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1.
Poult Sci ; 86(5): 877-87, 2007 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17435021

RESUMEN

Mintrex Zn, Mintrex Cu, and Mintrex Mn organic trace minerals contain 16% Zn, 15% Cu, and 13% Mn with 80, 78, and 76% 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) by weight as the organic ligand, respectively. Our objective was to determine if HMTBA from Mintrex was fully available as a Met source. In experiment 1, thirty-six broilers (7 to 10 d old) were orally gavaged with methyl-(14)C-labeled HMTBA, either as free HMTBA (Alimet feed supplement) or Zn bis(-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate) (Mintrex Zn). Radiolabel incorporation from either source into protein was measured as a marker of bioavailable Met activity. Results demonstrated that the HMTBA from Mintrex Zn was equally available as free HMTBA to support protein synthesis. In experiment 2, five hundred seventy-six 1-d-old broilers were allotted to 12 dietary treatments (TRT) for a 21-d growth assay. A TSAA-deficient diet containing 0.70% total TSAA (TRT 1) was supplemented with 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% free HMTBA (TRT 2 to 5) to establish the standard Met response curve. Treatment 6 was analogous to TRT 2 but had an additional 160 ppm Zn, 80 ppm Cu, and 160 ppm Mn as sulfates. Treatments 7 to 12 were identical to TRT 2 but supplemented with 40 or 160 ppm Zn from Mintrex Zn, 20 or 80 ppm Cu from Mintrex Cu, or 40 or 160 ppm Mn from Mintrex Mn, respectively. For TRT 1 through 6, growth performance increased due to increasing Met addition (P < 0.01) but not to increasing inorganic trace minerals. For Mintrex Zn, Cu, and Mn (TRT 7 to 12), there was a linear increase in cumulative gain:feed ratio (P < 0.04), and for Mintrex Zn and Mn, there was a linear increase in cumulative gain (P < 0.03) to increasing Mintrex addition. A 1-slope broken-line model was used to calculate bioavailable Met activity from Mintrex for comparison with actual intake values. Results indicated that HMTBA from Mintrex was fully available as a Met source.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Duodeno/química , Marcaje Isotópico , Yeyuno/química , Hígado/química , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Páncreas/química
2.
J Anim Sci ; 84(7): 1709-21, 2006 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16775054

RESUMEN

Three experiments were conducted to determine the true ileal digestible (TID) Lys and sulfur AA (SAA) requirement and to compare the bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) and dl-MET as Met sources in nursery pigs. Experiment 1 included 2 studies: 1 was 662 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.2 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID Lys concentrations ranging from 1.10 to 1.50%; and the second study was 665 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.3 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID SAA concentration ranging from 0.63 to 0.90%. In Exp. 2, 638 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 13.0 +/- 0.16 kg) were allotted to the same 5 SAA dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. In Exp. 3, 1,232 pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 11.0 +/- 0.30 kg) were allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments. The basal diet (diet 1) was supplemented with high concentrations of synthetic AA but no Met; this resulted in a dietary concentration of TID Lys of 1.30% and TID SAA of 0.50%. Diets 2 to 7 were the basal diet supplemented with 3 equimolar levels of HMTBA or dl-MET to provide TID SAA concentrations of 0.56, 0.62, and 0.68%, respectively. In Exp. 1, increasing TID Lys from 1.10 to 1.50% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.05) and improved G:F (linear; P < 0.002). The pooled data of Exp. 1 (SAA study) and Exp. 2 indicated that increasing TID SAA from 0.63 to 0.90% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.01) and improved G:F (quadratic; P < 0.01). Various methods of analyzing the growth response surface indicated that the optimal TID Lys concentration ranged from 1.28 to 1.32% for ADG (Exp. 1), and the optimal TID SAA concentration ranged from 0.73 to 0.77% for ADG and 0.80 to 0.83% for G:F (pooled Exp. 1 and 2), respectively. In Exp. 3, increasing TID SAA concentrations from 0.50 to 0.68% resulted in a linear improvement of ADG (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05), and G:F (P < 0.001). The best fit comparison of HMTBA and dl-MET was determined by the Schwartz Bayesian Information Criteria index, which indicated the average relative efficacy of HMTBA vs. dl-MET was 111%, with 95% confidence interval of 83 to 138%, within the range of TID SAA tested. Thus, the TID Lys and SAA requirements of modern lean-genotype pigs from 11- to 26-kg were greater than the 1998 NRC recommendations, and both HMTBA and dl-MET as Met sources can supply equimolar amounts of Met activity.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/farmacología , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Íleon/metabolismo , Lisina/farmacología , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacología , Porcinos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión/fisiología , Femenino , Íleon/efectos de los fármacos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina/metabolismo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 83(11): 2527-34, 2005 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16230649

