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1.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 23: 15347354231223966, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SPIRIT-TCM Extension 2018 was created to guide the design and reporting of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) clinical trial protocols. This study aims to investigate the extent of concordance with this guideline in the relevant field of cancer care research. METHODS: A scoping review of TCM cancer trial protocols published in English and Chinese since January 2019 was conducted. Five major academic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched. Concordance with the SPIRIT-TCM Extension 2018 was assessed by descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Fifty-three TCM cancer care trial protocols were identified, comprising 23 acupuncture, 26 Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), and 4 Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) interventions. The majority of the checklist items had a low rate of concordance, especially in the reporting of quality control and safety, dosage, TCM diagnostic patterns, possible interactions between Western Medicine and TCM interventions, and TCM-related outcome assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Although the SPIRIT-TCM Extension 2018 guideline was established through extensive Delphi consultation, there are low rates of concordance between published TCM cancer care clinical trial protocols with the guideline. Further research is necessary to understand the low rate of concordance and how scientific rigors of reporting can be improved in TCM cancer care research.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Neoplasias , Qigong , Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Protocolos de Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto
2.
Chin Herb Med ; 15(4): 509-515, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38094015

RESUMEN

The most common subtype of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which has a poor prognosis and seriously threatens the health of human beings. The multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment model has gradually become the mainstream of NSCLC treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can be used effectively either as an adjunctive therapy or alone throughout the NSCLC therapy, which has a significant impact on survival, quality of life, and reduction of toxicity. Therefore, this paper reviewed the theoretical basis, the latest clinical application, and combined treatment mechanisms in order to explore the advantage stage of TCM treatment and the synergistic therapeutic mechanisms.

3.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 25(6): 569-587, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995535

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients seek clinical guidance on mushroom supplements that can be given alongside conventional treatments, but most research on such fungi has been preclinical. The current systematic review focused on clinical studies of mushrooms in cancer care conducted in the past 10 years. We searched Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Scopus (Wiley), and Cochrane Library to identify all mushroom studies conducted in humans published from January 2010 through December 2020. Two authors independently assessed papers for inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: Of 136 clinical studies identified by screening 2349, 39 met inclusion criteria. The studies included 12 different mushroom preparations. A survival benefit was reported using Huaier granules (Trametes robiniophila Murr) in 2 hepatocellular carcinoma studies and 1 breast cancer study. A survival benefit was also found in 4 gastric cancer studies using polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK) in the adjuvant setting. Eleven studies reported a positive immunological response. Quality-of-life (QoL) improvement and/or reduced symptom burden was reported in 14 studies using various mushroom supplements. Most studies reported adverse effects of grade 2 or lower, mainly nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle pain. Limitations included small sample size and not using randomized controlled trial design. Many of the reviewed studies were small and observational. Most showed favorable effects of mushroom supplements in reducing the toxicity of chemotherapy, improving QoL, favorable cytokine response, and possibly better clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the evidence is inconclusive to recommend the routine use of mushrooms for cancer patients. More trials are needed to explore mushroom use during and after cancer treatment.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales , Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Calidad de Vida , Trametes , Náusea
4.
Trials ; 23(1): 9, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983588

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a common complication post radical prostatectomy. Acupuncture is considered an effective treatment for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI), but the evidence is still limited. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in a rigorously conducted trial. METHODS: Twenty hospitals will recruit 340 participants with urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy in China from April 2021 to April 2022. Participants will be randomly allocated to acupuncture or sham acupuncture with a 1:1 ratio using computerized simple random sampling. The study plan consists of 1-week baseline, 6-week treatment, and 18-week follow-up. Eighteen 30-min sessions of acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment will be provided between weeks 1 and 6. The primary outcome is the change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) score at the week 6 from the baseline. Secondary outcomes include the change in volume of urine leakage at weeks 4 and 6 from a baseline measured using the 1-h pad test; 72-h incontinence episode frequency based on a 72-h voiding diary; change in the Expanded prostate cancer Index Composite scale (EPIC-26); change in the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; weekly consumption of pads; and the severity of urinary incontinence based on a 72-h bladder diary and self-assessment of the therapeutic effect. The safety of acupuncture will also be assessed. DISCUSSION: This trial will help to identify whether acupuncture is effective for PPI, and, if so, whether it exerts a therapeutic rather than a placebo effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.Chictr.org.cn ChiCTR2100042500 . Retrospectively registered on 22 January 2021.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Incontinencia Urinaria , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Método Simple Ciego , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento , Incontinencia Urinaria/diagnóstico , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/terapia
5.
J Nat Prod ; 84(9): 2486-2495, 2021 09 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463097

