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1.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(36): 4009-4019, 2021 12 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752136

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Early-onset (EO) colorectal cancer (CRC, age < 50 years) incidence is increasing. Decisions on optimal adjuvant therapy should consider treatment adherence, adverse events, and expected outcomes in a population with life expectancy longer than later-onset (LO) CRC (age ≥ 50 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individual patient data from six trials in the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy database were analyzed. Characteristics, treatment adherence, and adverse events in stage II or III EO-CRC and LO-CRC were compared. To reduce confounders of non-cancer-related deaths because of age or comorbidities, time to recurrence (3-year relapse-free rate) and cancer-specific survival (5-year cancer-specific mortality rate) were considered. RESULTS: Out of 16,349 patients, 1,564 (9.6%) had EO-CRC. Compared with LO-CRC, EO-CRC had better performance status (86% v 80%, P < .01), similar T stage (% T1-3/T4: 76/24 v 77/23, P = .97), higher N2 disease rate (24% v 22%, P < .01), more likely to complete the planned treatment duration (83.2% v 78.2%, P < .01), and received a higher treatment dose intensity, especially with 6-month regimens. Gastrointestinal toxicity was more common in EO-CRC; hematologic toxicity was more frequent in LO-CRC. Compared with LO-CRC, significantly worse cancer-specific outcomes were demonstrated especially in high-risk stage III EO-CRC: lower 3-year relapse-free rate (54% v 65%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.55; P value < .001) and higher 5-year cancer-specific mortality rate (24% v 20%; HR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.47; P value < .06). In this subgroup, no difference was observed with 3 or 6 months of therapy, with equally poor disease-free survival rates (57% v 56%; HR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.29; P value = .85). CONCLUSION: Young age is negatively prognostic in high-risk stage III CRC and associated with significantly higher relapse rate; this is despite better treatment adherence and higher administered treatment intensity, suggesting more aggressive disease biology.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Oxaliplatino/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Adenocarcinoma/complicaciones , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oxaliplatino/farmacología , Pronóstico , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo
2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1239, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to current guidelines, treatment of patients with hepatic oligometastasis in pancreatic cancer is not reflected and systemic chemotherapy is recommended in those patients. Retrospective data suggest beneficial outcomes in patients with hepatic oligometastasis, though prospective data from clinical trials addressing this particular patient group is not available. METHODS: In this single arm, phase-2 trial, survival data from patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by R0/R1 resection will be compared to historic data from patients with oligometastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The clinical trial will focus on a well-defined patient collective with metastatic load limited to the liver as target organ with a maximum of five metastases. The combination of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI), oxaliplatin (OX) and 5-fluouracil (5-FU)/folinic acid (FA) (nal-IRI + OX+ 5-FU/FA, NAPOX) was chosen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy; the choice was based on an ongoing clinical study in which NAPOX appeared manageable, with promising anti-tumor activity in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In total 150 patients will be enrolled for this trial with an aim of 55 patients receiving a complete macroscopic synchronous tumor and metastatic resection. DISCUSSION: This is the first clinical study to prospectively evaluate the value of multimodality therapy concepts in oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2019-002734-37 ; NCT04617457 .


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundario , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/secundario , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Alemania , Humanos , Irinotecán/administración & dosificación , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Liposomas , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Masculino , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Oxaliplatino/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Supervivencia sin Progresión
3.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4304-4319, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348580

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify potential pharmacological targets of triptolide regulating the tumor microenvironment (TME) of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) patients. A total of 343 STAD cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were assigned into high- or low-score groups applying Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE). Hub genes were identified from differentially expressed genes (DEGs) shared by stromal- and immune-related components in the TME of STAD patients using R software. Cox regression analysis was used to identify genes significantly correlated with STAD patient survival. Triptolide target genes were predicted from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). Top 30 genes filtered by Cytohubba from 734 DEGs were screened as hub genes. Forty-two genes were found to be at high risk for STAD prognosis. Thirty-four targets of triptolide were predicted using the TCMSP database. Importantly, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) was identified as a potential target of triptolide associated with the TME in STAD. Analysis of survival highlighted the association between CXCR4 upregulation with STAD progression and poor prognosis. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) confirmed that genes in the CXCR4- upregulated group had significant enrichment in immune-linked pathways. Additionally, triptolide targets were found to be significantly enriched in CXCR4-related chemokine and cancer-related p53 signaling pathways. Molecular docking demonstrated a high affinity between triptolide and CXCR4. In conclusion, CXCR4 may be a therapeutic target of triptolide in the treatment of STAD patients by modulating the TME.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacología , Diterpenos/farmacología , Fenantrenos/farmacología , Neoplasias Gástricas , Microambiente Tumoral , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Biología Computacional , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Compuestos Epoxi/farmacología , Humanos , Pronóstico , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
4.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(11): 2166-2176, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413127

