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1.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 78(4): 227-32, 2006 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16604283

RESUMEN

Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with ch-OSA over 30 weeks (OVX1, n = 20; 1 mg Si/kg body weight daily) or used as controls (OVX0, n = 17). The serum Si concentration and the 24-hour urinary Si excretion of supplemented OVX rats was significantly higher compared to sham and OVX controls. Supplementation with ch-OSA significantly but partially reversed the decrease in Ca excretion, which was observed after OVX. The increase in bone turnover in OVX rats tended to be reduced by ch-OSA supplementation. ch-OSA supplementation increased significantly the femoral bone mineral content (BMC) in the distal region and total femoral BMC in OVX rats, whereas lumbar BMC was marginally increased. Femoral BMD was significantly increased at two sites in the distal region in OVX rats supplemented with ch-OSA compared to OVX controls. Total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased by ch-OSA supplementation. In conclusion, ch-OSA supplementation partially prevents femoral bone loss in the aged OVX rat model.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fémur/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoporosis/dietoterapia , Osteoporosis/prevención & control , Ácido Silícico/uso terapéutico , Absorciometría de Fotón , Animales , Densidad Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Calcio/orina , Colina , Femenino , Fémur/fisiología , Vértebras Lumbares/efectos de los fármacos , Vértebras Lumbares/fisiología , Ovariectomía , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Ácido Silícico/análisis , Ácido Silícico/química
2.
Phytomedicine ; 9(1): 56-61, 2002 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11924765

RESUMEN

Forty-two ethanolic extracts of thirty-six Rwandan medicinal plants were investigated for their influence on complement-mediated hemolysis. The plants were selected on the base of their ethnomedicinal use in infections and autoimmune diseases. Eight plant extracts showed an inhibitory activity against the classical pathway of the complement system and ten plant extracts against the alternative pathway. Three plant extracts exhibited an interesting activity against both pathways, i.e. Aspilia pluriseta, Coleus kilimandschari, and Macaranga kilimandscharica (leaves and stem). Further study indicated that the complement inhibitory activity was not caused by chelation of bivalent cations or by direct action on the target erythrocytes.


Asunto(s)
Activación de Complemento , Eritrocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hemólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Medicinas Tradicionales Africanas , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Estructuras de las Plantas , Rwanda
3.
Phytomedicine ; 9(1): 62-8, 2002 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11924766

RESUMEN

Selected plants used in Rwandan traditional medicine for the treatment of infections and/or rheumatoid diseases were investigated for antiviral activity in vitro against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Of the 38 tested 80% ethanolic extracts, belonging to plants of 21 different families only the extracts from the leaves of Aspilia pluriseta (Asteraceae) and Rumex bequaertii (Polygonaceae) had interesting selectivity indices (SI = ratio of the 50% cytotoxic concentration to the 50% effective antiviral concentration) higher than 1. Further fractionation of the initially antivirally inactive ethanolic extract of Tithonia diversifolia, however, led to an aqueous fraction with a high anti-HIV-1 activity (SI > 461), indicating that the cytotoxicity of some plant components may mask the antiviral properties of the active plant substances in total plant extracts.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Medicinas Tradicionales Africanas , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Estructuras de las Plantas , Rwanda
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 79(2): 155-63, 2002 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11801376

RESUMEN

A total of 45 Rwandan plant extracts, belonging to 37 different plant species out of 21 families, were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The plants were selected on the base of their ethnomedicinal use against infections and autoimmune diseases. From all the plant extracts tested, only Clematis hirsuta (leaves) showed a pronounced antifungal activity against Candida albicans and the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. Seven plant extracts showed a high antiviral activity against the DNA-virus Herpes simplex type 1, while five and three plant extracts were highly active against the RNA-viruses Coxsackie and Polio, respectively. Only Macaranga kilimandscharica (leaves) showed an interesting anti-measles activity, whereas Eriosema montanum (leaves) and Entada abyssinica (leaves) were highly active against Semliki forest virus. Some plant extracts showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium fortuitum, but none of them were active against the Gram-negative bacteria tested.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicinas Tradicionales Africanas , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antibacterianos , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Fitoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Hojas de la Planta/química , Rwanda
5.
Planta Med ; 67(6): 515-9, 2001 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11509970

RESUMEN

Thirty-five flavonoids of seven different types, namely isoflavonoids, chalcones, dihydroflavonols, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, and flavonols were investigated for their ability to inhibit ascorbate-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation and their cytotoxicity. For each activity a structure-activity relationship was established. Subsequently, an antioxidant selectivity index, i. e., the maximal non-toxic dose divided by the IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation, was introduced. Kaempferol showed the highest antioxidant selectivity index of all flavonoids tested.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Flavonoides/toxicidad , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Microsomas Hepáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Flavonoides/antagonistas & inhibidores , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacología , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Estructura-Actividad
6.
Planta Med ; 67(6): 528-32, 2001 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11509973

RESUMEN

Ten saponins isolated from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata were tested for their antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities. The influence of the substitution pattern of these acylated triterpenoid saponins on their biological activities was investigated and structure-activity relationships were established. Maesasaponin VI(2) (3 beta-O-[[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranuronyl]-21 beta,22 alpha-diangeloyloxy-13 beta,28-epoxyolean-16 alpha,28 alpha-diol), the most potent molluscicidal compound (LC(50) 0.5 ppm), also showed virucidal and haemolytic activity. In general, 21,22-diacylation appeared to be associated with a virucidal (reduction factor of the viral titer > or = 10(3) at 50 microg/ml) and haemolytic activity (HC(50) < or = 1 microg/ml).