RESUMEN

This study aims to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and identify important bioavailability barriers and pharmacological pathways of the key active components (KACs) of Antitumor B (ATB), a chemopreventive agent. KACs (matrine, dictamine, fraxinellone, and maackiain) of ATB were confirmed using the antiproliferative assay and COX-2 inhibition activities in oral cancer cells. The observed in vitro activities of KACs were consistent with their cell signaling pathways predicted using the in silico network pharmacology approach. The pharmacokinetics of KACs were determined after i.v., i.p., and p.o. delivery using ATB extract and a mixture of four KACs in mice. Despite good solubilities and permeabilities, poor oral bioavailabilities were estimated for all KACs, mostly because of first-pass metabolism in the liver (for all KACs) and intestines (for matrine and fraxinellone). Multiple-dose PK studies showed 23.2-fold and 8.5-fold accumulation of dictamine and maackiain in the blood, respectively. Moreover, saliva levels of dictamine and matrine were found significantly higher than their blood levels. In conclusion, the systemic bioavailabilities of ATB-KACs were low, but significant levels of dictamine and matrine were found in saliva upon repeated oral administration. Significant salivary concentrations of matrine justified its possible use as a drug-monitoring tool to track patient compliance during chemoprevention trials.


Asunto(s)
Disponibilidad Biológica , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacocinética , Neoplasias de la Boca/prevención & control , Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Animales , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Quimioprevención , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Estructura Molecular , Farmacología en Red , Pterocarpanos/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinolizinas/farmacocinética , Matrinas
6.
Case Rep Oncol ; 14(1): 224-231, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, and for advanced HCC the prognosis is poor. Preliminary studies indicate mistletoe extracts may have anticancer activity for HCC. METHODS: A prospective observational case series of advanced HCC patients that chose to take a mistletoe extract called viscum fraxini-2 (VF-2) alone for treatment. Time on treatment, imaging, and laboratory values were collected for descriptive analyses. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients with advanced HCC enrolled onto the protocol, and 10 patients had data available for evaluation. The majority were male (10/12) with a median age of 64 (SD 11). Most patients had received sorafenib therapy (9/12) and had varying Child-Pugh classes (A-4, B-6, C-2). Treatment with VF-2 ranged from 1 to 36 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks (SD 12). Six patients received 8 weeks of treatment, and 3 patients received 12 or more weeks of treatment. For patients that received at least 4 weeks of treatment, the average AFP value stabilized during the first 4 weeks of treatment. Two patients experienced an AFP decrease of >30%, approximately 37 and 40% decreases at the nadir. One patient had stable disease of 9 months. Major side effects were fever, fatigue, rash, and local injection site reaction of swelling, redness, and tenderness. CONCLUSION: This case series of advanced HCC indicates that mistletoe extract VF-2 may have potential biological activity against HCC for selected patients. Research is needed to identify the active compound and predictive markers of response.

7.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(3)2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448320

RESUMEN

Radix Astragali (RA) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and astragaloside IV (AS­IV) is the most critical component of RA. Previous studies have demonstrated that AS­IV exerts effects on the myocardium, nervous system and endocrine system, among others. In the present review article, data from studies conducted over the past 20 years were collated, which have evaluated the effects of AS­IV on tumors. The mechanisms of action of AS­IV on malignant cells both in vivo and in vitro were summarized and it was demonstrated that AS­IV plays a vital role, particularly in inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, promoting the apoptosis of tumor cells, enhancing immune function and preventing drug resistance. Moreover, AS­IV controls several epithelial­mesenchymal transformation (EMT)­related and autophagy­related pathways, such as the phosphoinositide­3­kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), Wnt/ß­catenin, mitogen­activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and transforming growth factor­ß (TGF­ß)/SMAD signaling pathways, which are commonly affected in the majority of tumors. The present review provides new perspectives on the functions of AS­IV and its role as an adjuvant treatment in cancer chemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias , Saponinas/uso terapéutico , Triterpenos/uso terapéutico , Vía de Señalización Wnt/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología
8.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420940398, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975128