RESUMEN

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal aggressive cancer, in part due to elements of the microenvironment (hypoxia, hypoglycemia) that cause metabolic network alterations. The FDA-approved antihelminthic pyrvinium pamoate (PP) has previously been shown to cause PDAC cell death, although the mechanism has not been fully determined. We demonstrated that PP effectively inhibited PDAC cell viability with nanomolar IC50 values (9-93 nmol/L) against a panel of PDAC, patient-derived, and murine organoid cell lines. In vivo, we demonstrated that PP inhibited PDAC xenograft tumor growth with both intraperitoneal (IP; P < 0.0001) and oral administration (PO; P = 0.0023) of human-grade drug. Metabolomic and phosphoproteomic data identified that PP potently inhibited PDAC mitochondrial pathways including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism. As PP treatment reduced oxidative phosphorylation (P < 0.001), leading to an increase in glycolysis (P < 0.001), PP was 16.2-fold more effective in hypoglycemic conditions similar to those seen in PDAC tumors. RNA sequencing demonstrated that PP caused a decrease in mitochondrial RNA expression, an effect that was not observed with established mitochondrial inhibitors rotenone and oligomycin. Mechanistically, we determined that PP selectively bound mitochondrial G-quadruplexes and inhibited mitochondrial RNA transcription in a G-quadruplex-dependent manner. This subsequently led to a 90% reduction in mitochondrial encoded gene expression. We are preparing to evaluate the efficacy of PP in PDAC in an IRB-approved window-of-opportunity trial (IND:144822).


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamiento farmacológico , Metabolómica/métodos , Compuestos de Pirvinio/uso terapéutico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidad , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patología , Humanos , Ratones , Compuestos de Pirvinio/farmacología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(12): 3536-3545, 2021 11 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331544

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Little is known about prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in patients with cervical involvement of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). OBJECTIVE: We investigated PSMA expression in neck persistent/recurrent disease (PRD) using immunohistochemistry and the association with radioiodine (RAI) or 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake, and patient outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Data from 44 consecutive DTC patients who underwent neck reoperation from 2006 to 2018 in a comprehensive cancer center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Immunostaining was performed with vascular endothelial marker CD31 and PSMA. PSMA expression was quantified using the immunoreactive score (IRS). RAI and 18FDG uptake were assessed before surgery using posttherapeutic RAI scintigraphy and 18FDG positron emission tomography with computed tomography. Mean follow-up after reintervention was 6.5 ±â€…3.7 years. RESULTS: Thirty patients (68%) showed at least 1 PSMA-positive lesion (IRS ≥ 2) with similar proportions in RAI-positive and RAI-negative patients (75% vs 66%). In RAI-negative patients, however, the proportion of PSMA-positive disease (79% vs 25%, P < 0.01) and the mean IRS (4.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.01) were higher in 18FDG-positive than in 18FDG-negative patients. Furthermore, mean IRS was higher in patients ≥ 55 years, large primary tumors (>40 mm) or aggressive subtypes, and was correlated with structural disease at last follow-up. Strong PSMA expression (IRS ≥ 9) was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that PSMA expression was present in two-thirds of patients with neck PRD, that it was related to poor prognostic factors and that very high expression was associated with poorer PFS. This preliminary study may offer new perspectives for the management of RAI-refractory DTC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Antígenos de Superficie/metabolismo , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18/metabolismo , Glutamato Carboxipeptidasa II/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Yodo/metabolismo , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Adulto , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Pronóstico , Radiofármacos/metabolismo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía
6.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(8): 383-387, 2021 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054019

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with resected rectal adenocarcinomas following neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgical resection. METHODS: Alberta Cancer Registry and other provincial electronic medical registries (2004 to 2018) identified patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgical resection and either oxaliplatin-based or fluoropyrimidine-only adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was then undertaken to identify factors associated with the use of either regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to compare overall survival between both groups and multivariable Cox regression analysis was then used to identify factors associated with worse overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 532 patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria were included in the current study: 347 patients received adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-only chemotherapy and 185 patients received adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The following variables were associated with use of fluoropyrimidine-only adjuvant chemotherapy: older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.06), higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.00-2.15), and no involved lymph nodes in the surgical pathology (OR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.66-8.41). Using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, no difference in overall survival between patients treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and those treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-only chemotherapy was identified (P=0.152). Within multivariable Cox regression analysis, type of chemotherapy was not associated with a difference in overall survival (hazard ratio for fluoropyrimidine-only chemotherapy vs. oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.61-1.71). CONCLUSION: Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival outcomes compared with fluoropyrimidine-only chemotherapy in this real-world study.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias del Recto/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Recto/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Alberta , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Oxaliplatino/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias del Recto/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(5): 1404-1412.e2, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple investigations have shown inferior outcomes for esophageal cancer patients with signet ring cell (SRC) histology. Traditionally, SRC adenocarcinoma has been defined by ≥50% of the tumor composed of SRC. We hypothesized that patients with SRC even <50% would show resistance to standard multimodality therapy with poorer long-term outcomes. METHODS: Patients treated with trimodality therapy for adenocarcinoma from 2006 to 2018 were evaluated for SRC on pretreatment biopsy specimens. Available hematoxylin and eosin slides containing SRC tumors were re-reviewed by an esophageal pathologist to quantify the percent composition of SRC. RESULTS: SRC histology was identified on at least 1 pathologic specimen in 106 of 819 (13%) patients. Rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) among usual-type and SRC tumors were 25% (177/713) and 10% (11/106), respectively (P = .006). The pretreatment SRC components did not independently affect the rate of pCR (1%-10% SRC: 4% [2/46] pCR; 11%-49% SRC: 25% [7/28] pCR; 50%-100% SRC: 7% [2/30] pCR). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated worse survival among patients with any degree of SRC present on pretreatment biopsy, as compared with usual-type esophageal adenocarcinoma (P < .0001). Cox multivariable analysis failed to identify a relationship between increasing SRC component and poorer survival. CONCLUSIONS: We present the only known evaluation of the percentage of SRC component in esophageal carcinoma. Our data support the hypothesis that esophageal adenocarcinoma with any component of SRC are more resistant to chemoradiation with poorer survival. Pathologic reporting of esophageal adenocarcinoma should include any component of SRC. Alternative therapies in patients with any SRC component may be indicated.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células en Anillo de Sello/terapia , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Esofagectomía , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Anciano , Biopsia , Carcinoma de Células en Anillo de Sello/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células en Anillo de Sello/patología , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante/mortalidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Esofagectomía/efectos adversos , Esofagectomía/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/mortalidad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Tolerancia a Radiación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Dig Surg ; 38(1): 24-29, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171467

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elevated pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are related to poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neo-CRT followed by TME. In patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels, the prognostic significance of carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value of pretreatment serum CA199 in patients with LARC who had normal pretreatment CEA levels treated with neo-CRT followed by curative surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study of 456 patients with LARC treated with neo-CRT followed by TME between January 2006 and May 2017 was performed. We employed the maximal χ2 method to determine the CA199 threshold of 9.1 U/mL based on the difference in survival and divided patients into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with pretreatment s-CEA < 5 ng/mL and CA199 ≥ 9.1 U/mL. Group 2: patients with pretreatment s-CEA < 5 ng/mL and CA199 < 9.1 U/mL. Overall survival (OS) across CA199 was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models (PS:CEA ≥ 5 ng/mL was seen as elevated). RESULTS: Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the following factors were significantly related to OS in patients with LARC with normal pretreatment CEA levels: ypT (odds ratio [OR] 1.863, p = 0.030), ypN (OR 1.622, p = 0.026), and pretreatment CA199 levels (OR 1.886, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment CA199 is an independent factor for OS in patients with LARC with normal pretreatment CEA levels, which may reach the clinic to guide individualized decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Antígenos de Carbohidratos Asociados a Tumores/sangre , Antígeno Carcinoembrionario/sangre , Neoplasias del Recto , Adenocarcinoma/sangre , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Anciano , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Capecitabina/administración & dosificación , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante , Femenino , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Compuestos Organoplatinos/administración & dosificación , Oxaliplatino/administración & dosificación , Proctectomía/métodos , Pronóstico , Neoplasias del Recto/sangre , Neoplasias del Recto/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Neoplasias del Recto/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5891016, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145355

