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Int J Mol Sci ; 24(22)2023 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003333


Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in human health, well-being, and the management of inflammatory diseases. Insufficient intake of omega-3 is linked to disease development. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are derived from omega-3 PUFAs and expedite the resolution of inflammation. They fall into categories known as resolvins, maresins, protectins, and lipoxins. The actions of SPMs in the resolution of inflammation involve restricting neutrophil infiltration, facilitating the removal of apoptotic cells and cellular debris, promoting efferocytosis and phagocytosis, counteracting the production of pro-inflammatory molecules like chemokines and cytokines, and encouraging a pro-resolving macrophage phenotype. This is an experimental pilot study in which ten healthy subjects were enrolled and received a single dose of 6 g of an oral SPM-enriched marine oil emulsion. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-administration. Temporal increases in plasma and serum SPM levels were found by using LC-MS/MS lipid profiling. Additionally, we characterized the temporal increases in omega-3 levels and established fundamental pharmacokinetics in both aforementioned matrices. These findings provide substantial evidence of the time-dependent elevation of SPMs, reinforcing the notion that oral supplementation with SPM-enriched products represents a valuable source of essential bioactive SPMs.

Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Humanos , Voluntarios Sanos , Cromatografía Liquida , Proyectos Piloto , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Inflamación , Factor de Activación Plaquetaria , Mediadores de Inflamación
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(6): H953-H970, 2022 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333119


All fats are not created equal, and despite the extensive literature, the effect of fat intake is the most debated question in obesity, cardiovascular, and cardiorenal research. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac dysfunction and consequent heart failure in the setting of obesity are not well understood. Our understanding of how fats are metabolically transformed after nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI), in particular, is incomplete. Here, using male C57BL/6J mice (2 mo old), we determined the role of omega-6 fatty acids, provided as safflower oil (SO) for 12 wk, followed by supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; n-3 fatty acids) for 8 wk before MI. With SO feeding, inflammation resolution was impaired. Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) increased in DHA-fed mice to reverse the effects of SO, whereas prostaglandins and thromboxane B2 were reduced in the spleen and amplified multiple resolving mechanisms in heart and kidney post-MI. DHA amplified the number of resolving macrophages and cardiac reparative pathways of the splenocardiac and cardiorenal networks in acute heart failure, with higher Treg cells in chronic heart failure and marked expression of Foxp3+ in the myocardium. Our findings indicate that surplus ingestion of SO intensified systemic, baseline, nonresolving inflammation, and DHA intake dominates splenocardiac resolving phase with the biosynthesis of SPMs and controlled cardiorenal inflammation in heart failure survivor mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Chronic and surplus dietary intake of safflower oil (SO) increased plasma creatinine dysregulated post-MI splenocardiac inflammation coincides with the dysfunctional cardiorenal network. In contrast, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases post-MI survival in chronic heart failure. DHA transforms into specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) and limited proinflammatory prostaglandins and thromboxanes following myocardial infarction (MI). DHA promotes Ly6Clow resolving macrophages and T regulatory cells (Foxp3+) in a splenocardiac manner post-MI.

Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Infarto del Miocardio , Animales , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos , Factores de Transcripción Forkhead , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Obesidad/complicaciones , Prostaglandinas , Aceite de Cártamo
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203665


INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinological disorder that affects 5-15% of women of their reproductive age and is a frequent cause of infertility. Major symptoms include hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and often obesity and/or insulin resistance. PCOS also represents a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is closely interlinked with the metabolic features. "Classical" pro-inflammatory lipid mediators such as prostaglandins (PG), leukotrienes (LT), or thromboxanes (TX) are derived from arachidonic acid (AA) and are crucial for the initial response. Resolution processes are driven by four families of so-called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs): resolvins, maresins, lipoxins, and protectins. The study aimed to establish lipid mediator profiles of PCOS patients compared to healthy women to identify differences in their resolutive and pro-inflammatory lipid parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen female patients (18-45 years) were diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria, and five healthy women, as a comparator group, were recruited for the study. The main outcome measures were: pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (PG, LT, TX) and their precursor AA, SPMs (resolvins, maresins, protectins, lipoxins), their precursors EPA, DHA, DPA, and their active biosynthesis pathway intermediates (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA). RESULTS: The level of pro-inflammatory parameters in serum was significantly higher in PCOS-affected women. The ratio (sum of pro-inflammatory molecules)/(sum of SPMs plus hydroxylated intermediates) reflecting the inflammatory state was significantly lower in the group of healthy women. CONCLUSION: There is a strong pro-inflammatory state in PCOS patients. Further research will clarify whether supplementation with SPMs or their precursors may improve this state.

Am J Pathol ; 188(4): 950-966, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571326


Resolvin conjugates in tissue regeneration (RCTRs) are new chemical signals that accelerate resolution of inflammation, infection, and tissue regeneration. Herein, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics, we identified RCTRs in human spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, and brain. In human spleen incubated with Staphylococcus aureus, endogenous RCTRs were increased along with conversion of deuterium-labeled docosahexaenoic acid, conferring pathway activation. Physical and biological properties of endogenous RCTRs were matched with those prepared by total organic synthesis. The complete stereochemical assignment of bioactive RCTR1 is 8R-glutathionyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, RCTR2 is 8R-cysteinylglycinyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, and RCTR3 is 8R-cysteinyl-7S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid. These stereochemically defined RCTRs stimulated human macrophage phagocytosis, efferocytosis, and planaria tissue generation. Proteome profiling demonstrated that RCTRs regulated both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with human macrophages. In microfluidic chambers, the three RCTRs limited human polymorphonuclear cell migration. In hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion-initiated organ injury, both RCTR2 and RCTR3 reduced polymorphonuclear cell infiltration into lungs. In infectious peritonitis, RCTR1 shortened the resolution intervals. Each RCTR (1 nmol/L) accelerated planaria tissue regeneration by approximately 0.5 days, with direct comparison to both maresin and protectin CTRs. Together, these results identify a new bioactive RCTR (ie, RCTR3) in human tissues and establish the complete stereochemistry and rank-order potencies of three RCTRs in vivo. Moreover, RCTR1, RCTR2, and RCTR3 each exert potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions with human leukocytes.

Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Fagocitos/metabolismo , Regeneración/fisiología , Animales , Quimiotaxis , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/biosíntesis , Humanos , Inflamación/patología , Lesión Pulmonar/microbiología , Lesión Pulmonar/patología , Macrófagos/citología , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ratones , Fagocitos/citología , Fagocitosis , Planarias/fisiología , Proteoma/metabolismo , Daño por Reperfusión/microbiología , Daño por Reperfusión/patología , Bazo/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo