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1.
Anim Genet ; 47(6): 658-671, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558209

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine how prenatal and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter white blood cell (leukocyte) DNA methylation of offspring. Fifteen gilts (n = 5 per treatment) were selected from one of three treatments: (i) control diet throughout gestation, lactation and nursery phase (CON); (ii) algal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enriched in EPA and DHA (Gromega™ ) fed throughout gestation, lactation and nursery phase (Cn3); or (iii) Gromega™ supplementation maternally, during gestation and lactation only, and control diet during the nursery phase (Mn3). At 11 weeks of age and after 8 weeks of post-weaning nursery feeding, buffy coat genomic DNA was subjected to methyl CpG binding protein sequencing. The methylation enriched profile mapped to 26% of the porcine genome. On chromosome 4, a 27.7-kb differentially methylated region downstream of RUNX1T1 was hypomethylated in the Mn3 and Cn3 groups by 91.6% and 85.0% respectively compared to CON pigs. Conversely, hypermethylation was detected in intergenic regions of chromosomes 4 and 12. Regulatory impact factor and differential hubbing methods were used to identify pathways that were coordinately regulated by methylation due to feeding EPA and DHA during pregnancy. Despite limited ability to detect differential methylation, we describe methods that allow the identification of coordinated epigenetic regulation that could not otherwise be detected from subtle single locus changes in methylation. These data provide evidence of novel epigenetic regulation by maternal and early life supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids that may have implications to growth and inflammatory processes.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal , Sus scrofa/genética , Alimentación Animal , Animales , ADN Intergénico/genética , Epigénesis Genética , Femenino , Lactancia , Embarazo , Destete
2.
Animal ; 9(5): 838-46, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25556327

RESUMEN

Effects of a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement (mLCPUFA) fed from weaning until the end of the next lactation to sows with a predicted low litter birth weight (LBW) phenotype on growth performance and carcass quality of litters born to these sows were studied, based on the hypothesis that LBW litters would benefit most from mLCPUFA supplementation. Sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soybean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. The growth performance from birth until slaughter of the litters with the lowest average birth weight in each treatment (n=24 per treatment) is reported in this paper. At weaning, each litter was split between two nursery pens with three to six pigs per pen. At the end of the 5-week nursery period, two barrows and two gilts from each litter that had individual birth weights closest to their litter average birth weight, were moved to experimental grow-finish pens (barn A), where they were housed as two pigs per pen, sorted by sex within litter. Remaining pigs in each litter were moved to another grow-finish barn (barn B) and kept in mixed-sex pens of up to 10 littermates. After 8 weeks, one of the two pigs in each pen in barn A was relocated to the pens holding their respective littermates in barn B. The remaining barrows and gilts were individually housed in the pens in barn A until slaughter. Maternal mLCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain, liver and Semitendinosus muscle of stillborn pigs (P<0.01), did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA concentrations in sow serum at the end of lactation, and did not affect average daily gain, average daily feed intake or feed utilization efficiency of the offspring. BW was higher (P<0.01) in the second half of the grow-finish phase in pigs from mLCPUFA sows compared with controls in barn A, where space and competition for feed was minimal, but not barn B. Carcass quality was not affected by treatment for pigs from barn A, but maternal mLCPUFA supplementation negatively affected carcass quality in pigs from barn B. Collectively, these results suggest that nutritional supplementation of sows can have lasting effects on litter development, but that feeding mLCPUFA to sows during gestation and lactation was not effective in improving growth rates or carcass quality of LBW litters.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso al Nacer/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta/veterinaria , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Sus scrofa/crecimiento & desarrollo
3.
Animal ; 9(3): 471-80, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25263665

RESUMEN

The effects of a marine oil-based n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (mLCPUFA) supplement fed to the sow from weaning, through the rebreeding period, during gestation and until end of lactation on litter characteristics from birth until weaning were studied in sows with known litter birth weight phenotypes. It was hypothesized that low birth weight (LBW) litters would benefit more from mLCPUFA supplementation than high birth weight litters. A total of 163 sows (mean parity=4.9 ± 0.9) were rebred after weaning. Sows were pair-matched by parity and litter average birth weight of the previous three litters. Within pairs, sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soyabean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. Each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as LBW or medium/high average birth weight (MHBW) litter and there was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between litter average birth weight of the current and previous litters within sows (r=0.49). Sow serum was harvested at day 113 of gestation for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. The number of pigs born total and alive were lower (P=0.01) in mLCPUFA than CON sows, whereas the number of stillborn and mummified pigs were similar between treatments. Number of stillborns (trend) and mummies (P<0.01) were higher in LBW than MHBW litters. Tissue weights and brain : tissue weight ratios were similar between treatments, but LBW litters had decreased tissue weights and increased brain : tissue weight ratios compared with MHBW litters. Placental weight was lower (P=0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters, but was not different between treatments. Average and total litter weight at day 1 was similar between treatments. mLCPUFA increased weaning weight (P=0.08) and average daily gain (P<0.05) in MHBW litters, but not in LBW litters. Pre-weaning mortality was similar between treatments, but was higher (P<0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters. IgG concentration in sow serum was similar between treatments and litter birth weight categories. In conclusion, litter birth weight phenotype was repeatable within sows and LBW litters showed the benchmarks of intra-uterine growth retardation (lower placental weight and brain sparing effects). As maternal mLCPUFA supplementation decreased litter size overall, only improved litter growth rate until weaning in MHBW litters, and did not affect pre-weaning mortality, maternal mLCPUFA supplementation was not an effective strategy in our study for mitigating negative effects of a LBW litter phenotype.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Tamaño de la Camada/efectos de los fármacos , Fenotipo , Sus scrofa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Lactancia , Modelos Estadísticos , Paridad , Placenta/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Porcinos
4.
J Anim Sci ; 92(10): 4607-15, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25184850

RESUMEN

Dietary long-chain PFO including arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for several inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of dietary PFO supplementation on bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid in 2 ages of pigs. Sows and gilts were fed either control corn/soybean meal based diets or the control diet supplemented with PFO from Gromega (PFO; JBS United, Sheridan, IN). Sows were fed their diets for 24.5 mo and slaughtered at 43 mo while gilts were fed their diets from weaning until slaughter at 111 kg. Cartilage was harvested from both humeroulnar joints of 14 sows (7/treatment) and 16 gilts (8/treatment) within 30 h of slaughter for fatty acid analysis and explant cultures. Synovial fluid was collected from the carpal joints of each pig postmortem. The right fused radius/ulna was collected for computed tomography (CT) analysis. Cortical width and density were determined and trabecular density was measured at the distal radius. Cartilage explants were allocated to 24-well culture plates with 2 discs per well and cultured over 72 h at 37°C in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: nutrient mixture F-12 (Ham) medium. Six wells/pig were treated with 10 ng/mL of recombinant porcine interleukin-1 (rpIL-1). At 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, media were removed and reserved for analysis of proteoglycans, nitric oxide (NO), and PGE2 concentrations. The CT scans of the radius/ulna from gilts revealed no differences for cortical width and bone density. Sows fed PFO had greater cortical width of the proximal ulna (P < 0.05) and decreased cortical width of the distal radius (P < 0.05). Sows fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (P < 0.05) in cartilage. Gilts fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01), C22:1 (P < 0.01), and docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.01) and a tendency for increased EPA (P = 0.093) concentrations in cartilage. Changes in dietary fatty acids in the gilts and sows had no effect on the variables tested in vitro. Although the PFO diet increased omega-3 incorporation into chondrocytes, the biological significance is unclear since concentrations of ARA were at least 9-fold higher than EPA or DHA. Therefore, if omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammation in joints, the benefit would likely either be the result of systemic changes in inflammatory mediators or higher concentrations in the diet.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Óseo/efectos de los fármacos , Cartílago/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/farmacología , Líquido Sinovial/efectos de los fármacos , Factores de Edad , Animales , Ácido Araquidónico/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidónico/farmacología , Cartílago/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/farmacología , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Femenino , Porcinos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/veterinaria
5.
J Anim Sci ; 91(7): 3390-9, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23572261