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Kaempferol is a natural polyphenol in lots of Chinese herbs, which has shown promising treatment for gastric cancer (GC). However, the molecular mechanisms of its action have not been systematically revealed yet. In this work, a network pharmacology approach was used to elucidate the potential mechanisms of kaempferol in the treatment of GC. METHODS: The kaempferol was input into the PharmMapper and SwissTargetPrediction database to get its targets, and the targets of GC were obtained by retrieving the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, MalaCards database, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and Coolgen database. The molecular docking was performed to assess the interactions between kaempferol and these targets. Next, the overlap targets of kaempferol and GC were identified for GO and KEGG enrichment analyses. Afterward, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to get the hub targets, and the expression and overall survival analysis of the hub target were investigated. Finally, the overall survival (OS) analysis of hub targets was performed using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter online tool. RESULTS: A total of 990 genes related to GC and 10 overlapping genes were determined through matching the 24 potential targets of kaempferol with disease-associated genes. The result of molecular docking indicated that kaempferol can bind with these hub targets with good binding scores. These targets were further mapped to 140 GO biological process terms and 11 remarkable pathways. In the PPI network analysis, 3 key targets were identified, including ESR1, EGFR, and SRC. The mRNA and protein expression levels of EGFR and SRC were obviously higher in GC tissues. High expression of these targets was related to poor OS in GC patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a novel approach to reveal the therapeutic mechanisms of kaempferol on GC, which will ease the future clinical application of kaempferol in the treatment of GC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/antagonistas & inhibidores , Quempferoles/farmacología , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Familia-src Quinasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Anciano , Sitios de Unión , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptores ErbB/química , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/química , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/metabolismo , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Terapia Molecular Dirigida/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Farmacogenética , Unión Proteica , Conformación Proteica en Hélice alfa , Conformación Proteica en Lámina beta , Dominios y Motivos de Interacción de Proteínas , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Familia-src Quinasas/química , Familia-src Quinasas/genética , Familia-src Quinasas/metabolismo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30670-30678, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199632

RESUMEN

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, which limits surgical options and portends a dismal prognosis. Current oncologic PDAC therapies confer marginal benefit and, thus, a significant unmet clinical need exists for new therapeutic strategies. To identify effective PDAC therapies, we leveraged a syngeneic orthotopic PDAC transplant mouse model to perform a large-scale, in vivo screen of 16 single-agent and 41 two-drug targeted therapy combinations in mice. Among 57 drug conditions screened, combined inhibition of heat shock protein (Hsp)-90 and MEK was found to produce robust suppression of tumor growth, leading to an 80% increase in the survival of PDAC-bearing mice with no significant toxicity. Mechanistically, we observed that single-agent MEK inhibition led to compensatory activation of resistance pathways, including components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis, which was overcome with the addition of HSP90 inhibition. The combination of HSP90(i) + MEK(i) was also active in vitro in established human PDAC cell lines and in vivo in patient-derived organoid PDAC transplant models. These findings encourage the clinical development of HSP90(i) + MEK(i) combination therapy and highlight the power of clinically relevant in vivo model systems for identifying cancer therapies.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Animales , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Benzodioxoles/farmacología , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Línea Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Purinas/farmacología , Piridonas/farmacología , Pirimidinonas/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
11.
Pancreas ; 49(10): 1355-1363, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122525

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate racial and socioeconomic disparities for patients with pancreatic cancer across different facility types. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for pancreatic cancer cases from 2004 to 2015. Along with propensity score matching analysis, multivariate logistic and Cox model were used to assess effects of facility type, race, elements of socioeconomics on receipt of treatment, time to treatment, and overall survival, separately. RESULTS: Among 223,465 patients, 44.6%, 42.1%, and 13.3% were treated at academic, community, and integrated facilities, respectively. Private insurance was associated with more treatment (odds ratio, 1.41; P < 0.001) and better survival [hazards ratio (HR), 0.84; P < 0.001]. Higher education was associated with earlier treatment (HR, 1.09; P < 0.001). African Americans had less treatment (odds ratio, 0.97; P = 0.04) and delayed treatment (HR, 0.89; P < 0.001) despite later stage at diagnosis. After adjusting for socioeconomic status, African Americans had similar survival (HR, 0.99; P = 0.11) overall and improved survival (HR, 0.95; P = 0.016) at integrated facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Higher socioeconomic status was associated with better treatment and survival. After adjusting for socioeconomic disparities, race did not affect survival. Less racial disparity was observed at integrated facilities.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Negro o Afroamericano , Instituciones de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Clase Social , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/etnología , Población Blanca , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adenocarcinoma/etnología , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Anciano , Instituciones Oncológicas , Bases de Datos Factuales , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Seguro de Salud , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etnología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Factores Raciales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(12): 1912-1920, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090219