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Hemólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Moluscocidas/farmacología , Saponinas/farmacología , Árboles/química , Animales , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Secuencia de Carbohidratos , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Magnoliopsida/química , Medicinas Tradicionales Africanas , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Caracoles/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Triterpenos/farmacología
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 65(1): 71-7, 1999 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10350370

RESUMEN

Aqueous EtOH (80%) extracts of seven plants used by Rwandan traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Only two of the selected plants showed a true antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, while all of them exhibited virucidal properties against several enveloped viruses including herpes simplex, measles, Semliki forest, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. Four plants were diversely active against gram-positive bacteria, two of these showing bactericidal effect against the acid-fast Mycobacterium fortuitum. None of the selected plants was active against gram-negative bacteria or the yeast Candida albicans. From a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure using herpes simplex virus type I as the target model, a virucidal mixture, the maesasaponin mixture A, was isolated from the MeOH extract of Maesa lanceolata. The maesasaponin mixture A exhibited a virucidal activity against herpes simplex types 1 and 2, and vesicular stomatitis viruses.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales/química , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Rwanda
8.
J Nat Prod ; 61(5): 585-90, 1998 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9599254

RESUMEN

From a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure using Herpes simplex virus type 1 as the target model, a virucidal saponin mixture (maesasaponin mixture B) was isolated from the MeOH extract of leaves of Maesa lanceolata. The maesasaponin mixture B consisted of six homologous oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-6, identified by 1H, 13C, and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The maesasaponin mixture B (1-6) showed several biological activities expected for saponins. It exhibited a moderate virucidal activity against enveloped viruses. The maesasaponin mixture B (1-6) was tested for further properties. The saponin mixture was found to be highly hemolytic and molluscicidal: it hemolyzed 50% of human erythrocytes (1% suspension) at a concentration estimated at 1.6 microg/mL and exerted against Biomphalaria glabrata snails a severe toxic effect with LD95 and LD50 values of 4.1 and 2.3 ppm, respectively. In addition, the maesasaponin mixture B (1-6) showed moderate fungistatic and antimutagenic properties. The evaluation of these diverse activities is described.


Asunto(s)
Moluscos/efectos de los fármacos , Plantas Medicinales/química , Saponinas/farmacología , Árboles/química , Triterpenos/farmacología , Animales , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Antivirales/farmacología , Conformación de Carbohidratos , Secuencia de Carbohidratos , Hemólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Hojas de la Planta/química , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 18(4-5): 737-43, 1998 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9919976

RESUMEN

A mixture of triterpenoid saponins derived from the dried leaves of Maesa lanceolata was separated, without structure deterioration, in its components. Seven fractions (I-VII) of high molecular weight (1234-1358) saponins were obtained on a semipreparative scale using wide pore reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with an acetonitrile trifluoroacetic acid (500:0.3 w/w)-water-trifluoroacetic acid (391:0.3, w/w) gradient from 35 to 56% in 30 min. The mobile phase was cooled in an ice bath (0 degrees C) during chromatography in order to prevent bubble formation and to improve the quality of the separation. Freeze-dried fractions IV, V, VI and VII were further separated using solvent systems developed for each of the fractions. Fourteen pure triterpenoid saponins were isolated in this way and their molar weight determined.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Plantas Medicinales , Saponinas/química , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Temperatura , Árboles
10.
Phytochemistry ; 41(1): 269-77, 1996 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8588869

RESUMEN

Six new homologous triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Maesa lanceolata and characterized as 3 beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 3)]-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosides alpha-diol, 22 alpha-angeloyloxy-16 alpha-butanoyloxy-13 beta,28-oxydoolean-21 beta,28 alpha-diol, 16 alpha,22 alpha-diangeloyloxy-13 beta,28-oxydoolean-21 beta,-28 alpha-diol, 22 alpha-angeloyloxy-13 beta,28-oxydo-16 alpha-(2-methyl-butanoyloxy)-olean-21 beta,28 alpha-diol, 21 beta-acetoxy-22 alpha-angeloyloxy-13 beta,28-oxydo-16 alpha-propanoyloxyolean-28 alpha-ol, 21 beta-acetoxy-22 alpha-angeloyloxy-16 alpha-butanoyloxy-13 beta,28-oxydoolean-28 alpha-01. The structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Saponinas/química , Árboles , Triterpenos/química , Conformación de Carbohidratos , Secuencia de Carbohidratos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta , Rwanda , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Espectrometría de Masa Bombardeada por Átomos Veloces , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación
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