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1.
J Clin Oncol ; 5(3): 354-64, 1987 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3819804

RESUMEN

Fifty-nine evaluable patients under 65 years of age with measurable metastatic breast cancer and without prior chemotherapy were randomly assigned to treatment with fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Adria Laboratories, Columbus, OH), and cyclophosphamide (FAC) at standard or high doses (100% to 260% higher than standard FAC) following a dose escalation schedule. Patients randomized to the high-dose FAC received the first three cycles of therapy within a protected environment. Subsequent cycles for this group were administered at standard doses of FAC in an ambulatory setting, the same as for the control group. After reaching 450 mg/m2 of Adriamycin, patients in both groups continued treatment with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil until there was disease progression. Analysis of pretreatment patient characteristics showed an even distribution for most known pretreatment factors, although the control group had slightly (but nonsignificantly) more favorable prognostic characteristics. Fourteen patients (24%) achieved a complete remission (CR) and 32 (54%) achieved a partial remission (PR), for an overall major response rate of 78%. There were no differences in overall, CR, or PR rates between the high-dose FAC and control groups. The median response durations were 11 and 10 months for the protected environment and control groups, respectively, and the median survival was 20 months for both groups. Hematologic, gastrointestinal (GI), and infection-related complications were significantly more frequent and severe in the group treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Stomatitis, diarrhea, and skin toxicity were dose-limiting. However, there were no treatment-related deaths. High-dose induction combination chemotherapy with the agents used in this study failed to increase the response rate or survival duration, and resulted in a substantial increase in toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Evaluación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución Aleatoria , Riesgo
2.
J Clin Oncol ; 5(2): 178-84, 1987 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3543241

RESUMEN

To test the hypothesis of whether high doses of chemotherapy in combination achieve higher response rates and longer durations of response and survival, we treated 33 pre- and perimenopausal patients with good performance status in a prospective trial with escalating doses of fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC). Patients were randomly assigned to be treated within a protected environment (laminar air flow room), with prophylactic antibiotics, or in a standard hospital room. Important patient characteristics were equally distributed in the two treatment arms. A major objective response was observed in 27 of the 32 evaluable patients (84%), and 11 (34%) achieved a complete remission (CR). There was no significant difference in overall and complete response rates between the two treatment arms, nor was there a substantial difference in times to progression or survival between the groups treated in or out of the protected environment. Comparison of the results of this study with previously reported programs of FAC chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer shows that this study achieved higher overall and complete response rates. However, neither the time to progression, nor the survival of responders or the entire patient group was different from our previous experience with standard FAC chemotherapy. When the study was initiated in 1976, the proposed dose escalation represented high-dose chemotherapy. In retrospect, even the "high" doses used in this study represent only a modest increase over standard doses of chemotherapy. Much steeper dose escalations will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer, as well as the protective value of the protected environment and prophylactic antibiotics in metastatic breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Ambiente Controlado , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Premedicación , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución Aleatoria , Inducción de Remisión , Factores de Tiempo
3.
Cancer ; 53(3): 384-9, 1984 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6362814

RESUMEN

Between May 1977 and April 1980, 238 patients with operable breast cancer were treated with adjuvant fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) chemotherapy. All patients were randomized to receive FAC alone or FAC with nonspecific immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. A randomization for routine postoperative irradiation was included in the study in May 1978. At the median follow-up of 33 months, 53 patients had developed recurrent disease. Up to the present time, there have been no significant differences in the disease-free survival of patients treated with FAC alone from those treated with FAC + BCG (P = 0.21). The disease-free survival for patients treated with and without routine postoperative irradiation was similar (P = 0.99). Disease-free survival of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was similar. The overall estimate of disease-free survival was 72% at 3 years.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución Aleatoria
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 9(5): 643-50, 1983 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6343312

RESUMEN

Fifty-two patients with locally advanced primary breast cancer (T3, T4, N2, N3) but no evidence of distant metastases were treated with three cycles of combination chemotherapy. The regimen consisted of 5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (FAC-BCG), followed by local therapy (simple mastectomy and/or radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall and the regional lymphatic system) and adjuvant chemotherapy for two full years. The results were compared with those in an historical control group of 52 patients matched for initial stage of disease who were treated by a simple mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy only. Forty-nine (94%) of 52 FAC-treated patients and 48 (92%) of the control patients became free of clinically detectable disease. At the median follow-up time of 56 months, 37.5% of the FAC-treated patients and 19.5% of the control patients had remained free of disease. FAC-treated patients who completed 2 years of therapy and in whom adjuvant chemotherapy was started promptly after local treatment had a 48% disease-free survival rate of 4 years. In those in whom the initial manifestation was supraclavicular involvement, the estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate was 42% for patients treated with FAC and 9% for control patients. There were local recurrences in 25% of FAC-treated patients and 23% of control patients (not significant). Distant metastases developed in 50% of FAC-treated patients and 77% of control patients (p less than 0.01). The median disease-free interval was 25 months in the FAC-treated group and 11 months in the control group (p = 0.025). The greatest improvement in prognosis was in patients with supraclavicular involvement; the median disease-free survival was 26 months in FAC-treated patients and 6 months in the control group (p = 0.007). This multimodal approach effectively renders the majority of patients with locoregionally advanced breast cancer free of disease and prolongs the disease-free survival period.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Mastectomía , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Cancer ; 51(5): 763-8, 1983 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6687377

