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1.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 24(4): 353-65, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12742552

RESUMEN

A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 days and 6.27+/-1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access to a complex diet for 7 days post-weaning. At day 0 (day 7 post-weaning), pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to 64 pens. Treatments (Trt) were arranged as a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Main effects included diet (complex versus simple), oil (menhaden fish (MFO) versus corn (CO)), and immunogen (saline versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Experimental diets contained 6% oil (6% CO or 5% MFO+1% CO) and were fed for 14 days. On day 12, i.v. injections of either LPS (150 microg/kg) or saline were given, followed by blood collection at 30 min intervals for 6h. After the immune challenge (day 14), pigs were placed onto a common corn-soybean meal fortified diet and growth performance was evaluated until termination of the study (day 28). Pigs were weighed and feed intakes recorded at 7, 14, and 28 days. Prior to immune challenge (day 12), there were differences in BW for pigs fed complex versus simple diets (P<0.01; 13.1 and 12.1 kg, respectively) and pigs fed CO versus MFO diets (P<0.05; 12.9 and 12.3 kg, respectively). During the challenge period, for pigs treated with LPS there was a Time x Immunogen x Oil effect (P<0.001) for serum cortisol with MFO fed pigs having lower serum cortisol as compared to CO fed pigs. Also, during the challenge period, for pigs treated with LPS there was a Time x Diet x Immunogen x Oil effect (P<0.001) for serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with pigs fed complex diets supplemented with CO having higher serum TNF-alpha as compared with pigs fed complex diets supplemented with MFO. At days 14 and 28, LPS-treated pigs had lower BW than saline injected controls (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively). In addition, pigs fed simplified diets continued to have lower BW after challenge compared to pigs fed a complex diet. Interestingly, there were no differences (P>0.10) in BW after challenge in pigs fed MFO. This study suggests that MFO supplementation alters the immune response during LPS challenge and that simplified diets may compromise nursery performance.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/inmunología , Animales , Peso Corporal , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Aceite de Maíz/administración & dosificación , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Cinética , Plasma , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis , Destete
2.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 24(4): 341-51, 2003 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12742551

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential immunological benefit of adding menhaden fish oil to the diet of weaned pigs. Twenty-four crossbred male pigs were weaned at approximately 18 days of age and placed on a complex nursery diet containing 30% lactose and 7% plasma protein with 6% corn oil as the fat source (Cont, n=12) or with 5% menhaden fish oil and 1% corn oil as the fat source (MFO, n=12) for a period of 15 days. Body weights did not differ (P>0.78) between dietary groups either at the beginning or end of the 15 days feeding period. On day 15, all pigs were non-surgically fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter. On d 16, pigs received an i.v. injection of either saline (n=6/dietary group) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg body weight; n=6/dietary group) and blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals for a period of 5h. Serum was harvested and stored at -80 degrees C for analysis of cortisol (CS), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). There was no significant effect of diet on basal concentrations (Time 0) of any of the blood parameters analyzed. A Time x Treatment x Diet interaction (P<0.03) was observed for serum CS such that those pigs which consumed the MFO diet followed by LPS treatment had a reduced CS response as compared to the LPS-treated pigs on the Cont diet. A Time x Treatment interaction (P<0.01) was observed for serum CBG such that LPS treatment reduced circulating CBG as compared to the saline-treated pigs. Time x Treatment x Diet interactions were also observed for serum concentrations of TNF-alpha (P=0.084) and IFN-gamma (P=0.022) such that both the TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma response to the LPS challenge was lower in those pigs receiving the MFO diet as compared to the LPS-treated pigs on the Cont diet. Overall, serum CS was negatively correlated with the CBG response (r=-0.40, P<0.001), however, the strongest negative correlation was observed in the LPS-treated pigs which consumed the MFO diet (r=-0.63, P<0.001). While further studies are needed to evaluate the immunological response of including MFO in the nursery pig diet, the present study demonstrates that supplementation with MFO does indeed alter the immunological response to an LPS challenge.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/inmunología , Animales , Proteínas Sanguíneas/administración & dosificación , Peso Corporal , Aceite de Maíz , Escherichia coli , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Interferón gamma/sangre , Cinética , Lactosa/administración & dosificación , Plasma , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Transcortina/análisis , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis , Destete
3.
J Anim Sci ; 80(2): 494-501, 2002 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11881933

RESUMEN

A study was conducted with 20 weaned barrows (14 d, 4.98 +/- .21 kg) to determine the effect of spray-dried plasma (SDP) on the pig's immune response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. After weaning, pigs were fed a diet containing 0 or 7% SDP for 7 d. On d 6 postweaning, all pigs were fitted with a jugular catheter. On d 7 postweaning, the pigs were given an i.p. injection of either saline or LPS (150 microg/kg BW) followed by a 3-h blood collection every 15 min. Following blood collection, all pigs were killed and tissue was collected for mRNA analysis. Additionally, the small intestine was collected for measurement of villus height, crypt depth, and villus height:crypt depth ratio (VCR) at three sites (25, 50, and 75% of the total length). Feeding SDP resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the adrenal gland, spleen, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and liver. Additionally, expression of IL-6 mRNA was reduced (P < 0.05) in the spleen and pituitary gland for pigs fed SDP. For pigs fed the diet with SDP, LPS administration did not affect (P > 0.10) cytokine mRNA expression, whereas LPS reduced expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in the spleen and IL-1beta mRNA in the adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus for pigs fed the diet without SDP. For pigs fed the diet with SDP, LPS caused serum TNF-alpha to increase 150-fold compared to a 60-fold increase for pigs fed the diet without SDP. Similarly, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased 110-fold for pigs fed the diet with SDP compared to a 16-fold increase for pigs fed the diet without SDP. For pigs fed the diet with SDP, LPS caused major villus atrophy, whereas for pigs fed the diet without SDP, LPS had no effect on intestinal morphology. These results demonstrate that the basal activation of the immune system appears to be less for pigs fed the diet with SDP compared to pigs fed the diet without SDP after weaning. Additionally, for pigs fed the diet with SDP, there appeared to be an overresponse of the immune system following LPS administration, which resulted in major damage to the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.


Asunto(s)
Intestino Delgado/efectos de los fármacos , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Porcinos/inmunología , Glándulas Suprarrenales/efectos de los fármacos , Glándulas Suprarrenales/inmunología , Animales , Cateterismo/veterinaria , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/inmunología , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales/veterinaria , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patología , Lipopolisacáridos/inmunología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/inmunología , Masculino , Hipófisis/efectos de los fármacos , Hipófisis/inmunología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/inmunología , Timo/efectos de los fármacos , Timo/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Destete
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