RESUMEN

Studies have demonstrated that purported biofield therapy emitted from humans can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and suppress tumor growth in various cancers. We explored the effects of biofield therapy on tumor growth in the Lewis lung carcinoma and expanded mechanistic outcomes. We found biofield therapy did not inhibit tumor growth. However, the experimental (Ex) condition exposed tumors had a significantly higher percentage of necrosis (24.4 ± 6.8%) compared with that of the Control condition (6.5 ± 2.7%; P < .02) and cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were almost 2.3-fold higher (P < .05). Similarly, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes profiling showed that CD8+/CD45+ immune cell population was significantly increased by 2.7-fold in Ex condition (P < .01) whereas the number of intratumoral FoxP3+/CD4+ (T-reg cells) was 30.4% lower than that of the Control group (P = .01), leading to a significant 3.1-fold increase in the ratio of CD8+/T-reg cells (P < .01). Additionally, there was a 51% lower level of strongly stained CD68+ cells (P < .01), 57.9% lower level of F4/80high/CD206+ (M2 macrophages; P < .02) and a significant 1.8-fold increase of the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages (P < .02). Furthermore, Ex exposure resulted in a 15% reduction of stem cell marker CD44 and a significant 33% reduction of SOX2 compared with that of the Controls (P < .02). The Ex group also engaged in almost 50% less movement throughout the session than the Controls. These findings suggest that exposure to purported biofields from a human is capable of enhancing cancer cell death, in part mediated through modification of the tumor microenvironment and stemness of tumor cells in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma model. Future research should focus on defining the optimal treatment duration, replication with different biofield therapists, and exploring the mechanisms of action.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animales , Humanos , Pulmón , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfocitos Infiltrantes de Tumor , Ratones , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(4): 690-702, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744037

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical studies on correlations between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) body constitution types and diseases published in the past 10 years, and to provide an evidence base to support the use of such correlations for health maintenance and disease prevention. METHODS: We searched five databases for the period April 2009 to December 2019: China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, PubMed and Embase. Three types of observational studies on correlation between constitution types and diseases were included: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies. Descriptive statistical methods were employed for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1639 clinical studies were identified: 1452 (88.59%) cross-sectional studies, 115 (7.02%) case-control studies and 72 (4.39%) cohort studies covering 30 regions of China and five other countries (Malaysia, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and France). The collection of studies comprised 19 disease categories and 333 different diseases. The 10 most commonly studied diseases were hypertension, diabetes, stroke, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAHD), sleep disorders, neoplasm of the breast, dysmenorrhea, fatty liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis B and dyslipidemia. We found high distributions for each biased constitution type in different patient populations as follows: Qi-deficiency constitution in stroke, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hypertension; Yang-deficiency constitution in female infertility, osteoporosis, irritable bowel syndrome, gonarthrosis and dysmenorrhea; Yin-deficiency constitution in hypertension, diabetes, constipation, female climacteric states and osteoporosis; phlegm- dampness constitution in hypertension, stroke, fatty liver disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome; damp-heat constitution in acne, chronic gastritis, chronic viral hepatitis B, human papillomavirus infection and hyperuricemia; blood-stasis constitution in CAHD, endometriosis and stroke; Qi-stagnation constitution in hyperplasia and neoplasms of the breast, insomnia, depression and thyroid nodules; and inherited-special constitution in asthma and allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Eight biased TCM constitutions were closely related to specific diseases, and could be used to guide individualized prevention and treatment. More rigorously designed studies are recommended to further verify the constitution-disease relationship.