RESUMEN

Four experiments were conducted to determine the ideal ratio of true ileal digestible (TID) sulfur AA to Lys (SAA:LYS) in nursery pigs at two different BW ranges using both DL-Met and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBA) as Met sources. In Exp. 1, 1,549 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC Camborough 22; initial BW 8.3 +/- 0.08 kg) were allotted to one of nine dietary treatments. The basal diet (Diet 1) was a semicomplex corn-soybean meal-based diet (1.32% TID Lys) with no supplemental HMTBA or DL-Met (47.7% TID SAA:LYS). Diets 2 to 9 consisted of the basal diet supplemented with four equimolar levels of DL-Met or HMTBA (52.7, 57.7, 62.7, and 67.7% TID SAA:LYS). In Exp. 2, 330 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC Camborough 22; initial BW 11.4 +/- 0.10 kg) were allotted to one of nine dietary treatments. The basal diet (Diet 1) was a corn-soybean meal-based diet (1.15% TID Lys) with no supplemental HMTBA or DL-Met (49% TID SAA:LYS). Diets 2 to 9 consisted of the basal diet supplemented with four equimolar levels of DL-Met or HMTBA (54, 59, 64, and 69% TID SAA:LYS). In Exp. 3, 1,544 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC Camborough 22; initial BW 12.4 +/- 0.13 kg) were allotted to one of nine dietary treatments as in Exp. 2. In Exp. 4, 343 nursery pigs (Genetiporc; initial BW 12.8 +/- 0.56 kg) were allotted to one of six dietary treatments. The basal diet (Diet 1) was a corn-soybean meal-based diet (1.05% TID Lys) with no supplemental DL-Met (49% TID SAA:LYS). Diets 2 to 5 consisted of the basal diet supplemented with four levels of DL-Met (54, 59, 64, and 69% TID SAA:LYS), and Diet 6 was the basal diet supplemented with one equimolar level of HMTBA to satisfy 59% TID SAA:LYS ratio. In all experiments, increasing the TID SAA:LYS ratio resulted in quadratic improvements in ADG (P < or = 0.09) and G:F (P < or = 0.05). Three different methods were used to estimate the optimal TID SAA:LYS ratio for each experiment. The two-slope broken-line regression model, x-intercept value of the broken-line and quadratic curve, and 95% of upper asymptote across the four experiments indicated that the average optimal TID SAA:LYS ratios were 59.3, 60.1, and 57.7% for ADG and 60.6, 61.7, and 60.1% for G:F, respectively. Thus, the optimal TID SAA:LYS ratio for 8- to 26-kg pigs based on the average value of these three estimates was 59.0% for ADG and 60.8% for G:F.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Íleon/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/química , Animales , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Digestión , Lisina/química
4.
Poult Sci ; 84(2): 283-93, 2005 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15742965

RESUMEN

Seven hundred and twenty hatchling broilers were allotted to 12 treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 were fasted for 48 h posthatch; groups 3 and 4 were fasted for 48 h followed by ad libitum access to a 1% glutamine (Gln) diet; groups 5 and 6 had ad libitum access to a common diet; groups 7 and 8 had access to a 1% Gln diet posthatch; groups 9 and 10 were fed regular Oasis hatchling supplement; and groups 11 and 12 were fed Oasis sprayed with 1% Gln for the first 48 h posthatch. The birds in treatment groups 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12 were vaccinated with Eimeria maxima posthatch, and all birds were orally challenged with high dose E. maxima on d 22. During the first 2 wk, birds in group 7 had the highest gain and feed efficiency among treatments (P < 0.01). Compared with birds in the nonGln groups, birds in the Gln group had higher gain, feed efficiency, and livability (P < 0.05). Among the Fast (groups 1 to 4), Feed (groups 5 to 8), and Oasis (groups 9 to 12) groups, birds in the Feed groups had the highest gain during d 0 to 21 (P < 0.01). During d 22 to 28, birds in the Fast groups had the lowest BW and livability (P < 0.01), and the nonvaccinated birds had lower gain and feed efficiency relative to vaccinated birds (P < 0.01). Birds in the Feed and Oasis groups had higher villus height (VH) of mid small intestine than Fast groups at d 2 and 7 (P < 0.05), and nonvaccinated birds had higher VH than vaccinated birds (P < 0.01) at d 7 after hatch. On d 14, there were differences in serum interferon-gamma (P < 0.05) levels among treatments. During d 22 to 28, vaccinated birds had lower lesion scores in the mid small intestine than nonvaccinated birds (P < 0.01), and birds in the Feed or Oasis groups had lower lesion scores compared with the Fast groups (P < 0.02). These results indicated the importance of immediate access to feed posthatch, the beneficial effects of feeding Oasis hatching supplement and Gln after hatch, as well as the necessity of the vaccination program against coccidiosis challenge.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Coccidiosis/prevención & control , Glutamina/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Vacunas Antiprotozoos/inmunología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos/inmunología , Coccidiosis/patología , Dieta/veterinaria , Eimeria/inmunología , Femenino , Interferón gamma/sangre , Interleucina-2/sangre , Parasitosis Intestinales/patología , Parasitosis Intestinales/prevención & control , Intestinos/patología , Masculino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología
5.
Poult Sci ; 84(12): 1886-92, 2005 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16479945

RESUMEN

A total of 216 Brown Dwarf laying hens (1.62 +/- 0.06 kg BW and 60 wk old) were fed 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic aicd (CLA) to explore its effects on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, plasma, and liver as well as hepatic stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity and its mRNA gene expression. Four hens were placed in wired-floored cages (45 x 40 x 45 cm) and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. The experimental diets were fed for 54 d, and then eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolk. Four eggs were randomly selected from the total day's production for each replicate, and the contents were pooled prior to analysis. On d 56, one randomly chosen hen from each replicate (6 hens per replicate and a total of 18 hens) was bled via heart puncture and then killed in order to collect liver samples to measure the fatty acid profile of plasma and liver tissue as well as hepatic SCD-1 activity and its mRNA abundance. Dietary supplementation of CLA resulted in a significant deposition of CLA in egg yolk, plasma, and liver lipids (P < 0.01). As the dietary level of CLA increased, the concentration of saturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver also increased (P < 0.05). However, the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids in these same tissues decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the control, the activity of SCD-1 was reduced by feeding 2.5% CLA (P < 0.05) without a change in SCD-1 mRNA gene expression. However, feeding 5% CLA reduced both SCD-1 activity and mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver might be modulated directly at hepatic mRNA gene expression levels, or may be indirectly regulated at the downstream post-transcriptional levels.


Asunto(s)
Yema de Huevo/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Pollos , Dieta , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administración & dosificación , Hígado/química , Hígado/enzimología , Estearoil-CoA Desaturasa/genética
6.
J Anim Sci ; 81(11): 2758-65, 2003 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14601879

RESUMEN

Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.30 kg BW) weaned at 28 +/- 3 d of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and on immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The main factors consisted of diet (7% corn oil [CO] or 7% fish oil [FO]) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). On d 14 and 21, pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 microg/kg BW of LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Blood samples were collected 3 h after injection for analysis of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. On d 2 after LPS challenge, peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was determined. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased ADG (487 vs. 586 g; P < 0.05) and ADFI (as-fed, 776 vs. 920 g; P < 0.05) from d 14 to 21 and ADG (587 vs. 652 g; P < 0.10) from d 21 to 28. Fish oil improved ADG (554 vs. 520 g; P < 0.10) and ADFI (891 vs. 805 g; P < 0.10) from d 14 to 21. On d 14, LPS challenge x diet interactions were observed for IL-1beta (P < 0.10), PGE2 (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.05) such that these measurements responded to the LPS challenge to a lesser extent (IL-1beta: 93 vs. 114 pg/mL, P < 0.05; PGE2: 536 vs. 1,285 pg/mL, P < 0.001; cortisol: 143 vs. 206 ng/mL, P < 0.05) in pigs receiving the FO diet than in pigs fed the CO diet. In contrast, among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed the FO diet had higher IGF-I (155 vs. 101 ng/mL; P < 0.10) than those fed the CO diet. On d 21 among LPS-treated pigs, pigs fed FO had lower IL-1beta (70 vs. 84 pg/mL; P < 0.10) and cortisol (153 vs. 205 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than those fed CO. Pigs fed FO had lower PGE2 (331 vs. 444 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and higher IGF-I (202 vs. 171 ng/mL; P < 0.10) compared with those fed CO. Lipopolysaccharide challenge decreased GH (0.27 vs. 0.33 ng/mL; P < 0.05) on d 14, whereas it had no effect on GH on d 21. During both LPS challenge periods, the challenge increased PBLP when these cells were incubated with 8 (1.46 vs. 1.32; P < 0.10) or 16 microg/mL (1.46 vs. 1.30; P < 0.05) of concanavalin A. Fish oil had no effect on PBLP. These results suggest that FO alters the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which might lead to improved pig performance during an immunological challenge.