RESUMEN

Direct-fed microbials (DFM) supplemented in sow diets may confer health benefits to the host and their piglets by reducing pathogens in the sow and environment. In this study we evaluated the effect of a Bacillus-based DFM on the gastrointestinal microbiota of neonatal piglets. A total of 208 sows were divided into 2 treatments: a control diet and the control diet supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis-based DFM (3.75 × 10(5) cfu/g feed). Twenty-one piglets sampled from each sow treatment group were euthanized on d 3 of lactation followed by an additional 15 piglets per treatment on d 10 of lactation. Litters from DFM-supplemented sows had greater (P = 0.02) weaning weights and a tendency (P = 0.09) for improvement in litter ADG. Sows supplemented with the DFM weaned more pigs (P = 0.06) than control sows which was reflected in numerically lower but not statistically different (P = 0.12) decrease in piglet mortality in DFM litters. Terminal RFLP was used to characterize gastrointestinal (GI) microbial populations in the ileum and colon of the piglets. Terminal restriction fragments (T-RF) were compared between control and DFM treatments. There was a greater incidence and quantity of T-RF B423 and H330 (binary P = 0.01, 0.08; quantitative P = 0.01, 0.05, respectively), putatively identified as Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii, in the ileum of pigs nursing sows supplemented with DFM at d 3. Terminal restriction fragment peaks B423 and H330 were also greater (binary P = 0.01, 0.08; quantitative P = 0.01, 0.01, respectively) in the colon of pigs nursing sows supplemented with DFM at d 3. Peaks M495 and B394, putatively identified as E. coli, were greater (binary P = 0.01, 0.04; quantitative P = 0.01, 0.01, respectively) in the colon of the control pigs at d 3. At d 10, both the presence and quantity of Lactobacillus species were greater (P < 0.05) in the colon of pigs with the DFM treatment. Additionally, there was a tendency for T-RF B227 and H257 (binary P = 0.07, 0.07, respectively), putatively identified as Clostridium perfringens, to be present in the ileum of the control pigs at d 10 compared with treated pigs. Results of this study reveal that the developing gastrointestinal microbiota of a neonatal piglet can be affected by DFM supplementation to the sow.


Asunto(s)
Animales Recién Nacidos/microbiología , Bacillus subtilis/química , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/fisiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Embarazo , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Sus scrofa/fisiología , Destete
6.
Animal ; 7(5): 784-92, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23211420

RESUMEN

Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P < 0.01). In conclusion, feeding n-3 LCPUFA to gilts tended to improve litter growth, but did not have an effect on overall subsequent reproductive performance.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Lactancia/fisiología , Preñez , Porcinos/fisiología , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Femenino , Embarazo
7.
J Anim Sci ; 82(6): 1732-9, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15217001

RESUMEN

A pig trial and a chick trial were done to determine the effect of high levels of Zn and Cu on the P-releasing efficacy of phytase. Ninety-nine individually fed pigs (7.2 kg) were given ad libitum access to one of 11 experimental diets for a period of 21 d. Fibula ash (mg) was regressed against supplemental inorganic P (iP) intake (g) to establish the standard curve, from which phytase treatments were compared to determine P-releasing efficacy. The basal diet was a corn-soybean meal diet with no supplemental P (21% CP, 0.075% estimated available P, 130 mg of Zn/kg, as-fed basis). Diets included three graded levels of supplemental iP (0, 0.075, 0.150%) from reagent-grade KH2PO4, two levels of phytase (500 and 1,000 FTU/kg) from EcoPhos, 1,500 mg of Zn/kg from either Waelz ZnO or basic Zn chloride (Zn5Cl2(OH)8), and all combinations of phytase and Zn. One phytase unit (FTU) was defined as the amount of enzyme required to release 1 micromol of iP per minute from sodium phytate at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Phytase supplementation improved (P < 0.01) weight gain, G:F, and fibula ash (% and mg). Bone ash (mg) was highest (P < 0.01) for pigs fed diets containing 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase. Supplemental Zn had no effect (P > 0.50) on growth performance, but decreased (P < 0.05) fibula ash (mg). Comparison of the phytase treatments to the standard curve (r2 = 0.87) revealed P-release values of 0.130 and 0.195% for 500 and 1,000 FTU of phytase/kg, respectively, in the absence of Zn, whereas in the presence of Zn (pooled), P-release values were decreased (P < 0.01) to 0.092 and 0.132%, respectively. The effects of high levels of supplemental Zn (basic Zn chloride) and Cu (CuSO4 x 5H2O) on phytase efficacy also were investigated in a 12-d chick trial. Dietary treatments were arranged according to a 2(3) factorial, with two levels each of supplemental phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg from EcoPhos), Zn (0 and 800 mg/kg), and Cu (0 and 200 mg/kg). There was a phytase x Zn interaction (P < 0.01) for tibia ash. Thus, Zn supplementation decreased tibia ash in the presence, but not in the absence, of phytase. Supplemental Cu did not affect (P > 0.30) the response to phytase. These results suggest that pharmacological levels of Zn chelate the phytate complex, thereby decreasing its availability for hydrolysis by phytase.


