. Compared with high-throughput-screening, the fragment approach requires fewer compounds to be screened, and, despite the lower initial potency of the screening hits, offers more efficient and fruitful optimization campaigns. Here, we review the rise of FBDD, including its application to discovering clinical candidates against targets for which other chemistry approaches have struggled.


Asunto(s)
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/química , Sitios de Unión , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Quinasa 2 Dependiente de la Ciclina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Quinasa 2 Dependiente de la Ciclina/metabolismo , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/química , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Proteína bcl-X/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 48(11): 2214-25, 2008 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18954138

RESUMEN

In the validation of protein-ligand docking protocols, performance is mostly measured against native protein conformers, i.e. each ligand is docked into the protein conformation from the structure that contained that ligand. In real-life applications, however, ligands are docked against non-native conformations of the protein, i.e. the apo structure or a structure of a different protein-ligand complex. Here, we have constructed an extensive test set for assessing docking performance against non-native protein conformations. This new test set is built on the Astex Diverse Set (which we recently constructed for assessing native docking performance) and contains 1112 non-native structures for 65 drug targets. Using the protein-ligand docking program GOLD, the Astex Diverse Set and the new Astex Non-native Set, we established that, whereas docking performance (top-ranked solution within 2 A rmsd of the experimental binding mode) is approximately 80% for native docking, this drops to 61% for non-native docking. A similar drop-off is observed for sampling performance (any solution within 2 A): 91% for native docking vs 72% for non-native docking. No significant differences were observed between docking performance against apo and nonapo structures. We found that, whereas small variations in protein conformation are generally tolerated by our rigid docking protocol, larger protein movements result in a catastrophic drop-off in performance. Some docking performance and nearly all sampling performance can be recovered by considering dockings produced against a small number of non-native structures simultaneously. Docking against non-native structures of complexes containing ligands that are similar to the docked ligand also significantly improves both docking performance and sampling performance.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas/química , Sitios de Unión , Simulación por Computador , Bases de Datos de Proteínas , Diseño de Fármacos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Informática , Ligandos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformación Proteica , Programas Informáticos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
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