RESUMEN

Fifty-two patients with locally advanced primary breast cancer (T3, T4/N2, N3) without distant metastases were treated with three cycles of combination chemotherapy consisting of 5-FU, Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) and immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) followed by local therapy (simple mastectomy and/or radiotherapy to breast/chest wall and regional lymphatics) and adjuvant chemotherapy to complete two years of treatment. Forty-nine of 52 (94%) patients were rendered free of clinically detectable disease. The median disease-free interval was 24 months. At a median follow-up time of 60 months, 40% of patients remained free of disease, off all therapy. Those patients who completed two years of therapy and started adjuvant chemotherapy promptly after local treatment had a 48% disease-free survival at five years. Local recurrences were observed in 21% of patients. Distant metastases developed in 40% of patients. Despite good tolerance, treatment compliance was poor. The complete remission rate with this multimodal approach is high and long-term disease-free survival is achieved in a considerable number of patients.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Pronóstico
6.
Cancer ; 47(12): 2798-802, 1981 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7260870

RESUMEN

Sixty-two patients with breast cancer treated with Adriamycin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy developed recurrent disease. Four patients refused to take any form of systemic therapy at the time of relapse. Fifty-eight patients were managed with various treatment modalities, and of these 33 (57%) achieved on objective remission, 11 (19%) had stable disease and 14 patients (24%) did not respond to any form of therapy. Twenty-four patients received more than one treatment modality. Thirty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 35 received endocrine therapy. Eight of 20 patients (40%) achieved objective remission upon retreatment with higher dose of 5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide at time of relapse, and seven of 18 patients (38%) treated with other chemotherapeutic agents showed objective remission. Fourteen of 35 patients (40%) achieved objective remission with hormonal therapies. The median survival from first relapse was 15 months for all patients, and was 25.7 months for responding patients. Survival was significantly longer in asymptomatic patients compared with those who were symptomatic from recurrent disease.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Castración , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamoxifeno/administración & dosificación
7.
J Surg Oncol ; 18(2): 163-72, 1981.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7300363

RESUMEN

In an attempt to prolong the durations of remission and survival of patients with advanced breast cancer treated with the FAC-BCG protocol, we modified the CMF maintenance combination by increasing the dose of all three drugs and administering them intravenously. Eighty-five evaluable patients treated with this new regimen were compared with a recent historical control group of 105 evaluable patients treated with FAC-BCG and a lower-dose, oral CMF maintenance program. The overall (70% and 76%) and complete (16% and 19%) response rates were identical in these two groups. The median times to progression for all patients entered were similar too (13 months for both groups.). The durations of response were 17 months (PO-CMF) and 14 months (IV-CMF), not significantly different (P = .16). The durations of survival of the two treated groups were also very similar. After the administration of intensive FAC induction therapy, a high-dose, intravenous CMF maintenance program appears no better than a low-dose oral regimen. Other drug combinations consisting entirely of drugs not used in the induction regimen might be better choices for maintenance treatment


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia
8.
Cancer Treat Rep ; 63(5): 757-61, 1979 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-313246

RESUMEN

High-dose infusions of methotrexate with citrovorum factor rescue were evaluated in 27 patients with advanced recurrent breast cancer who had previously been treated with various Adriamycin-containing regimens. Eight of 27 patients (29%) achieved objective tumor regression with a median duration of response of 26 weeks. Nineteen patients had previously received standard doses of methotrexate (less than 50 mg/m2/dose), while eight patients had had no prior exposure to methotrexate. The response rates observed in these two groups of patients were similar. Except for two drug-related deaths, toxic effects were acceptable. Myelosuppression was mild, transient, and noncumulative. Gastrointestinal toxic effects did not appear to be dose-related and were mild in most instances. Central nervous system dysfunction with lethargy, fatigability, confusion, and disorientation was the most significant toxic effect of this high-dose methotrexate therapy and was observed in six (22%) of the patients. In two patients treatment with this program was discontinued because of the development of renal dysfunction. High-dose methotrexate with citrovorum factor rescue appears to be an effective regimen in patients with advanced refractory breast cancer. However, in view of the enormous cost necessitated by this treatment approach, we do not feel further studies would be worthwhile.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapéutico , Factores de Edad , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Leucovorina/uso terapéutico , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Metotrexato/efectos adversos
9.
Cancer Treat Rep ; 63(5): 789-91, 1979 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-455316

RESUMEN

A phase II evaluation of anguidine was carried out in 30 patients with advanced refractory breast cancer. A dose of 5.0 mg/m2 daily for 5 days was explored. The main toxic effects were nausea and vomiting, fever and chills, hypotension, skin erythema, somnolence, confusion, and lethargy. Myelosuppression was minimal. Among these extensively pretreated patients, there was one partial responder and one additional patient who showed improvement (less than a partial response); both responses occurred in soft tissue sites.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico , Tricotecenos/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Femenino , Fusarium , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tricotecenos/efectos adversos
10.
J Surg Oncol ; 12(1): 27-40, 1979.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-480951

RESUMEN

A combination of 5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and BCG (FAC-BCG) was evaluated as adjuvant treatment in breast cancer patients following surgical excision and/or radiation of first site of recurrent disease. In a group of 68 patients treated with FAC-BCG, the estimated proportion remaining free of disease at 2 years from first recurrence was 69%, compared to 24% in 60 historical control patients (P less than 0.01). Estimated 2-year survival rate from first recurrence was 85% for the FAC-BCG patients and 78% for the controls (P = 0.07). This regimen has significantly prolonged the disease-free interval from the first recurrence, but additional follow-up is needed to determine its effect on long-term survival.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Metástasis Linfática , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Torácicas/secundario , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia
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