RESUMEN

Importance: In 2016, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) established criteria to evaluate prediction models for staging. No localized prostate cancer models were endorsed by the Precision Medicine Core committee, and 8th edition staging was based on expert consensus. Objective: To develop and validate a pretreatment clinical prognostic stage group system for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multinational cohort study included 7 centers from the United States, Canada, and Europe, the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers collaborative (5 centers), and the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry (43 centers) (the STAR-CAP cohort). Patients with cT1-4N0-1M0 prostate adenocarcinoma treated from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2013 (follow-up completed December 31, 2017). The STAR-CAP cohort was randomly divided into training and validation data sets; statisticians were blinded to the validation data until the model was locked. A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cohort was used as a second validation set. Analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to November 30, 2019. Exposures: Curative intent radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Based on a competing-risk regression model, a points-based Score staging system was developed. Model discrimination (C index), calibration, and overall performance were assessed in the validation cohorts. Results: Of 19 684 patients included in the analysis (median age, 64.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 59.0-70.0] years), 12 421 were treated with RP and 7263 with radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 71.8 (IQR, 34.3-124.3) months; 4078 (20.7%) were followed up for at least 10 years. Age, T category, N category, Gleason grade, pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level, and the percentage of positive core biopsy results among biopsies performed were included as variables. In the validation set, predicted 10-year PCSM for the 9 Score groups ranged from 0.3% to 40.0%. The 10-year C index (0.796; 95% CI, 0.760-0.828) exceeded that of the AJCC 8th edition (0.757; 95% CI, 0.719-0.792), which was improved across age, race, and treatment modality and within the SEER validation cohort. The Score system performed similarly to individualized random survival forest and interaction models and outperformed National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) risk grouping 3- and 4-tier classification systems (10-year C index for NCCN 3-tier, 0.729; for NCCN 4-tier, 0.746; for Score, 0.794) as well as CAPRA (10-year C index for CAPRA, 0.760; for Score, 0.782). Conclusions and Relevance: Using a large, diverse international cohort treated with standard curative treatment options, a proposed AJCC-compliant clinical prognostic stage group system for prostate cancer has been developed. This system may allow consistency of reporting and interpretation of results and clinical trial design.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Anciano , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pronóstico , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Radioterapia , Proyectos de Investigación , Programa de VERF , Análisis de Supervivencia
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 172-181, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890813

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: CONKO-006 was designed for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma with postsurgical R1 residual status to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of gemcitabine and sorafenib (GemSorafenib) compared with those of gemcitabine + placebo (GemP) for 12 cycles. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was planned to detect an improvement in recurrence-free survival (RFS) from 42% to 60% after 18 months. Secondary objectives were overall survival (OS), safety and duration of treatment. RESULTS: 122 patients were included between 02/2008 and 09/2013; 57 were randomised to GemSorafenib and 65 to GemP. Patient characteristics were wellbalanced (GemSorafenib/GemP) in terms of median age (63/63 years), tumour size (T3/T4: 97/97%), and nodal positivity (86/85%). Grade 3/4 toxicities comprised diarrhoea (GemSorafenib: 12%; GemP: 2%), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (19%; 9%), fatigue (5%; 2%) and hypertension (5%; 2%), as well as neutropenia (18%; 25%) and thrombocytopenia (9%; 2%). By August 2017, 118 (97%) RFS event had occurred. There were no difference in RFS (median GemSorafenib: 8.5 versus GemP: 9.4 months; p = 0.730) nor OS (median GemSorafenib: 17.6 versus GemP: 17.5 months; p = 0.481). Landmark analyses suggest that patients who received more than six cycles of postoperative chemotherapy had significantly longer OS (p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: CONKO-006 is the first randomised clinical trial to include exclusively patients with PDAC with postsurgical R1 status thus far. Sorafenib added to gemcitabine did neither improve RFS nor OS. However, postoperative treatment exceeding six months seemed to prolong survival and should be further investigated in these high-risk patients. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: German Tumor Study Registry (Deutsches Krebsstudienregister), DRKS00000242.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Pancreatectomía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Sorafenib/administración & dosificación , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/secundario , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Desoxicitidina/administración & dosificación , Desoxicitidina/efectos adversos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomía/efectos adversos , Pancreatectomía/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Sorafenib/efectos adversos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Gemcitabina
14.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(3): e124-e128, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer advocate neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine our local patterns of AC use and to examine factors that influenced initiation and completion of AC among patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of stage II/III rectal cancer patients who were treated at the University of Rochester from 2011 to 2014. Chart reviews were conducted to determine rates of AC initiation and completion. The documented reasons for failure to initiate or complete AC were examined. A multivariate analysis was also completed to evaluate factors that may have influenced the initiation and use of AC. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 62 years, and 53 (65.4%) were male. Median time from surgery to initiation of AC in those who received AC was 8.0 weeks. Forty-seven patients (58.0%) completed their prescribed AC course. Twenty-four patients (29.6%) did not start AC and 9 patients (11.1%) were unable to complete their course of AC. Primary reasons for not undergoing AC were patient preference (37.5%) and prolonged surgical recovery (33.3%). Primary reasons for not completing AC were treatment toxicities (55.5%) and patient preference (22.2%). Multivariate analysis identified a positive association between clinical stage III disease at diagnosis and initiation of AC. There was no independent association between pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy at time of surgery and receipt of AC. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of patients at a single academic center did not start or complete their prescribed postoperative AC for locally advanced rectal cancer. Ongoing studies are investigating a total neoadjuvant approach, which may result in better chemotherapy adherence and further improve the pathologic downstaging rate.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Recto/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante/estadística & datos numéricos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante/estadística & datos numéricos , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/estadística & datos numéricos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/prevención & control , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Prioridad del Paciente , Proctectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Recto/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Recto/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Recto/patología , Recto/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Br J Surg ; 107(11): 1520-1528, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277764