Asunto(s)
Quimioterapia , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional China , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1916910, 2019 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808921

RESUMEN

Importance: Radiation-induced xerostomia (RIX) is a common, often debilitating, adverse effect of radiation therapy among patients with head and neck cancer. Quality of life can be severely affected, and current treatments have limited benefit. Objective: To determine if acupuncture can prevent RIX in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-center, phase 3, randomized clinical trial compared a standard care control (SCC) with true acupuncture (TA) and sham acupuncture (SA) among patients with oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were undergoing radiation therapy in comprehensive cancer centers in the United States and China. Patients were enrolled between December 16, 2011, and July 7, 2015. Final follow-up was August 15, 2016. Analyses were conducted February 1 through 28, 2019. Intervention: Either TA or SA using a validated acupuncture placebo device was performed 3 times per week during a 6- to 7-week course of radiation therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was RIX, as determined by the Xerostomia Questionnaire in which a higher score indicates worse RIX, for combined institutions 1 year after radiation therapy ended. Secondary outcomes included incidence of clinically significant xerostomia (score >30), salivary flow, quality of life, salivary constituents, and role of baseline expectancy related to acupuncture on outcomes. Results: Of 399 patients randomized, 339 were included in the final analysis (mean [SD] age, 51.3 [11.7] years; age range, 21-79 years; 258 [77.6%] men), including 112 patients in the TA group, 115 patients in the SA group, and 112 patients in the SCC group. For the primary aim, the adjusted least square mean (SD) xerostomia score in the TA group (26.6 [17.7]) was significantly lower than in the SCC group (34.8 [18.7]) (P = .001; effect size = -0.44) and marginally lower but not statistically significant different from the SA group (31.3 [18.6]) (P = .06; effect size = -0.26). Incidence of clinically significant xerostomia 1 year after radiation therapy ended followed a similar pattern, with 38 patients in the TA group (34.6%), 54 patients in the SA group (47.8%), and 60 patients in the SCC group (55.1%) experiencing clinically significant xerostomia (P = .009). Post hoc comparisons revealed a significant difference between the TA and SCC groups at both institutions, but TA was significantly different from SA only at Fudan University Cancer Center, Shanghai, China (estimated difference [SE]: TA vs SCC, -9.9 [2.5]; P < .001; SA vs SCC, -1.7 [2.5]; P = .50; TA vs SA, -8.2 [2.5]; P = .001), and SA was significantly different from SCC only at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (estimated difference [SE]: TA vs SCC, -8.1 [3.4]; P = .016; SA vs SCC, -10.5 [3.3]; P = .002; TA vs SA, 2.4 [3.2]; P = .45). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that TA resulted in significantly fewer and less severe RIX symptoms 1 year after treatment vs SCC. However, further studies are needed to confirm clinical relevance and generalizability of this finding and to evaluate inconsistencies in response to sham acupuncture between patients in the United States and China. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01266044.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Traumatismos por Radiación/terapia , Xerostomía/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Xerostomía/etiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 18: 1534735419840797, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947564

RESUMEN

Biofield therapies have gained popularity and are being explored as possible treatments for cancer. In some cases, devices have been developed that mimic the electromagnetic fields that are emitted from people delivering biofield therapies. However, there is limited research examining if humans could potentially inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and suppress tumor growth through modification of inflammation and the immune system. We found that human NSCLC A549 lung cancer cells exposed to Sean L. Harribance, a purported healer, showed reduced viability and downregulation of pAkt. We further observed that the experimental exposure slowed growth of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma evidenced by significantly smaller tumor volume in the experimental mice (274.3 ± 188.9 mm3) than that of control mice (740.5 ± 460.2 mm3; P < .05). Exposure to the experimental condition markedly reduced tumoral expression of pS6, a cytosolic marker of cell proliferation, by 45% compared with that of the control group. Results of reversed phase proteomic array suggested that the experimental exposure downregulated the PD-L1 expression in the tumor tissues. Similarly, the serum levels of cytokines, especially MCP-1, were significantly reduced in the experimental group ( P < .05). Furthermore, TILs profiling showed that CD8+/CD4- immune cell population was increased by almost 2-fold in the experimental condition whereas the number of intratumoral CD25+/CD4+ (T-reg cells) and CD68+ macrophages were 84% and 33%, respectively, lower than that of the control group. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to purported biofields from a human is capable of suppressing tumor growth, which might be in part mediated through modification of the tumor microenvironment, immune function, and anti-inflammatory activity in our mouse lung tumor model.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma/patología , Proliferación Celular/fisiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Células A549 , Animales , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/patología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Pulmón/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfocitos T Reguladores/patología , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiología
12.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 18: 1534735419846377, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030593

