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1.
J Anim Sci ; 95(12): 5327-5338, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293749

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology, and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) to determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge following 20 d of ZH supplementation altered the blood chemistry profile in cattle. Crossbred heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), without ZH, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL; ZH at 8.33 mg/kg [DM basis] for 20 d). On d 20 of supplementation, heifers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters. On d 24, starting at 0800 h and continuing until 1600 h, blood samples were collected at 60-min intervals. At 1000 h, heifers received an i.v. bolus of CRH (0.3 µg/kg BW) and VP (1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Serum was separated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for a large-animal chemistry panel. Following the CRH/VP challenge, heifers were harvested on d 25, 26, and 27 (5, 6, and 7 d after ZH supplementation); BW, HCW, select organ weights, and histology were measured, and a total heart necropsy was performed. A treatment effect ( ≤ 0.02) was observed for Ca, K, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Zilpaterol-fed heifers had decreased ( ≤ 0.02) concentrations of Ca and K and increased concentrations ( 0.01) of creatinine ( = 0.02) during the CRH/VP challenge when compared to control heifers. Control heifers had greater ( ≤ 0.05) alkaline phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase concentrations when compared with ZIL heifers. A treatment × time interaction ( = 0.02) was observed for P; concentrations were similar between treatments from -2 to 6 h postchallenge, and 7 h postchallenge CON heifers had decreased P. Liver ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.08) weights as a percentage of BW tended ( ≤ 0.08) to be reduced in ZIL heifers. Gross liver weights tended ( = 0.08) to be lower in ZIL heifers. Other organ (heart, lung, adrenals) to BW ratios remained similar ( ≥ 0.41). These data suggest that there are some variations observed between treatments in terms of response to ZH supplementation and the CRH/VP challenge; however, in the environmental conditions of this study, limited variation in blood metabolic responses and organ weights suggests that the supplementation of ZH did not detrimentally alter the physiology of cattle.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Compuestos de Trimetilsililo/metabolismo , Vasopresinas/farmacología , Animales , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/veterinaria , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Distribución Aleatoria
2.
Nervenarzt ; 86(11): 1383-92, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25962345

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dependence disorders represent a large socioeconomic problem due to insufficient and delayed diagnostics and treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of the integrated care concept involving rapid clarification, diagnosis, initiation of withdrawal treatment, transfer to addiction rehabilitation and abstinence. METHODS: In this prospective observational study 293 patients with dependency disorders were investigated in an outpatient withdrawal treatment concept with respect to the course of the integrated care concept, sociodemographic data and other important variables of addiction. In a 2-year follow-up period abstinence (after t1 = 3, t2 = 12 and t3 = 24 months), referral to and beginning addiction rehabilitation were recorded. RESULTS: All patients completed the outpatient detoxification treatment concept without complications of whom 95.3% were abstinent and 52.9% could be placed in long-term treatment (duration 1 year). The 24-month abstinence (DGSS 4) was high but decreased significantly over time (t1 = 59.4%, t2 = 50.5%, t3 = 39.7%, p<0.001). Placement in a long-term rehabilitation program showed the greatest effect on abstinence (p<0.001), followed by treatment duration (p<0.001). The disease severity (stress index) showed significantly lower negative effects (p<0.01). DISCUSSION: The integrated care concept is an effective outpatient withdrawal treatment, despite the methodological limitations. Break points in the addiction help system are stabilized and patients can be successfully treated. The results are equivalent to a qualified inpatient withdrawal treatment taking the recommendations of the Federal Medical Council into consideration.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/rehabilitación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Comorbilidad , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
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