Asunto(s)
6-Fitasa/metabolismo , Pollos/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacocinética , Porcinos/metabolismo , Zinc/farmacología , 6-Fitasa/química , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Desarrollo Óseo/efectos de los fármacos , Huesos/metabolismo , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cobre/farmacología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Absorción Intestinal , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 24(4): 341-51, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12742551

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential immunological benefit of adding menhaden fish oil to the diet of weaned pigs. Twenty-four crossbred male pigs were weaned at approximately 18 days of age and placed on a complex nursery diet containing 30% lactose and 7% plasma protein with 6% corn oil as the fat source (Cont, n=12) or with 5% menhaden fish oil and 1% corn oil as the fat source (MFO, n=12) for a period of 15 days. Body weights did not differ (P>0.78) between dietary groups either at the beginning or end of the 15 days feeding period. On day 15, all pigs were non-surgically fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter. On d 16, pigs received an i.v. injection of either saline (n=6/dietary group) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg body weight; n=6/dietary group) and blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals for a period of 5h. Serum was harvested and stored at -80 degrees C for analysis of cortisol (CS), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). There was no significant effect of diet on basal concentrations (Time 0) of any of the blood parameters analyzed. A Time x Treatment x Diet interaction (P<0.03) was observed for serum CS such that those pigs which consumed the MFO diet followed by LPS treatment had a reduced CS response as compared to the LPS-treated pigs on the Cont diet. A Time x Treatment interaction (P<0.01) was observed for serum CBG such that LPS treatment reduced circulating CBG as compared to the saline-treated pigs. Time x Treatment x Diet interactions were also observed for serum concentrations of TNF-alpha (P=0.084) and IFN-gamma (P=0.022) such that both the TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma response to the LPS challenge was lower in those pigs receiving the MFO diet as compared to the LPS-treated pigs on the Cont diet. Overall, serum CS was negatively correlated with the CBG response (r=-0.40, P<0.001), however, the strongest negative correlation was observed in the LPS-treated pigs which consumed the MFO diet (r=-0.63, P<0.001). While further studies are needed to evaluate the immunological response of including MFO in the nursery pig diet, the present study demonstrates that supplementation with MFO does indeed alter the immunological response to an LPS challenge.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/inmunología , Animales , Proteínas Sanguíneas/administración & dosificación , Peso Corporal , Aceite de Maíz , Escherichia coli , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Interferón gamma/sangre , Cinética , Lactosa/administración & dosificación , Plasma , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Transcortina/análisis , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis , Destete
9.
J Anim Sci ; 78(6): 1529-36, 2000 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10875635

RESUMEN

A genetically modified corn hybrid homozygous for the lpa1 allele, containing low phytate (LP), and its nearly isogenic equivalent hybrid (normal) were compared in two experiments with growing-finishing swine. In Exp. 1, 210 barrows (27 kg) were allotted to one of six dietary treatments with two corn hybrids (LP and normal) and three P feeding regimens. There were five replicate pens (seven pigs/pen) per treatment. Treatments consisted of diets that were supplemented with P throughout the growing-finishing period (.2% P and .15% supplemental P during growing and finishing phases, respectively) or only during the growing phase (.2% supplemental P) or that were not supplemented with P throughout the growing-finishing period. Performance at the end of the growing phase was based on a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two corn hybrids and two levels of added P (0 and .2%). This resulted in 10 replicates for the treatments supplemented with .2% P. The finishing phase (73 to 112 kg) was a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with the two types of corn and three regimens of added P during the finishing period. Breaking load (BL) and ash of the fourth metacarpal were evaluated from one pig/pen at the end of the growing phase and from all pigs after slaughter. Pigs fed the LP corn diet without added P had greater body weight gain, feed efficiency, BL, and ash content of the fourth metacarpal than pigs fed the normal corn diet without added P. Performance was similar between pigs fed the LP diet without added P and pigs fed LP and normal corn with added P. In Exp. 2, 1,092 gilts (34 kg body weight) were allotted by weight in a commercial facility to one of three treatments: 1) normal corn/soybean meal diet containing .29% and .22% available P during the growing and finishing phases, respectively; 2) LP corn/soybean meal diet with the same available P level as Treatment 1; and 3) same as Treatment 2 for 8 wk, then no inorganic P supplementation during the finishing phase. All pigs were slaughtered at approximately 122 kg. There were no significant differences in growing-finishing performance or BL among treatments. However, pigs fed diets containing LP corn possessed carcasses with less backfat and a higher percentage of lean (P < .01). These results confirm that the P in LP corn is available to the pig and suggest that pigs fed diets containing this genetically modified corn will have more desirable carcasses.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Carne/normas , Ácido Fítico , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Zea mays/genética , Animales , Composición Corporal , Densidad Ósea , Femenino , Vivienda para Animales , Masculino , Fósforo Dietético/metabolismo
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