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in gastric cancer is unknown. This non-randomized dose-finding phase I-II study was designed to assess the safety and feasibility of HIPEC, following systemic chemotherapy, in patients with gastric cancer and limited peritoneal dissemination. The maximum tolerated dose of normothermic intraperitoneal docetaxel in combination with a fixed dose of intraperitoneal oxaliplatin was also explored. METHODS: Patients with resectable cT3-cT4a gastric adenocarcinoma with limited peritoneal metastases and/or tumour-positive peritoneal cytology were included. An open HIPEC technique was used with 460 mg/m2 hyperthermic oxaliplatin for 30 min followed by normothermic docetaxel for 90 min in escalating doses (0, 50, 75 mg/m2 ). RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 37 patients were included. Of 25 patients who completed the full study protocol, four were treated at dose level 1 (0 mg/m2 docetaxel), six at dose level 2 (50 mg/m2 ) and four at dose level 3 (75 mg/m2 ). At dose level 3, two dose-limiting toxicities occurred, both associated with postoperative ileus. Thereafter, another 11 patients were treated at dose level 2, with no more dose-limiting toxicities. Based on this, the maximum tolerated dose was 50 mg/m2 intraperitoneal docetaxel. Serious adverse events were scored in 17 of 25 patients. The reoperation rate was 16 per cent (4 of 25) and the treatment-related mortality rate was 8 per cent (2 patients, both in dose level 3). CONCLUSION: Gastrectomy combined with cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC was feasible using 460 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 50 mg/m2 normothermic docetaxel.


ANTECEDENTES: El papel de la cirugía citorreductora (cytoreductive surgery, CRS) combinado con la quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica (hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, HIPEC) en el cáncer gástrico no está definido. Este estudio fase I-II no aleatorizado de escalado de dosis fue diseñado para evaluar la seguridad y la viabilidad de HIPEC, después de la quimioterapia sistémica, en pacientes con cáncer gástrico con diseminación peritoneal limitada. Además, se exploró la máxima dosis tolerada (maximum tolerated dose, MTD) de docetaxel intraperitoneal normotérmico en combinación con una dosis fija de oxaliplatino intraperitoneal. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron pacientes con adenocarcinoma gástrico cT3-cT4a resecable con metástasis peritoneales limitadas y/o citología peritoneal positiva. Se utilizó una técnica HIPEC abierta con 460 mg/m2 de oxaliplatino hipertérmico (30 minutos) seguido de docetaxel normotérmico (90 minutos) en dosis crecientes (0, 50, 75 mg/m2 ). RESULTADOS: Entre 2014 y 2017, se incluyeron 37 pacientes. De los 25 pacientes que completaron la totalidad del protocolo del estudio, 4 pacientes fueron tratados en el nivel de dosis 1 (0 mg/m2 de docetaxel), 6 pacientes en el nivel de dosis 2 (50 mg/m2 ) y 4 pacientes en el nivel de dosis 3 (75 mg/m2 ). En el nivel de dosis 3, se produjeron dos casos de toxicidad limitante de dosis (dose-limiting toxicities, DLTs), ambas asociadas con un íleo postoperatorio. Posteriormente, otros 11 pacientes fueron tratados con el nivel de dosis 2, y no se produjeron más DLTs. La MTD de docetaxel intraperitoneal fue de 50 mg/m2 . Se registraron efectos adversos graves en 17 de 25 pacientes. La tasa de reoperación fue del 16% (n = 4) y la mortalidad relacionada con el tratamiento fue del 8% (n = 2; ambos en el nivel de dosis 3).


