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Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(9): 1946-1957, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719434


BACKGROUND: Though it is well established that neonatal nutrition plays a major role in lifelong offspring health, the mechanisms underpinning this have not been well defined. Early postnatal accelerated growth resulting from maternal nutritional status is associated with increased appetite and body weight. Likewise, slow growth correlates with decreased appetite and body weight. Food consumption and food-seeking behaviour are directly modulated by central serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) pathways. This study examined the effect of a rat maternal postnatal low protein (PLP) diet on 5-HT receptor mediated food intake in offspring. METHODS: Microarray analyses, in situ hybridization or laser capture microdissection of the ARC followed by RT-PCR were used to identify genes up- or down-regulated in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) of 3-month-old male PLP rats. Third ventricle cannulation was used to identify altered sensitivity to serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists with respect to food intake. RESULTS: Male PLP offspring consumed less food and had lower growth rates up to 3 months of age compared with Control offspring from dams fed a normal diet. In total, 97 genes were upregulated including the 5-HT5A receptor (5-HT5AR) and 149 downregulated genes in PLP rats compared with Controls. The former obesity medication fenfluramine and the 5-HT receptor agonist 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) significantly suppressed food intake in both groups, but the PLP offspring were more sensitive to d-fenfluramine and 5-CT compared with Controls. The effect of 5-CT was antagonized by the 5-HT5AR antagonist SB699551. 5-CT also reduced NPY-induced hyperphagia in both Control and PLP rats but was more effective in PLP offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal low protein programming of growth in rats enhances the central effects of serotonin on appetite by increasing hypothalamic 5-HT5AR expression and sensitivity. These findings provide insight into the possible mechanisms through which a maternal low protein diet during lactation programs reduced growth and appetite in offspring.

Apetito/fisiología , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina , Animales , Dieta , Femenino , Masculino , Obesidad/metabolismo , Ratas , Receptores de Serotonina/genética , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
PeerJ ; 6: e4166, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29333341


BACKGROUND: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. METHODS: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control. Energy expenditure, food intake, body weight, fat mass, liver glycogen and lipid content were evaluated. Blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, lipids leptin and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured throughout the experiment. The effects of sage MetOH extract on lipolysis and lipogenesis were tested in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: After two weeks of treatment, the lower dose of sage MetOH extract decreased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). An insulin tolerance test (ITT), performed at day 29 confirmed that sage improved insulin sensitivity. Groups treated with low dose sage and rosiglitazone showed very similar effects on OGTT and ITT. Sage also improved HOMA-IR, triglycerides and NEFA. Treatment with the low dose increased the plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 and reduced the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, TNF-α, and KC/GRO. The GC analysis revealed the presence of two PPARs agonist in sage MetOH extract. In vitro, the extract reduced in a dose-related manner the accumulation of lipid droplets; however no effect on lipolysis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Sage MetOH extract at low dose exhibits similar effects to rosiglitazone. It improves insulin sensitivity, inhibits lipogenesis in adipocytes and reduces inflammation as judged by plasma cytokines. Sage presents an alternative to pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diabetes and associated inflammation.

Cell Metab ; 23(5): 821-36, 2016 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133129


Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology determining systemic energy homeostasis, the treatment of obesity remains a medical challenge. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed as an attractive strategy for the treatment of obesity and its complications. AMPK is a conserved, ubiquitously expressed, heterotrimeric serine/threonine kinase whose short-term activation has multiple beneficial metabolic effects. Whether these translate into long-term benefits for obesity and its complications is unknown. Here, we observe that mice with chronic AMPK activation, resulting from mutation of the AMPK γ2 subunit, exhibit ghrelin signaling-dependent hyperphagia, obesity, and impaired pancreatic islet insulin secretion. Humans bearing the homologous mutation manifest a congruent phenotype. Our studies highlight that long-term AMPK activation throughout all tissues can have adverse metabolic consequences, with implications for pharmacological strategies seeking to chronically activate AMPK systemically to treat metabolic disease.

Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/enzimología , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patología , Obesidad/enzimología , Adiposidad/genética , Adulto , Envejecimiento/patología , Proteína Relacionada con Agouti/metabolismo , Animales , Núcleo Arqueado del Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Activación Enzimática , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Hiperfagia/complicaciones , Hiperfagia/enzimología , Hiperfagia/genética , Hiperfagia/patología , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mutación/genética , Neuronas/metabolismo , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/patología , Fosforilación Oxidativa , Receptores de Ghrelina/metabolismo , Ribosomas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba/genética
Dis Model Mech ; 9(4): 401-12, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769798


Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus ofin uterogrowth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist.

Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT2A/metabolismo , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT2C/metabolismo , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Núcleo Arqueado del Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Arqueado del Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas en la Dieta/farmacología , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Fenfluramina/administración & dosificación , Fenfluramina/farmacología , Feto/efectos de los fármacos , Feto/metabolismo , Crecimiento y Desarrollo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/anatomía & histología , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Masculino , Neuronas/metabolismo , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Ratas Wistar , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Serotonina/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Triptófano/metabolismo