RESUMEN

Quxie capsule (QX), a herbal remedy used in traditional Chinese medicine, is routinely used in advanced colorectal cancer treatment in Xiyuan Hospital in Beijing, China. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the effect of QX in colorectal cancer remain unclear, which hampers the optimal use of QX for the treatment of the disease. The transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) plays important roles in regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, and immune response in various cancers. In this study, we examined the antitumor efficacy of QX in a mouse model of colorectal cancer and further investigated the mechanism by which QX regulated Foxo1 protein-mediated pathways. QX administered via gavage daily for 2 weeks in mice carrying CT26 mouse colon tumors resulted in significantly lower mean tumor weight (0.93 ± 0.32 g) compared with that in vehicle control-treated mice (1.57 ± 0.57 g, P <.05). Foxo1 protein expression in tumors was also higher in the QX group than that in the vehicle control group. Furthermore, QX treatment upregulated apoptotic proteins such as Fas, Bim, and cleaved caspase-3 in tumor tissue compared with those in the vehicle control group. Intriguingly, the ratios of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells and levels of T-bet protein (the key regulator of Th1 and Th2 cells) were higher while the level of Foxp3 (the key regulator of Treg cells) was lower in QX-treated mice compared to vehicle control mice, revealing that Foxo1 upregulated T-bet and downregulated Foxp3 and induced a shift in immune balance. This shift could be critical in the antitumor efficacy of QX. Furthermore, knocking down Foxo1 in human colon cancer HCT116 cells partially blocked the effect of QX-elicited antiproliferative activity. Together, these results suggest that QX exerts antitumor activity in CT26 mouse colon cancer model partially mediated by Foxo1-induced apoptosis and antitumor immune response.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Cápsulas/farmacología , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Inmunomodulación/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , China , Neoplasias del Colon/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Regulación hacia Abajo/efectos de los fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Ratones , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6428, 2019 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015523

RESUMEN

Mistletoe (Viscum album) is a type of parasitic plant reported to have anticancer activity including in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism of mistletoe's anticancer activity, and its effectiveness in treating HCC are not fully understood. We report here that mistletoe extracts, including Fraxini (grown on ash trees) and Iscador Q and M (grown on oak and maple trees), exert strong antiproliferative activity in Hep3B cells, with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 0.5 µg/mL, 7.49 µg/mL, and 7.51 µg/mL, respectively. Results of Reversed Phase Proteomic Array analysis (RPPA) suggests that Fraxini substantially down-regulates c-Myc expression in Hep3B cells. Fraxini-induced growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1.25 µg/ml) was less pronounced in c-Myc knockdown Hep3B cells than in control cells. Furthermore, in the Hep3B xenograft model, Fraxini-treated (8 mg/kg body weight) mice had significantly smaller tumors (34.6 ± 11.9 mm3) than control mice (161.6 ± 79.4 mm3, p < 0.036). Similarly, c-Myc protein expression was reduced in Fraxini treated Hep3B cell xenografts compared to that of control mice. The reduction of c-Myc protein levels in vitro Hep3B cells appears to be mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our results suggest the importance of c-Myc in Fraxini's antiproliferative activity, which warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-myc/genética , Viscum album/química , Animales , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Hepatocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Hepatocitos/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Lectinas de Plantas/aislamiento & purificación , Complejo de la Endopetidasa Proteasomal/efectos de los fármacos , Complejo de la Endopetidasa Proteasomal/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-myc/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-myc/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Carga Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
14.
Medicines (Basel) ; 5(2)2018 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890675