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/secundario , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia del Cáncer por Perfusión Regional/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción/métodos , Hipertermia Inducida/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneales/secundario , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Anciano , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/uso terapéutico , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Esquema de Medicación , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Gastrectomía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oxaliplatino/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Peritoneales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Peritoneales/terapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidad , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Cancer Biomark ; 28(2): 201-211, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zinc finger MYND (Myeloid, Nervy and DEAF-1)-type containing 8 (ZMYND8) is closely correlated with tumor proliferation and invasiveness. However, its prognostic value has not been estimated in colorectal cancer (CRC). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of ZMYND8 expression and the pN and pM classification supplemented by its expression in CRCs. METHODS: The candidate gene ZMYND8 is identified by TCGA database and GEO database, and then we retrospectively evaluated the status and prognostic significance of ZMYND8 expression of 174 patients with CRC. RESULTS: Online data showed high expression of ZMYND8 is closely correlated with worse overall survival. Our study revealed high expression of ZMYND8 in CRC patients was significantly associated with worse overall and disease-free survival (P< 0.05), and was an independently adverse prognostic factor for overall survival (P< 0.001) and disease-free survival (P= 0.001) by univariate and multivariate analysis. C-index to combined prognostic model containing the pN, pM classification supplemented by the status of ZMYND8 expression showed improved predictive ability comparing with the pN and pM classification model (C-index of 0.597 vs. 0.545, respectively). CONCLUSION: The combined prognostic model could improve the ability to determine the clinical outcome of patients with CRC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias del Colon/genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Colon/patología , Neoplasias del Colon/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Biología Computacional , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Biológicos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Regulación hacia Arriba
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e200452, 2020 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134464

RESUMEN

Importance: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database may provide insights into the comparative effectiveness of oncological treatments for elderly individuals who are underrepresented in clinical trials. Objective: To evaluate the suitability of SEER-Medicare data for assessing the effectiveness of adding a drug to an existing treatment regimen on the overall survival of elderly patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study analyzed SEER-Medicare data from 9549 individuals who received a new diagnosis of stage II colorectal cancer (2008-2012) and 940 patients who received a new diagnosis of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (2007-2012), with follow-up to December 31, 2013 (SEER-Medicare data released in 2015). Two (hypothetical) target trials were designed and emulated based on 2 existing randomized clinical trials: (1) adjuvant fluorouracil after curative surgery for individuals with stage II colorectal cancer and (2) erlotinib added to gemcitabine for individuals with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Data were analyzed January 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: The following treatment strategies were compared: (1) fluorouracil initiation vs no initiation within 3 months of tumor resection and (2) erlotinib initiation vs no initiation within 12 weeks of gemcitabine initiation. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality within 60 months of baseline for the fluorouracil trial and within 72 weeks for the erlotinib trial. Results: Compared with 3293 individuals in the existing fluorouracil trial, 9549 eligible individuals included in the present analyses were more likely to have colon cancer (8565 [90%] vs 2291 [71%]) and were older (median [interquartile range], 79 [73-84] vs 63 [56-68] years). The 5-year risk difference for initiation vs noninitiation of fluorouracil after surgery was -3.8% (95% CI, -14.8% to 12.6%), and the mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.85-1.04). Compared with 569 individuals in the existing erlotinib trial, 940 eligible patients included in the present analysis were older (median [range], 74 [66-93] vs 64 [36-92] years) and more likely to be male (547 [58%] vs 298 [52%]). The 1-year risk difference for initiation vs noninitiation of erlotinib was 4.7% (95% CI, -9.4% to 18.0%), and the corresponding mortality HR was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.86-1.42). In naive analyses, the mortality HR estimate was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.95-1.36) for the fluorouracil emulation and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.87) for the erlotinib emulation. Conclusions and Relevance: The present estimates were similar to those from randomized clinical trials that studied adding the same cancer drugs to existing regimens. The published HR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.70-1.48) in the fluorouracil trial for individuals aged 70 or older and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.24) in the erlotinib trial for individuals aged 65 years or older. The SEER-Medicare database may be adequate for studying the real-world effectiveness of adding a drug to treatment regimens used for elderly individuals with cancer.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias del Colon/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Colon/patología , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapéutico , Clorhidrato de Erlotinib/uso terapéutico , Fluorouracilo/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programa de VERF , Tasa de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos , Gemcitabina
18.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(5): 823-832, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been associated with improved survival when compared with surgery alone for non-metastatic gastric cancer patients in randomized trials and meta-analyses. However, little evidence is available regarding the use of HIPEC in nonmetastatic patients who are treated with perioperative chemotherapy and radical surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative survival benefit of HIPEC in the subgroup of gastric cancer patients treated with perioperative chemotherapy and surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that included gastroesophageal junction and gastric cancer patients who were treated with perioperative chemotherapy and curative resection in a single cancer center in the period between 2006 and 2017. In this time period, younger patients with diffuse-type tumors and serosa invasion or positive lymph node disease were often offered an adjuvant HIPEC protocol. This study compared the survival outcomes of these patients to the ones of those who received only perioperative chemotherapy and resection. A 2:1 propensity-score matched analysis for the two groups was also performed, and variables used were postchemotherapy T (ypT) and N (ypN) stages, histology and tumor site. RESULTS: The study population comprised 269 subjects, 241 treated with chemotherapy and surgery and 28 who also received HIPEC. The mean age was 59 years old (standard deviation: 12.2) and 60% of all individuals were male. A total gastrectomy was performed in 137 patients and a distal resection in 132, with a D2-lymphadenectomy in 97.4% of the sample. Overall 60-day morbidity and mortality rates were 35.3% and 3.3%, respectively. In the HIPEC group, patients were younger, and more frequently had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1 to 2 classification, tumors located in the gastric body, had diffuse histology, and ypN+ disease. Overall survival (OS; 5 years) results in the HIPEC and no HIPEC group were 59.5% vs 68.7% (P = .453), and disease-free survival (DFS) ones were 49.5% and 65.8% (P = .060), respectively. In the multivariable Cox regression model, ypT and ypN were independent overall and DFS predictors; also, ASA 3 to 4 classification and diffuse histology were associated with worse OS. In the matched analysis, HIPEC did not improve either overall (53.5% vs 59.5%; P = .517) or DFS (50.0% vs 49.5%; P = .993). CONCLUSION: Treatment with HIPEC in patients who received perioperative chemotherapy and a D2-resection did not improve survival outcomes. Both ypT and ypN stages remained as the most important survival predictors in this cohort.