Asunto(s)
Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dinoprostona/sangre , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales/veterinaria , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/sangre , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Porcinos/inmunología , Destete , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 24(4): 353-65, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12742552

RESUMEN

A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 days and 6.27+/-1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access to a complex diet for 7 days post-weaning. At day 0 (day 7 post-weaning), pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to 64 pens. Treatments (Trt) were arranged as a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Main effects included diet (complex versus simple), oil (menhaden fish (MFO) versus corn (CO)), and immunogen (saline versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Experimental diets contained 6% oil (6% CO or 5% MFO+1% CO) and were fed for 14 days. On day 12, i.v. injections of either LPS (150 microg/kg) or saline were given, followed by blood collection at 30 min intervals for 6h. After the immune challenge (day 14), pigs were placed onto a common corn-soybean meal fortified diet and growth performance was evaluated until termination of the study (day 28). Pigs were weighed and feed intakes recorded at 7, 14, and 28 days. Prior to immune challenge (day 12), there were differences in BW for pigs fed complex versus simple diets (P<0.01; 13.1 and 12.1 kg, respectively) and pigs fed CO versus MFO diets (P<0.05; 12.9 and 12.3 kg, respectively). During the challenge period, for pigs treated with LPS there was a Time x Immunogen x Oil effect (P<0.001) for serum cortisol with MFO fed pigs having lower serum cortisol as compared to CO fed pigs. Also, during the challenge period, for pigs treated with LPS there was a Time x Diet x Immunogen x Oil effect (P<0.001) for serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with pigs fed complex diets supplemented with CO having higher serum TNF-alpha as compared with pigs fed complex diets supplemented with MFO. At days 14 and 28, LPS-treated pigs had lower BW than saline injected controls (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively). In addition, pigs fed simplified diets continued to have lower BW after challenge compared to pigs fed a complex diet. Interestingly, there were no differences (P>0.10) in BW after challenge in pigs fed MFO. This study suggests that MFO supplementation alters the immune response during LPS challenge and that simplified diets may compromise nursery performance.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/inmunología , Animales , Peso Corporal , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Aceite de Maíz/administración & dosificación , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Cinética , Plasma , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis , Destete
8.
Poult Sci ; 82(5): 760-6, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12762398

RESUMEN

Lentinan (LEN) is an intensively studied beta-glucan that has been shown to have immunostimulating and antitumor functions. However, it currently is not used in veterinary practice and animal production. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of LEN on broiler splenocyte proliferation, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, and to explore its effects on receptor signal transduction by determining signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic-free Ca2+, cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The results showed that compared to the control all three measured doses, including 40, 80, and 160 microg/mL LEN, increased splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production (P < 0.05). Lentinan increased splenocyte NO production and cytosolic-free calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). After incubating splenocytes for 20 min, LEN increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP concentrations at a dose of 80 and 160 microg/mL, respectively. However, after incubating the splenocytes for 60 min, LEN had no effect on cytosolic cAMP and cGMP concentration irrespective of the LEN dosage. Those results indicated that LEN had immunostimulatory effects on splenocytes by increasing splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production and by activating splenocyte receptor signal transduction.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Lentinano/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , División Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Pollos , AMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , GMP Cíclico/biosíntesis , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Activación de Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biosíntesis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/inmunología
9.
Poult Sci ; 82(3): 364-70, 2003 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12705395

RESUMEN

Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides [achyranthan (ACH), a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide, and astragalan (APS), a high-molecular-weight polysaccaride] on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Trial 1 was a 28-d growth assay, in which 7-d-old broilers (n = 240) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments, with eight replicate pens per treatment and ten chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included a control corn-soy-fishmeal (Treatment 1), a diet with 200 mg/kg APS (Treatment 2), and a diet with 200 mg/kg ACH (Treatment 3). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for determination of serum parameters, and chickens were killed on Day 28 to measure immune organ indexes. Trial 2 was an in vitro trial to study the effects of different concentrations of polysaccharides on broiler splenocyte functions. In Trial 1, feeding either APS or ACH had no significant effects on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, feeding ACH significantly increased microhemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, bursa of Fabricius index, serum albumin, serum calcium, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at Day 28 (P < or = 0.05). In Trial 2, both polysaccharides showed significant immunostimulating effects. They increased NO and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of splenocytes and enhanced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Those results indicate that the immunostimulating effects of APS are not as pronounced as those of ACH. Achyranthan showed immunostimulating effects in both the growth assay and in vitro studies. Therefore, ACH may be a Chinese herbal polysaccharide that has the potential to be used as a feed additive to improve broilers' immunity.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/inmunología , Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Quempferoles , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Anticuerpos/sangre , Bolsa de Fabricio/inmunología , Calcio/sangre , División Celular , Concanavalina A/farmacología , Dieta , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Interleucina-2/biosíntesis , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/sangre , Albúmina Sérica/análisis , Bazo/citología , Bazo/metabolismo
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