RESUMEN

Evidence of the health and wellbeing benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong (TQ) have emerged in the past two decades, but TQ is underutilized in modern health care in Western countries due to lack of promotion and the availability of professionally qualified TQ instructors. To date, there are no government regulations for TQ instructors or for training institutions in China and Western countries, even though TQ is considered to be a part of Traditional Chinese medicine that has the potential to manage many chronic diseases. Based on an integrative health care approach, the accreditation standard guideline initiative for TQ instructors and training institutions was developed in collaboration with health professionals, integrative medicine academics, Tai Chi and Qigong master instructors and consumers including public safety officers from several countries, such as Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Korea, Sweden and USA. In this paper, the rationale for organizing the Medical Tai Chi and Qigong Association (MTQA) is discussed and the accreditation standard guideline for TQ instructors and training institutions developed by the committee members of MTQA is presented. The MTQA acknowledges that the proposed guidelines are broad, so that the diversity of TQ instructors and training institutions can be integrated with recognition that these guidelines can be developed with further refinement. Additionally, these guidelines face challenges in understanding the complexity of TQ associated with different principles, philosophies and schools of thought. Nonetheless, these guidelines represent a necessary first step as primary resource to serve and guide health care professionals and consumers, as well as the TQ community.

15.
Oncol Rep ; 37(6): 3287-3296, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440448

RESUMEN

Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of MRGX, we performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in the A549 cells. Molecular mechanisms that were associated with the anticancer activity of MRGX were studied, with a special focus on the autophagy-related multiple signaling pathways in lung cancer cells. Microarray analyses elucidated autophagy-related genes affected by MRGX. Administration of MRGX at 100 µg/ml induced punctate cytoplasmic expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and ATG5 and increased expression of endogenous LC3-II whereas 50 µg/ml did not inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. Compared to the control cells, in cells treated with MRGX at 100 µg/ml, the level of p-Akt was increased, while that of mTOR-4EBP1 was decreased. Downregulation of mTOR and 4EBP1 in the MRGX-treated cells was found not to be a p-Ulk (S757)-dependent pathway, but a p-Ulk (S317)-dependent autophagic pathway, using AMPK. These data suggest that MRGX regulates AMPK and induces autophagy in lung cancer cells.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Células A549 , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/genética , Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , Beclina-1/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Proteínas Asociadas a Microtúbulos/genética , Panax/química , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Extractos Vegetales/química , Saponinas/genética , Saponinas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/genética
16.
J Altern Complement Med ; 23(8): 632-638, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease with an inverse relationship between kidney function and levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects on the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to study the effects of a supplement containing curcumin and B. serrata on eicosanoid derivatives in early stage CKD patients who had not initiated hemodialysis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with stage 2 and stage 3 CKD (56.0 ± 16.0 years, 171.4 ± 11.9 cm, 99.3 ± 20.2 kg) were randomized into a treatment group with curcumin and B. serrata or a placebo group. The dependent variables prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, 12-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid were measured both before and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Results were analyzed by using a repeated-measures analysis of covariance for compliance and body-mass index. RESULTS: A significant group effect (p = 0.05), and a trend for Group × Time interaction (p = 0.056) were detected for PGE2. No significant differences were observed for any other variables. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first article of baseline levels of the dependent variables in early stage CKD, and the first article to show a significant effect of these supplements on PGE2 in early stage CKD. Further studies are needed to determine whether curcumin and B. serrata may be effective means to reduce inflammation in patients with CKD.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Boswellia/química , Curcumina/química , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Eicosanoides/sangre , Humanos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(8): 13440-13449, 2017 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088780