Asunto(s)
Gastrectomía , Hipertermia Inducida , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Estudios de Cohortes , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Masculino , Análisis por Apareamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(4): 654-661, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lymph node harvest during esophagectomy has been associated with improved survival for esophageal cancer but the value of enhanced lymph node harvest following complete pathologic response (pCR) is debated. This study investigated if increasing lymph node harvest in esophageal cancer patients with a pCR after neoadjuvant therapy and esophagectomy is associated with improved survival. METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Data Base for patients with esophageal cancer between 2004 and 2014 who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy followed by esophagectomy found to have pCR. Multivariable Cox modeling was utilized to evaluate the impact of increasing lymph node counts on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 1373 patients met inclusion criteria. A National Comprehensive Cancer Network compliant lymphadenectomy of ≥15 nodes was associated with improved survival (66.7% vs 51.1%; P < .001). Cox modeling showed that the first node cutoff to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in OS was ≥7 nodes (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.68-0.97; 5-year OS: 54.2%) with a trend of decreasing and statistically significant HRs until ≥25 nodes (HR, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.37-0.72; 5-year OS: 68.4%). CONCLUSIONS: High negative node counts after neoadjuvant therapy and esophagectomy are associated with improved survival in patients with pCR.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Ganglios Linfáticos/cirugía , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Anciano , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/cirugía , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático/estadística & datos numéricos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 293-300, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: KRAS and BRAF mutations are prognostic and predictive tools in metastatic colorectal cancer, but little is known about their prognostic value in patients scheduled for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Therefore, we analyzed the prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with peritoneal metastases scheduled for CRS and HIPEC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a consecutive series of 399 patients scheduled for CRS and HIPEC between 2009 and 2017, 111 subjects with peritoneal metastases from primaries of the appendix, colon, or rectum were analyzed for KRAS mutation and 92 for BRAF mutation. RESULTS: Mutation in KRAS was present in 51/111 (46%), and mutated BRAF was found in 10/92 (11%). There was no difference in overall survival between KRAS mutation tumors and KRAS wild type, whereas BRAF mutation was associated with short survival. No subject with BRAF mutation survived 2 years. On multivariate analysis, completeness of cytoreduction score (CCS, p = 0.000001), presence of signet cell differentiation (p = 0.000001), and BRAF mutation (p = 0.0021) were linked with poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: BRAF mutation is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with appendiceal and colorectal peritoneal metastases scheduled for CRS and HIPEC, whereas survival outcome in subjects with mutated KRAS does not differ from wild-type KRAS. This finding suggests that those with BRAF mutation should be considered for alternative treatment options.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Apéndice/terapia , Neoplasias Colorrectales/terapia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Hipertermia Inducida , Neoplasias Peritoneales/secundario , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Apéndice/genética , Neoplasias del Apéndice/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Apéndice/patología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Terapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Pronóstico , Tasa de Supervivencia
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