RESUMEN

It is common for cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study was designed to explore China's oncologists' knowledge, attitudes and clinical practices regarding CAM use by their patients. An online survey was conducted of China's oncologists. Among 11,270 participants who completed the online survey, 6,007 (53.3%) were identified as oncologists. Most were men (75.2%), with a mean age of 33.4 (standard deviation: 6.5) years. The 6,007 oncologists discussed with 36.5% of their patients about CAM. Most of them (75.6%) did not want to initiate discussions due to lack of knowledge on CAM. Oncologists estimated that 40.0% of their patients used CAM treatments. Oncologists reported that 28.7% of their patients underwent anticancer therapy with the concurrent use of CAM. Four out of five of the responding oncologists self-reported inadequate knowledge and only 22.0% reported receiving professional education on CAM. Nearly half (44.9%) of the oncologists believed CAM treatment was effective for symptoms and treatment of cancer. Physician factors associated with initiating discussions with patients about CAM use included sex, age (≥ 33 years), medical license for traditional Chinese medicine, enough knowledge and professional education experience. China's oncologists infrequently discussed with their patients about CAM due to lack of knowledge. Most of the oncologists did not encourage CAM use.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Oncología Médica , Medicina Tradicional China , Médicos , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 16(1): 3-20, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological research demonstrates that there is an association between lifestyle factors and risk of breast cancer recurrence, progression of disease, and mortality, no comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trials have been conducted to determine if changing multiple risk factors leads to changes in biobehavioral processes and clinical outcomes in women with breast cancer. This article describes the design, feasibility, adherence to the intervention and data collection, and patient experience of a comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trial (CompLife). METHODS: CompLife is a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-behavior intervention focusing on diet, exercise, and mind-body practice along with behavioral counseling to support change. The initial exposure to the intervention takes place during the 4 to 6 weeks of radiotherapy (XRT) for women with stage III breast cancer and then across the subsequent 12 months. The intervention group will have 42 hours of in-person lifestyle counseling during XRT (7-10 hours a week) followed by up to 30 hours of counseling via video connection for the subsequent 12 months (weekly sessions for 6 months and then monthly for 6 months). The primary outcome is disease-free survival. Multiple secondary outcomes are being evaluated, including: (1) biological pathways; (2) overall survival; (3) patient-reported outcomes; (4) dietary patterns/fitness levels, anthropometrics, and body composition; and (5) economic outcomes. Qualitative data of the patient experience in the trial is collected from exit interviews, concluding remarks, direct email correspondences, and web postings from patients. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients have been recruited and randomized to the trial to date. Accrual of eligible patients is high (72%) and dropout rates extremely low (5%). Attendance to the in-person sessions is high (95% attending greater than 80% of sessions) as well as to the 30 hours of video counseling (88% attending more than 70% of sessions). Adherence to components of the behavior change intervention is high and compliance with the intensive amount of data collection is exceptional. Qualitative data collected from the participants reveals testimonials supporting the importance of the comprehensive nature of intervention, especially the mind-body/mindfulness component and social support, and meaningful lifestyle transformations. CONCLUSION: Conducting a comprehensive, multicomponent, lifestyle change clinical trial for women with breast was feasible and collection of biobehavioral outcomes successful. Adherence to behavior change was high and patient experience was overwhelmingly positive.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Consejo/métodos , Dieta/psicología , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/psicología , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología
19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 9(9): 750-7, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27339171

RESUMEN

A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model that allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1-null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in AA, PGE2, 6-keto PGF1α, TXB2, and EdU-positive proliferative cells in the colon. In subsequent experiments, null mice supplemented with 0.6% AA diet were injected with a colon-specific carcinogen (azoxymethane) in order to assess cancer susceptibility. Null mice exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) reduced levels/multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as compared with wild-type sibling littermate control mice. These data indicate that (i) basal/minimal dietary AA supplementation (0.6%) expands the utility of the Fads1-null mouse model for long-term cancer prevention studies and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 750-7. ©2016 AACR.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Araquidónico/metabolismo , Neoplasias del Colon/fisiopatología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Animales , Neoplasias del Colon/metabolismo , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Ácido Graso Desaturasas/deficiencia , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25626, 2016 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172999

RESUMEN

We previously reported neuroprotective activity of the botanical anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, in brain slice and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. We showed that one component of this neuroprotective activity is mediated through its principal cardiac glycoside constituent, oleandrin, via induction of the potent neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, we also noted that the concentration-relation for PBI-05204 in the brain slice oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model is considerably broader than that for oleandrin as a single agent. We thus surmised that PBI-05204 contains an additional neuroprotective component(s), distinct from oleandrin. We report here that neuroprotective activity is also provided by the triterpenoid constituents of PBI-05204, notably oleanolic acid. We demonstrate that a sub-fraction of PBI-05204 (Fraction 0-4) containing oleanolic and other triterpenoids, but without cardiac glycosides, induces the expression of cellular antioxidant gene transcription programs regulated through antioxidant transcriptional response elements (AREs). Finally, we show that Fraction 0-4 provides broad neuroprotection in organotypic brain slice models for neurodegeneration driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau implicated in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementias, respectively, in addition to ischemic injury modeled by OGD.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos Heterocíclicos de 4 o más Anillos/farmacología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antineoplásicos/química , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Nerium/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacología , Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
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